Sadler Phillips.

Fulham palace, formerly called Fulham house, and Fulham manor : a short account of the old manor house of Fulham, written at the wish of the bishop on the occasion of His Lordship's visit to America and Canada, 1907 online

. (page 2 of 4)
Online LibrarySadler PhillipsFulham palace, formerly called Fulham house, and Fulham manor : a short account of the old manor house of Fulham, written at the wish of the bishop on the occasion of His Lordship's visit to America and Canada, 1907 → online text (page 2 of 4)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


girth at 3 ft., 7 ft. 4^ in.: Spanish chestnut,
marked No. 5 on map of garden, 7 ft. 9^ in.
girth : white oak, American, girth not taken.'

' The following trees are fine specimens planted
at a subsequent time : date unknown, Gleditschia
horrida, three-thorned acacia, a fine tree, but not
the original one planted by Bishop Compton :
an oak marked No. 6 on the plan, situated near
the garden wall, remarkable for the rapidity
of its growth ; this species should be propa-
gated.'

'The following trees were planted by Bishop
Blomfield, girthed at three feet from the ground,
Aug. 9, 1865: i. Eilanthus glandulosa, said to
be the best specimen in England, planted about
1 8 , girth 7 ft. 6 in.: 2. Cedrus deodora, planted
in 1 845, died about 1875 : 8- Cedar of Lebanon,
planted 1840, girth 5 ft. 5 in. : 7. Cryptomenia
japonica, planted about 1840, girth 2 ft. i in.,
said to be the best specimen in England : 9. De-
ciduous cypress, planted about 1846, girth 3 ft.
7 in. : ii. Catalpa syringafolia, girth 3 ft. 2^ in. :
12. Bio fa aurea, a shrub planted about 15 years
ago, 5 ft. high, greatest girth outside the tips of

27



FULHAM PALACE

the leaves, 14 ft. 6 in. : 13. Pava morostica, a
shrub of the horse chestnut kind: 15. Pinus
excelsa, girth 2 ft. i in., planted about 1844:
1 6. Pinus rumilia, girth 2 ft. i in., planted about
1 844 : Pina pinasso, girth 2 ft. i in., planted
about 1844 : 19. Ilex : 20. Bishop Blomfield
also planted a number of trees in the warren,
and in other parts of the grounds.'

'Bishop Tait planted No. 10, Wellingtonia
gigantica, on the lawn opposite the morning-
room window, planted 1861, height Aug. 1865,
10 ft.: on the south side of the kitchen garden
in the turf between the kitchen garden and
shrubbery by the moat, two of Cupressus gigan-
tica : two of Cupressus Lawsoniana : two of
Cupressus lobbii. These six were presented to
the Bishop by Sir W. Hooker, of the Royal
Gardens at Kew.'

' The following trees were planted by Bishop
Jackson: Juglans regia^ common walnut, 1872:
Pinus nordmanniana, 1872 : Pinus Austriaca,
1872 : Gleditschia horrida (honey locust), 1874 :
Fraxinus pendula (weeping ash), 1875: Catalpa
syringafolia, 1879: Corylus colurna (Constanti-
nople nut), 1879 : Fraxinus aurea (golden ash),
1879 : Virgilia lutea^ 1879 : Circus seliquastrum
28



FULHAM PALACE

(Judas tree), 1881: Ulmus alba (white elm),
1883: Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree), 1884.

Here in the beautiful gardens, with rare trees,
from the ancient cork now nearly four hundred
years old to those of modern times, with vege-
table gardens, vineries, and forest trees, it is hard
to think you are in London. Cows, horses, and
fowls are there ; and to bring us back to modern
times there is a motor-car for the modern epis-
copal work.

Early in the last century Fulham might have
been called the fruit and kitchen produce centre
for the London market, its soil being exactly
adapted to this culture. It was a strong staple
mould on sand or gravel, and nearer the river,
where the Manor House stands, it is a light rich
sandy loam on gravel. Here the market gardens
throve, and in the early morning the women
used to march away from Fulham to Covent
Garden Market carrying great baskets of pro-
duce on their heads.

