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BR 60 .L52 V.6 l

John Chrysostom, d. A07. |
Commentary on the epistle to
the Galatians



<>,



LIBRARY OF FATHERS



HOLY CATHOLIC CHURCH,



ANTERIOR TO THE DIVISION OF THE EAST AND WEST



TRANSLATED BY MEMBERS OF THE ENGLISH CHURCH.



YET SHALL NOT THY TEACHERS HE REMOVED INTO A CORNER ANY MORE, BUT
THINE EYES SHALL SEE THY TEACHERS. Isaiuh XXX. 20.



VOL. TL



OXFORD,

JOHN HENRY PARKER;

J. G. F. AND J. RIVINGTON, LONDON.

MDCCCXL.



TO THE
MOST REVEREND FATHER IN GOD

WILLIAM

LORD ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY,
PRIMATE OF ALL ENGLAND,

FORMERT.Y REGIUS PROFESSOR OF DIVINITY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD,

THIS LIBRARY

OF

ANCIENT BISHOPS, FATHERS, DOCTORS, MARTYRS, CONFESSORS,
OF CHRIST'S HOLY CATHOLIC CHURCH,

IS

WITH HIS grace's PERMISSION

RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED,

IN TOKEN OF

REVERENCE FOR HIS PERSON AND SACRED OFFICE,

AND OF

GRATITUDE FOR HIS EPISCOPAL KINDNESS.



COMMENTARY

ON THE EPISTLE TO THE GALATIANS,



AND



HOMILIES

ON THE EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS,



OF



S. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM,



ARCHBISHOP OF CONSTANTINOPLE,



TRANSLATED,



WITH NOTES AND INDICES.



OXFORD,

JOHN HENRY PARKER ;

J. G. F. AND J. RIVINGTON, LONDON.

MDCCCXL.



PREFACE.



St. Chrysostom's Commentary on the Epistle to the
Galatians is continuous, according to chapter and verse;
instead of being arranged in Homilies with a Moral or
Practical application at their close, as in his exposition of
other Epistles. It was written at Antioch, as Montfaucon
infers from a reference which the Author makes, upon ch. i.
V. 16. (p. 20,) to other of his writings, which certainly were
written about the same time in that city. vid. Hom. de Mutat.
Nom. torn. iii. p. 98. ed. Ben. The year is uncertain, but
seems not to have been earlier than A. D. 395.

The Homilies on the Epistle to the Ephesians have been
by some critics assigned to his Episcopate at Constantinople,
in consequence of certain imperfections in their composition,
which seemed to argue absence of the comparative leisure
which he enjoyed at Antioch. There is a passage too in
Homily xi. p. 231, 2, which certainly is very apposite to the
Author's circumstances in the court of Eudoxia. Yet there
are strong reasons for deciding that they too were delivered
at Antioch. S. Babylas and S. Julian, both Saints of
Antioch, are mentioned familiarly, the former in Homily ix.
p. 205, the latter in Homily xxi. pp. 342, 3. Monastic esta-
blishments in mountains in the neighbourhood are spoken of
m Homily vi. p. 165, and xiii. p. 218"; and those near
Antioch are famous in St. Chrysostom's history. A schism
too is alluded to in Homily xi. p. 230, as existing in the

* Vid. also xxi. p. 338.



viii PREFACE.

community he was addressing, and that not about a question
of doctrine ; circumstances which are accurately fulfilled in
the contemporary history of Antioch, and which are more or
less noticed in the Homilies on I Cor. which were certainly
delivered at Antioch''. Moreover, he makes mention of the
prevalence of superstitions, Gentile and Jewish, among the
people whom he was addressing, in Homily vi. fin., p. 166.
Horn. xii. fin. p. 240. which is a frequent ground of com-
plaint in his other writings against the Christians of Antioch;
vid. in Gal. p. 15; in 1 Cor. Hom. xii. §. 13, 14; in Col.
Hom. viii. fin.; contr. Jud. i. p. 386 — 8. Since Evagrius,
the last Bishop of the Latin succession in the schism, died
in A.D. 392, those Homilies must have been composed
before that date.