There is still one curious relic in Piccadilly
(the last surviving in London, in all prob-
ability) : it is the Resting-board placed at the
right height from the ground, where the women
carrying produce to market could set down their

29



FULHAM PALACE

baskets and rest. The Manor being confined
later within the moat, although its estate went
far beyond it, there was grown a plentiful supply
of vegetables for the consumption by the large
household and numerous guests. How far the
extreme healthiness of Fulham may be attributed
to the trees and gardens and the gravel soil, it is
difficult to say, but it is and has been remarkably
healthy. Two things only seem beyond the
power of Fulham to produce, viz., pear trees
and roses.

Truly in the summer the gardens of Fulham
Palace, apart from their historical associations,
are a delightful spot. There you may wander
down avenues of trees, not quite so fresh to-day
as they were twenty or thirty years ago, for the
smoke of London tells upon their foliage, but
still green and pleasant.



CHAPTER IV.

THE FOUNDER OF THE MANOR.

FULHAM is one of the most ancient manors
in England. It bears an uncommon name, and
it arose in this way : if we take the map
showing the course of the river Thames before
houses cramped its shores, we should find
high ground on the one side, now lying
about a mile away from the present river-
bank. This is called to-day Putney Heath.
The high ground opposite us was the place now
called South Kensington. Between these two
points of high ground the Thames flowed, a
winding, beautiful stream, abounding in fish.
The broad and glistening surface of the Thames
was relieved by little islets at this place, one
called Chelsea, the island of shells; another Bat-
tersea, the island of St. Peter ; and the one im-
mediately in our view would be called Fulham,
the home of the wild birds, the Fowls' Home.

London was at that early time the emporium
of many nations, but it was fiercely heathen. It

3 1



FULHAM PALACE

was said that Erkenwald, when a boy, heard
Mellitus preaching in London. To Bishop
Erkenwald the manor of Fulham, if we can call
the island by that name, was given by a brother
Bishop named Tyrhtilus, of Worcester, about
the year 691.

A strange, weird spot it must have been in
that day. Crowds of screaming sea birds, the
leisurely bittern and the gull, families of land
birds nestling in its shelter, gave the name of
Fulham a meaning. It was a fit place for the
work of the Bishop, who was a monk also far
enough from the heathen London to give repose,
and with work enough in it to satisfy the man
of action, who wished to make the wilderness
rejoice and blossom as the rose.

As we keep this background in our mind's
eye, the islet embowered in reeds and rushes and
waving grasses, the great but indistinct figure of
the Bishop of London, the saintly Erkenwald,
rises before us. To undertake the task of trans-
forming the wild nature into a home, and to
convert the wilder men into Christians, marks
the man as great.

Tradition not only accepts this view, but
also links him on to a remoter past and an added
32



FULHAM PALACE

sanctity when it says the Bishop was one of the
hearers of Mellitus, who was the first Bishop
of the See, and one of the companions of St.
Augustine.

From Mellitus the Bishops of London trace
their episcopal descent : Mellitus was made
Bishop of London in A.D. 604, and converted
Sabert, the traditional founder of the West
Minster on Thorney Island, ' a terrible place/
from its desolate aspect as a mass of marsh and
brushwood.

Inspired, it may be, by the preaching of
Mellitus, the Bishop undertook the great work of
evangelising Fulham, and civilising its people by
teaching them to follow the example of CHRIST.

When Bishop Erkenwald undertook this
duty he was an old man, and not unacquainted
with the builder's craft. Two noble monasteries
owed their existence to his genius. One was at
Chertsey, where the Abbey lands extend from
the ' mouth of the Wey to the eels' ditch/
In this work he was helped by Frithwold, the
Mercian sub-king. Thus early the work of the
King and the Bishop went side by side. The
monastery at Barking, like Whitby and others,
was a double foundation, having a separate area
33 D



for the monks apart from the nuns' building, and
even a separate chapel or oratory for each order.