As to the Translations, the Editors have been favoured
with the former by a friend who conceals his name ; and
with the latter, by the Rev. William John Copeland, M.A.
Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford.

J. H. N.

^ Vid. also Preface to Transl. of Homilies on 1 Cor. p. xiii.



y/



CONTENTS.



COMMENTARY ON THE EPISTLE OF ST. PAUL TO
THE GALATIANS.







Page






Page


Chap.


i. ver. 1—3.


1.




25—28.


60.




4.


8.




29.


61.




5.


11.


Chap. iv.


ver. 1—7.


62.




6.


12.




8—11.


63.




7.


13.




12.


64.




8,9.


16.




13—16.


65.




10.


17.




17, 18.


m.




11—14.


19.




19, 20.


67.




15, 16.


20.




21, 22.


68.




17.


22.




23, 24.


69.




18.


25.




25—27.


70.




19.


26.




28—30.


71.




21—24.


27.




31.


72.


Chap.


ii. ver. 1, 2.


28.


Chap. V.


ver. 1, 2.


73.




3,4.


30.




3.


74.




5.


31.




4—6.


75.




6.


32.




7—10.


76.




7.


33.




11.


77.




8,9.


34.




12.


78.




10—12.


S6.




13.


80.




13, 14.


39.




14, 15.


81.




15—17.


41.




16, 17.


82.




18.


43.




18.


84.




19, 20.


44.




19—22.


85.




21.


47.




23—25.


86.


Chap.


iii. ver. 1.


48.




26.


87.




2, 3.


50.


Chap, vi


ver. 1, 2.


88.




4,5.


51.




•3, 4.


89.




6—8.


52.




5,6.


90.




9.


53.




7.


91.




10—12.


54.




8—10.


92,




13, 14.


55.




11, 12.


93.




15.


56.




13, 14.


94.




16—19.


57.




15, 16.


95.




20,21.


58.




17.


96.




22— 2 i.


59.


1


18.


97.



HOMILIES ON THE EPISTLE OF ST. PAUL TO THE
EPHESIANS.



ARGUMENT.

Page 99.

HOMILY I.

Page 101.

Eph. i. 1— 10.
Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of Ood, to the
saints which are at Ephesus, and to the faithful in Christ
Jesus. Grace be to you, and peace, from God. our Father^
and from the Lord Jesus Christ, SfC.



HOMILY II.

Page 112.

Eph. i. 11—14.

In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being pre-
destinated according to the purpose of Him icho loorketh
all things after the counsel of His own will, ^c.



HOMILY HI.

Page 122. '

Eph. i. 15—23.
Wherefore I also, after 1 heard of your faith in the Lord
Jesus, and love unto all the saints, cease not to give thanks
for you, making mention of you in my prayers, ^c.



CONTENTS. xi

HOMILY IV.

Page 136.

Eph. ii. 1—10.
A7id you hath He quickened^ who were dead in trespasses
and sins, wherein in time past ye walked, according to
the course of this ivorld, according to the prince of the
power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the
children of disobedience, ^c.



HOMILY V.

Page 147.

Eph. ii. 11—16.
Wherefore remember, that ye being in time past Gentiles in
the flesh, who are called uncircumcision by that ivhich is
called the circumcision in the flesh made by hands, ^c.



HOMILY VL

Page 157.

Eph. ii. 17—22. iii. 1—7.

And came and preached peace to you which were afar off,
and unto them that were nigh. For through Him ice both
have access by one Spirit to the Father. Now therefore
ye are no more strangers and foreigners, SfC.



HOMILY VII.

Page 168.

Eph. iii. 8—21.
XJnto me, who am less than the least nf all saints, is this
grace given, that I should preach among the Gentiles the
unsearchable riches of Christ, Sfc.



xii CONTENTS.

HOMILY VIII.

Page 179.
Eph. iv. 1, 2.
/ therefore^ the prisoner of the Lord, beseech you, that ye
walk worthy of the vocation wherewith ye are called, in
all lowliiiess and meekness.



HOMILY IX.

Page 202.
Eph. iv. 1—8.
/ therefore, the prisoner of the Lord, beseech you, that ye
walk worthy of the vocation wherewith ye are called.
With all lowliness and meekness, with long-suffering,
forbearing one another in love ; endeavouring to keep the
unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace.



HOMILY X.

Page 212.

Eph. iv. 4.

There is one body, and one Spirit, even as ye are called in
one hope qf your calling.



HOMILY XI.

Page 220.

Eph. iv. 4—16.

There is one body, and one Spnrit, even as ye are called in
one hope qf your calling ; one Lord, one faith, one
bajjtism, one God and Father of all, who is above all, and
through all, and in you all, ^c.



CONTENTS. xiii

HOMILY XII.
Page 234.

Eph. iv. 17.

This I say therefore, and testify in the Lord, that ye
henceforth walk not as other Gentiles walk, in the vanity
qf their mind, having the understanding darkened.



HOMILY XIII.

Page 242.

Eph. iv. 17—24.

This 1 say therefore, and testify in the Lord, that ye
henceforth ivalk not as other Gentiles walk, in the vanity
of their mind, having the understanding darkened, being
alienated from the life of God, %-c.



HOMILY XIV.

Page 263.

Eph. iv. 25—30.

Wherefore, putting away lying, speak every man truth with
his neighbour ; for we are ynembers one of another. Be
ye angry, and sin not, Sfc.



HOMILY XV.

Page 263.
Eph. iv. 31.
Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamour, and
evil speaking, be put away from you, with all malice.



xiv CONTENTS.



HOMILY XVI.

Page 273.

Eph. iv. 31, 32.
Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamour, and
evil speaking, he put away from you, with all malice.
And be ye kind one to another, tender-hearted, forgiving
one another, even as God, for Christ's sake, hath forgiven
you.



HOMILY XVII.

Page 280.

Eph. iv. 32. and v. 1 — 4.
And be ye kind one to another, tender-hearted, forgiving one
another, even as God for Chrisfs sake hath forgiven you.
Be ye therefore followers of God, as dear children, 8fc.



HOMILY XVIII.

Page 288.
Eph. V. 5—14.
For this ye know, that no whoremonger, nor unclean person,
nor covetous man, who is an idolater, hath any inheritance
iti the kingdom of Christ and of God, 8^c.



HOMILY XIX.

Page 299.

Eph. V. 15—21.
Look then circumspectly how ye walk, not as fools, but as
wise, redeeming the time, because the days are evil. Be
ye therefore not unwise, but understanding what the will
of the T.jord is, 8fc.



CONTENTS. XV

HOMILY XX.

Page 313.

Eph. V. 22—33.
Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as unto
the Lord. For the husband is the head of the wife, even
as Christ is the head of the Church, Sfc.

HOMILY XXI.

Page 336.

Eph. vi. 1—4.

Children, obey your parents in the Lord, for this is right.
Honour thy father and mother, which is the first com-
mandment with promise, Sj'C.

HOMILY XXII.

Page 347.
Eph. vi. 5—13.
Servants, be obedient to them that are your masters accord-
ing to the flesh, with fear and tre7nbling, in singleness of
your heart, as unto Christ ; not with eye-service, as men-
pleasers, 8^c.

HOMILY XXIII.

Page 361 .

Eph. vi. 14.

Stand therefore, having your loins girt about with truth.

HOMILY XXIV.
Page 373.

Eph. vi. 14—24.
Stand therefore, having your loins girt about with truth,
and having on the breastplate of righteousness ; and your
feet shod with the preparation of the Gospel of peace ;
above all, taking the shield of faith, S^'c.



THEOLOGICAL /
COMMENTARY. I^**"

OF

JOHN CHRYSOSTOM,

ARCHBISHOP OF CONSTANTINOPLE,

ON THE

EPrSTLE OF S. PAUL THE APOSTLE

TO THE

GALATIANS.



CHAP. I.

Ver. 1 — 3. Paul, an Apostle, [not of men, neither hy men, hut
hy Jesus Christ and God the Father, who raised Him from
the dead;) and all the brethren which are tvith me, unto the
Churches of Galatia: Grace he to you and peace from God
the Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ.