Bishop Erkenwald belonged to the only
order of monks known in England before the
Conquest, the Benedictines. Western towers
to the churches were built before the Danish
invasions. Fulham Church to-day has a western
tower, and a little church and house for the
clergy would soon rise on Fulham bishopric.
It is also affirmed that Bishop Erkenwald built
Bishops-Gate, London.

We cannot tell now what the Bishop did ;
but we are sure he did well. In his old age he
was said to have been diseased in his Jegs, so
that he could not walk or ride ; so he was
carried in a horse-litter to preach in his ex-
tensive diocese. As this litter was invested
with wonder-working efficacy after his death,
it is a sign that Erkenwald endeared himself
to his people by true pastoral self-sacrificing
activity. His work would go far to con-
solidate the fabric of Church life on the
difficult ground of London, which once seemed
to offer no sure foundation.

May we not take it that another sign of his
power is shown in the fact that after Erkenwald
34



FULHAM PALACE

no other man for ages stamped his character, or
even his name, on the heart of London ? After
him we have a list of names and dates ; that is
all. Erkenwald the founder had overshadowed
them.

Just before the death of Erkenwald, we
are told that: the Archbishop of Canterbury,
Theodore, invited the missionary bishop Wilfrid
to meet him in the presence of the aged Erken-
wald, to settle the disputes on ecclesiastical
matters which had embittered past years. It
would be interesting to know if these two met
with Erkenwald at Fulham ; where this trio
met, and when, we cannot tell, but it would
have been a sight worth seeing. It is said that
the stern man of Tharsis nominated Erken-
wald to the king for his episcopal consecration.
There at Fulham, in the shade of the sedge
and the sallow, where the sturdy bullrush lined
the banks of London's great water highway for
traffic, in the framework of green, 'mid the
music of the birds, part of the great life passed
away, and the village grew, whilst Church and
State lived side by side, mutually assisting men
so to pass through things temporal as not to
lose the things eternal.

35



FULHAM PALACE

The episcopal Lord of the Manor would sit
in the Witenagemot, and there Erkenwald did
sit when the Laws or ' Dooms of Ina ' were
enacted. Right laws they were, too, which had
reference to the souls as well as the bodies of
men. Aimed, one and all, at the stability of
the State, for they knew what it was for the
State not to be established, and the same
with religion. When the kingdom became
Christian, Church and State worked harmoni-
ously : they would do so again in the face of
national dangers. It is one of the mysteries
which history reveals, that Witenagemot acted
and spoke like a synod of clerics ; but there
is no record that the clerics spoke like the
Witenagemot. Witenagemot could blend re-
ligious orders with its Jaws, and no one
complained, for they were all one family.
When the money was short, and the population
scanty, great men held various houses and took
their tenants with them, and when they had
eaten up everything that was food for man or
beast, they moved on, and left the estate to
recover. So Fulham might be a storehouse
when the monks had eaten up the provisions
at Chertsey.

36



FULHAM PALACP;

When Erkenwald died, the monks of
Chertsey and the monks of London contended
for the honour of his burial, and miracles were
said to happen like unto those of the Old
Testament : thus, the river opened to make
passage for the dead. St. Paul's Cathedral
received the honour of sheltering his remains
(the monks of Chertsey wished to bury their
Bishop amongst themselves), and Erkenwald's
shrine stood in Old St. Paul's until its de-
struction by fire, and was a venerated object.

Ere the great figure passes from our mind's
eye, we should delight to gather all the refer-
ences which may be gleanings from a noble
character. One such example we may take
from the presence of the infirm Bishop Erken-
wald at the funeral of the Archbishop of
Canterbury, Theodore of Tharsis.

What did the ancient names mean ? Erken-
wald = Ar = angel, messenger ; kin = kith or
kind ; walda = ruler, thence prince of the angel-
kind; or, perhaps, Ear = the sea, kin and walda
remain as above, thus Erkenwald would mean
prince of the seafolk : or Aeros = Saxon form of
Latin archi- (used to designate archbishops), and
thus the name might signify prince-bishop.