Not only this exordium, but, so to speak, the whole Epistle,
is full of a vehement and lofty spirit. For always to address
one's disciples with mildness, even when they needed severity,
would be to play the corrupter and enemy, not the teacher.
Wherefore our Lord too, who generally spoke gently to His
disciples, here and there uses sterner language, and at one
time pronounces a blessing, at another a rebuke. Thus,
having said to Peter, Blessed art thou, Simon Barj on a, Matt.
and having promised to lay the foundation of the Church ^^' ^^'
upon his confession, shortly afterwards He says, Get thee Matt.
behind Me, Satan : thou art an offence unto Me. Again, on ^^' ^ .
another occasion. Are ye also yet iciihout uitdcrstandiny? Md^a.
And what awe He inspired them with appears from '■^' '^*
John's saying, that, when they beheld Him conversing with
the Samaritan woman, though they reminded Him to take
food, no one ventured to say, Why talkest Thou, or what John 4,
seekest Thou, with her? Thus taught, and walking in the^^'
steps of his Master, Paul hath varied his discourse according
to the need of his disciples, at one time using knife and
cautery, at another applying mild remedies. To the Co-

B



2 ,S7. t*aul oppuse^a the Jiidaizera

GA..Ar.rinthians he says, What will ye? shall I come unto you with
Jb±£irt rod, or in love, and in the spirit of meekness? but to the
2,^''''^'Gahitiaiis, () foolish Galatians. Which reproof he gives not
Gal. 3. once only, but a second time, and towards the conclusion he
\- says with a reproachful allusion to them, Let no man trouble

^l]'^' mo; then he sooths them again with the words, My little
Gal. 4, children, of whom I tracail in hirth again: and so in many
other instances.

Now that this Epistle breathes an indignant spirit, is ob-
vious to every one on the first perusal; but I must explain
the cause of his anger against his disciples. Slight and un-
important it could not be, or he would not have used such
vehemence. For to be exasperated by chance matters is the
part of the little-minded, morose, and peevish ; just as it is
that of the indolent and sluggish to shrink from reproof in
weighty ones. This was not Paul's character: what then
was the offence which roused him? it was grave and mo-
ment<Kis, one which had estranged them all from Christ, as
Gal. 5, he himself says further on. Behold, I Paul say unto you, that
^' if ye he circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing; and

Ga), 5, again, Whosoever of you are justified by the Law, ye are
^' fallen from grace. What this is, must be explained
more clearly. Some of the Jews who believed, yet were
filled with the prepossessions of Judaism, intoxicated by
vain-glory, and desirous of obtaining for themselves the
dignity of teachers, came to the Galatians, and taught them
that the observance of circumcision, sabbaths, and new-
moons, was necessary, and that the endeavom* of Paul to
abolish it was not to be borne. For, said they, Peter and
James and .John, the chiefs of the Apostles and the com-
panions of Christ, forbad it not. Now in fact on this point
they did not deliver positive doctrine, but condescended to
the weakness of the Jewish believers, which condescension
Paul had no need of when preaching to the Gentiles; but
when he was in Judica, he employed it himself also. But
thes(^ deceivers, by withholding the causes both of Paul's
condescension and that of his bretliren, misled the simpler
ones. Tliey said that he was not to be tolerated, for he
appean^d but yesterday, while Peter and his colleagues were
from the first, — that he was a disciple of the Apostles, but



on lite liyproijdlicc. o/Jiih A})(>:<t(}li<- atfUtoniy. ;l

they of Christ, — that he was single, but they were many,
and pillars of the Church. They accused him too of acting
a part; saying, that this very man who forbids circumcision
observes the rite elsewhere, and preaches differently to you
and to others.

Thus Paul saw the whole Galatian people in a state of
excitement, a flame kindled against their Church, and the
edifice shaken and tottering to its fall. Filled with the
mixed feelings of just anger and desj)ondency, which he has
expressed in the words, / desire to be present icith yoii q^\. a,
now, and to change my voice, he writes the Ej^istle as an^^*
answer to these charges. This is his aim from the very
commencement, for the underminers of his reputation had
said, This man is the last of all the Aj)ostles, and has been
taught by them. Wherefore he begins thus, Paul, an
Apostle not of men, neither by men. For these deceivers, as
I was saying before, had said that Peter, James, and John,
were both first called, and held a primacy among the dis-
ciples, and had also received their doctrines from Christ
Himself; and that it was therefore fitting to obey them rather
than this man ; and that they forbad not circumcision nor the
observance of the Law. By this and similar language, deroga-
tory to Paul, and exalting the honour of the other Apostles,
though not spoken for the sake of praising them, but of
deceiving the Galatians, they induced them to adhere un-
seasonably to the Law. Hence the propriety of his com-
mencement. As they disparaged his doctrine, and said it
came from men, while Peter came from Christ, he immediately
addresses himself to this point, and declares himself an
apostle not of men, neither by men. It was Ananias whoG;il.i,i.
baptized him, but it was not he who delivered him from
error and initiated him into the faith ; Christ Himself sent
from on high that wondrous voice, whereby He inclosed
him in His net. Peter and his brother, John and hisj\latf.4,
brother. He called when walking by the sea-side, but Pau)^^^'^^"
after His ascension into heaven. And as these did not re-
quire a second call, but straightway left their nets and all
that they had, and followed Him, so this man at his first
vocation pressed vigorously forward, waging, as soon as he
was baptized, an implacable war with the Jews. In thi?

B -2



4 77/r doctrine of the Trinity in Unity.

Galat. respect he chiefly excelled the other Apostles, as he says,

^lI:^ I laboured more ahimdantly than they all; at present, how-

is^lo ever, he makes no such claim, but is content to be placed on

* ' a level with them. Indeed his great object was,— not to

establish any superiority for himself, but,— to overthrow the

foundation of their en'or. The not being from men belongs

to ])rcaching generally, for the Gospel's root and origin is

divine, but the not being by men is peculiar to that of the

Apostles; for lie called them not by men's agency, but by

His ()\Mi.

But why does he not speak of his vocation rather than his
apostolate, and say, Paul called not by man ? Here lies
the whole question ; for they said that the office of a teacher
had been committed to him by men, by the Apostles, whom
therefore it behoved him to obey. But that it was not en-
Acis 13, trusted to him by men, Luke declares in the w^ords. As they
^" ministered to the Lord, and fasted, the Holy Ghost said,
^Separate me Barnabas and Saul.

From this passage it is manifest" that the power of the Son

and Spirit is one, for, being commissioned by the Spirit, he

says that he was sent by Christ. This appears in another

place, from his ascription of the things of God to the Spirit, in

Acts 20, the words which he addresses to the elders at Miletus : Take

'2 ft

heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the
nhich the Holy Ghost hath made you jjastors and overseers.
1 Cor. Yet in another Epistle he says. And God hath set some in the
CJturcJi, first Apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly pastors^
and teachers. Thus he ascribes indifferently the things of
the Spirit to God, and those of God to the Spirit. Here too
he stops the mouths of heretics, by the words by Jesus
Christ and God the Father ; for, inasmuch as they said this
term " by" was applied to the Son as importing inferiority, he
ascribes it to the Father, thus teaching us not to prescribe
laus to the ineffable Nature, nor define the degi-ees of
(iodhead which belong to the Father and the Son. To
I lie words />// .Jesus Christ he has added, and God the

^ Tliis digression, iind others which Holy Ghost.
follow, were occasioned by the contro- b St. Chrysostom in these two passages

vcrsies of the day ; the Arians and Mace- adds the word " pastors," which is not

donians donyinj; the co-equality and in the present text. Vid.Eph.iv.il.
consub>laii*i(lity of Iaiulii, Son, and