37



FULHAM PALACE

Other old names and their meanings are,
Waldhere, 693-706 lord of the army: Inguld,
706-745 spiritual ruler : Eggwulf, 745 fierce
swordsman: Sighaeh, 772 fence of victory:
Eabert, 7 74 - bright eye: Eadgar, 783-
fortunate of spear: Coenwalh, 791 - keen
Briton: Eadbald, 794 bold and prosperous:
Heathobert, 794 bright or brilliant in battle :
Osmund, 802 God's hand: Aethilnoth, 811
princely or noble in nature : Coelbert, 824
bright vessel or ship : Deorwulf, 860 fierce
wolf: Swithwulf, 860 strong wolf: Heahstan,
898 lofty rock: Theodred, 926 guide or ad-
viser of the folk: Byrrthelm, 953 protector:
Dunstan, 959 hill rock: Aelstan, 961 perfect
rock: Wulfstan, 966 terrible rock: Aelfhun,
1014 all free: Aelfwig, 1014 battle sprite or
elf: Aelfward, 1035 : Robert, 1044: William,
1051 Norman names.

List of Bishops continued to present time :

R. le Niger, 1129. R. Gravesend, 1280,

F. Bassett, 1232. died at Fulham, 9th

H. Wingham, 1259. Dec., 1303.

H. Sandwich, 1263. R. Baldock, 1306, and
J. Chishul, 1274. Lord Chancellor.

38




KISHOT COMI'TON.



FULHAM PALACE



G. Seagrave, 1313.
R. Newport, 1317.
S. Gravesend, 1319.
R. Bentworth, 1338.
R. Stratford, 1340.
M. Northburg, 1354.
S. Sudbury, 1362.
W. Courtenay, 1375.
R. Braybrook, 1381.
R. Walden, 1405.
N. Bubbewich, 1406.
R, Clifford, 1407.
J. Kemp, 1422.
W. Grey, 1426.
R. Fitzhugh, 143 i.
R. Gilbert, 1436.
T. Kempe, 1450.
R. Hill, 1480.
T. Savage, 1496.
W. Warham, 1502.
W. Barnes, 1504.
R. Fitzjames, 1506.
C. Tunstall, 1522.
J. Stokesley, 1530.
E. Bonner, 1 540.
N. Ridley, 1550.



E. Bonner, 1553.
E. Grindal, i 559.
E. Sandys, 1570.
J. Aylmer, 1577.
R. Fletcher, 1595.
R. Bancroft, i 597.
R. Vaughan, i 604.
T. Ravis, 1607.
G. Abbot, 1 6 10.
J. King, 161 1.
G. Monteigne, 1621.
W. Laud, 1628.
W. Juxon, 1633.
G. Sheldon, 1660.
H Henchman, 1663.
H. Compton, 1675.
J. Robinson, 1714.
E. Gibson, 1723.
T. Sherlock, 1748.
T. Hayter, 1761.
R. Osbaldiston, 1762.
R. Terrick, 1764.
R. Lowth, 1777.
B. Porteus, 1787.
J. Randolph, 1809.
W. Howley, 1813.



40




KISHOl' JOHN ROBINSON.



FULHAM PALACE

C. J. Blomfield, 1838. M. Creighton, 1896.

A. C. Tait, 1856. A. F. Winnington-In-

J. Jackson, 1869. gram, 1901.
F. Temple, 1885.

The early names are worthy of attention, for
they are all we possess ; they were only names,
not always well-known names, unlike Bishop
Erkenwald's, which was a household word. Some
of these were evidently men of war as well as
men of rede or counsel, and it is interesting to
find one called by interpretation ' keen Briton '
within two centuries of the time when the Briton
would not deal with the great missionary, St.
Augustine. Can we also indulge a notion that
the character of the changed times is indicated by
the change in the Bishop's titles, one of princely
nature indicating a time of peace, and * fierce
wolf the days when the Danes came again?

For the purposes of this little book, the
successors of Erkenwald before and after the
Reformation have been omitted, and the story
of the work of the Bishop of London is re-
sumed at the time when he was chief agent of
the missionary activity of the Church of Eng-
land in the new world. The records are from
Fulham Palace MSS.

42



CHAPTER V.

THE BISHOP OF LONDON AND THE MISSION
FIELD.

THE district of Pennsylvania seems to have
been settled by the Dutch about 1608, and Vir-
ginia preceded that by about two years, for an
expedition reached Cape Henry on the 26th
April, 1607. This was apparently the first
English expedition of settlement, and it was
accompanied by a clergyman of the English
Church, the Rev. Robt. Hunt. He was a man
exactly suited to the difficult work before them;
and of a peaceable disposition which was very
necessary in a virgin colonial settlement. In
fact in most of the letters asking for clergy
from Virginia we find that one of the strongly
desirable characteristics is always stated to be
that the man be of pacific disposition. On the
1 4th May, 1607, the day after their first landing,
Mr. Hunt administered the Holy Eucharist for
the little company which settled upon the nor-
thern shore of the James River. This expedi-

43



FULHAM PALACE

tion may be said to be the foundation of modern
America. The conditions were a complete
mockery of the beautiful surroundings. Indians
on one side, disunited councils on the other, bad
water and accommodation were trials of a very
serious order. But the leader of the expedition,
Capt. Smith, was backed up by the good chaplain,
and gradually their difficulties were surmounted.
They kept in view very clearly that their work
was to propagate the Christian religion, although
for the first three years their poverty and suffer-
ings were considerable. Encouraged by an
expedition under Lord Delaware matters settled
down to some pretensions to progress. The
church was their first building, Mr. Hunt their
first pastor.

One of the captivating stories of Virginia is
that of their first Christian convert Pocahontas,
the daughter of Powhattan. She was only twelve
years of age when she was rescued from murder
by Capt Smith. She was brought by treachery
as a prisoner to an English fort, and there taught
Christianity. She afterwards married a settler,
and returned with him to England, where she
was received by King James I., and she died at
.Gravesend, aged twenty-two, in the faith of

44



FULHAM PALACE

JESUS. ' What would have been the emotions/
says Dr. Hook in his Memorials of the Church
in Virginia, * of the devoted missionary when he
admitted Pocahontas to baptism could he have
foreseen that after the lapse of 200 years the
blood of this noble-hearted Indian maiden would
be flowing in the veins of some of the most dis-
tinguished members of that Church, the founda-
tion of which he was then laying.' Virginia
is noted for its great college, founded primarily
for the reception of English and Indian youth,
and thus to provide for a native clergy.

The payment of the clergy of Virginia
is very interesting, for we find it was settled
that 1 6,000 Ibs. weight of tobacco and a house,
and afterwards a glebe, was assigned them, so
that the income was practically about 200 a year
at that time. The missionary spirit was kept
constantly before the infant Church in Virginia,
and they endeavoured to evangelise and educate
the Redskins. Unfortunately, this goodwill was
misunderstood by the ferocity of the Indian
nature, and there was a great outburst wherein
nearly 1000 of the English inhabitants were put
to death by the Indians. This was a just cause
for retaliation, but fortunately there was very

45



FULHAM PALACE

little of this shown in Virginia. As soon as the
actual fighting was over, the colonies settled
down again to building their churches and pro-
viding for the faith and worship according to
the use of the English Church. An attempt
was made some time later to found an Inde-
pendent congregation in Virginia, but it met
with small support, and was suppressed by
the authorities. The Cromwellian period of
English history caused a great number of
Royalists to proceed to Virginia, where they
knew that there would be toleration and wor-
ship according to the customs of the realm.
The State of Virginia was exceedingly loyal,
and although the Puritans were able for a time
to elect their own Governor, many places became
destitute of ministers, and great negligence in
procuring religious instruction ensued. Virginia
proclaimed the King sixteen months before the
King was restored at home, and was the first to
revive the worship of the Church. A writer
remarks that of the fifty parishes into which
the colony was now divided, the greater number
wanted alike glebe, parsonage-house, and minister;
the disestablishment was complete. There were
not ten clergymen remaining. Sir William
46



FULHAM PALACE

Berkley became the first Royal Governor after
the Restoration, and he enjoined the use of the
Book of Common Prayer, the repair of the
churches, and provision for ministers. Strict
enactments against Nonconformists were ren-
dered necessary to prevent political disturbances.