Why S. Paul speaks of Chrisfs humiliation. 5

Father; for if at the mention of the Father alone he
had introduced the phrase hy whom, they might have
argued sophistically that it was peculiarly applicable to the
Father, in that the acts of the Son were to be refeiTcd to Him.
But he leaves no opening for this cavil, by mentioning at
once both the Son and the Father, and making his language
apply to both. This he does, not in order to ascribe the acts of
the Son to the Father, but to shew that the expression implies no
distinction of Essence. Further, what can now be said by those,
who have gathered a notion of inferiority from the Baptismal
formula, — from our being baptized into the name of the Father,
Son, and Holy Spirit ? For if the Son be inferior because He
is here named after the Father, (where the Apostle beginning
at Christ proceeds to mention the Father,) what will they say —
but let us not even utter such a blasphemy, let us not swerve
from the truth in our contention with them ; rather let us pre-
serve, rave they never so often, the due measures of reverence.
Since then it would be the height of madness and impiety to
argue that the Son was greater than the Father because
Christ was first named, so dare we not hold that the Son is
inferior to the Father, because He is placed after Him.

WJio raised Him from the dead.

Wherefore is it, O Paul, that, wishing to bring these
Judaizers to the faith, you introduce none of those great and
illustrious topics which occur in yoiu Epistle to the Philip-
pians, as, Who, being in the form, of God, thought it not Philip.
robbery to be equal with God, or which you declared in ^' ^'
that to the Hebrews, the brightness of His glory, and theUeb.},
express image of His person ; or again, what in the opening ^'
of his Gospel the son of thunder sounded forth. In the begin- John \,
ning was the Word, and the Word teas with God, and the ^'
Word was God ; or what Jesus Himself oftentimes declared
to the Jews, that His p)Ower and authority was equal to the John 5,
Father's ? Wherefore is it that you omit all these, and make ^^,' '
mention of the economy of His Incarnation, bringing forward
His cross and dying.? Yea, would Paul answer, had this
discoiuse been addressed to those who had unworthy con-
ceptions of Christ, it would have been well to mention these
things; but, inasnnich as the disturbance comes from those
who fear to incur punishment should they abandon the La^^ ,



The Son of (/oil rained Himself froin the dead.

Gal AT. he therefore dolli mention that whereby all need of the Law is
-LilLexcluded, I mean the benefit conferred on all through the
Cross and the Resurrection. To have said that in the
bey inn ill (J u-as the Word, and that He was in the form of
God, and made Himself equal with God, and the like, would
have declared the divinity of the Word, but would have con-
tributed nothing to the matter in hand. W^iereas it was
highly ])crtinent thereto to say. Who raised Him from
the dead, for our chiefest benefit was thus brought to re-
mejnbrance, and men in general are less interested by dis-
courses concerning the majesty of God, than by those
which set forth His mercy towards mankind. Wherefore,
omitting the fonner topic, he discourses of the benefits which
had been confeiTcd on us.

But here the heretics insultingly exclaim, " Lo, the Father

raises the Son !" For ^\ hen once infected, they are wilfully

deaf to all sublimer doctrines ; and taking by itself and insisting

on what is of a less exalted nature, and expressed in less exalted

tenns, on account of the »Son's humanity, or in honour of the

"h5/«x- Father, or for some other temporary purpose, they outrage, I

eUoil""^ ^^'ill not say the Scripture, but themselves. 1 would fain ask

(«'«'' such persons, why they say this } do they hope to prove the

Son weak and powerless to raise one body, when faith in

Acts .0. Him enabled the very shadows of those who believed in Him

to effect the resun-ection of the dead? If then believers in

flim, though mortal, yet by the very shadow of their earthly

bodies, and by the garments which had touched these bodies,

could raise the dead, is it not a stretch of folly, a manifest

insanity, to affinn, that He could not raise Himself? Hast

John '2. thou not heard His saying, Destroij this Temple, and in three

.lol.n !(» ^^^^-'^ ^ '^ '^^ '''^^^^ '^ ''^'^ ■ ^^^^ again, I have jwuer to lay
10. doirn my life, and I have power to take it again ? AVherefore
tlien is the Father said to hav(> raised Him up, as also to
have done other things which the Son Himself did ? It is in
honour of the Father, and in compassion to the w^eakness of
the hearers.

And all the brethren which are with me.
How does it happen, that, contrary to his usual practice of
giving his own naiue only, or that of two or three of the



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