In 1620, on July 22nd, the first expedition
was made to New Plymouth. This was an
Independent colonising effort which sailed from
Holland, where Mr. Robinson had been their
pastor at Leyden. There was scarcely fifty of
them who survived the first winter, so that very
few English were left, and these were assisted
by resources sent from Holland. They were
granted a Royal Charter with power to elect
yearly their own magistrates, the intention being
to allow the Nonconformists, with the grace and
leave of the King, to make a peaceable secession
and enjoy the liberty in the exercise of their
own persuasions about the worship of JESUS
CHRIST. This colony became a refuge for
the dissenters from England just as Virginia had
been one for Churchmen.

About 1627, New York and New Jersey
were occupied by Swedish settlers, and in 1664
the Dutch Governor transferred to the English

47



FULHAM PALACE

the rule of the City of New Amsterdam, and in
these settlements Dutch and Swedish Presby-
terian worship reigned supreme.

Maryland was settled in 1633, and was
chiefly Roman Catholic.

In 1670 Carolina was granted by King
Charles II. to Lord Berkley, and this colony
professed to set up perfect religious equality.

Fulham Palace may claim to extend to all
Churchfolk ' hands across the sea.' Wherever
the flag of England went, the Church of Eng-
land went also ; and, sooner or later, Fulham
Palace would be occupied with the problems of
the new colony.

An old, discoloured paper lies before us :
its edges are frayed, its binding has been torn
away, and hangs a forlorn, tattered reminder of
bygone days. That old paper was a petition
offered by Thomas, Bishop of London, to the
King. He was the Bishop who had been
a great swimmer in his day. Let us hear what
the dead hand of the Bishop had to say for our
instruction, when the quivering hand that
penned the signature had so long before turned
to the earth again. As we look at the old
writing we see the portly form, and hear the

48



FULHAM PALACE

ideas which he was desirous; of clothing with
words.

'In 1606,' says the Bishop, 'the first grant
the Crown made of lands in America was dated
10 April, in the fourth year of James. On
November 20, 1606, the King, in pursuance of
the right reserved to himself, gave divers orders
under his sign manual and the privy seal, one of
which was as follows : " That the President,
Council, and Ministers should provide that the
true word and service of GOD should be
preached, planted, and used according to the
rights (sic] and doctrine of the Church of
England."

' The second grant was made separately to
the first Virginia Company, dated May 23, in
the seventh of the said King, 1609, which orders
that there should be a Council resident there,
and gives them powers to establish all manner
of laws concerning the government of the said
colony, with power to punish, pardon, &c.,
according to such ordinances, constitutions, &c.,
as by such Council should be established so
always as the said ordinances, &c., as near as
might be, were agreeable to the laws, statutes,
government, and policy of the realm.

49 E



FULHAM PALACE

'In 1620 to this was added a second Vir-
ginia company, then called the council, at
Plymouth. This was to the same effect as the
former grant, only it added that all the persons
who migrated there should take the oath of
supremacy.

' This was not a very prosperous under-
taking ' the Bishop's words are very gentle,
but they mean a great deal. ' The affairs of the
Company went on but slowly, and after twelve
years and great sums of money spent, the
colony consisted but of six hundred men,
women, and children.' It reveals a painful
story, but softened down, and couched in the
most considerate language.

Leaving the particular colony, we take a
survey of them in a group, and Bishop Sherlock
says: 'In 1620 there were but five clergymen
in the plantations, one hundred acres of glebe
in each Burrough (which were in number
eleven), and a certain portion of tobacco levied
from every planter. The wages being therefore
arranged for the ministers, the next difficulty
was to find the ministers.'

To the Bishop of London it would be


2 4

Online LibrarySadler PhillipsFulham palace, formerly called Fulham house, and Fulham manor : a short account of the old manor house of Fulham, written at the wish of the bishop on the occasion of His Lordship's visit to America and Canada, 1907 → online text (page 2 of 4)