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The homilies of S. John Chrysostom, Archbishop of Constantinople, on the second epistle of St. Paul the Apostle to the Corinthians (Volume 27) online

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UBIWRY OF PRINCETON



Al)6 2 R 2003



THEOLOGICAL SfMINARYj



iR60 .L52 V.27

fohn Chrysostom, Saint, d. 40

lomilies of_S^John Chrysosta_

1/

Archbishop of Constantinople,

)n the

jecond epistle of St. Paul th



A



LIBRARY OF FATHERS



HOLY CATHOLIC CHURCH,



ANTERIOR TO THE DIVISION OF THE EAST AND WEST;



TRANSLATED BY MEMBERS OF THE ENGLISH CHURCHi




YET SHALL NOT THY TEACHERS HE REMOVED INTO A CORNER ANY MORE, BUT
THINE EYES SHALL SEE THY TEACHERS. Isaiah XXX. 20.



OXFORD,

JOHN HENRY PARKER;

i''. AND J. RIVINGTON, LONDON.

MDCCCXLVIII.



TO THE MEMORY

OP THE

MOST REVEREND FATHER IN GOD

WILLIAM

LORD ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY,
PRIMATE OF ALL ENGLAND,

FORMERLY REGIUS PROFESSOR OF DIVINITY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD,

THIS LIBRARY
OF

ANCIENT BISHOPS, FATHERS, DOCTORS, MARTYRS, CONFESSORS,

OF Christ's holy catholic church,

UNDERTAKEN AMID HIS ENCOURAGEMENT,

CARRIED ON FOR TWELVE YEARS UNDER HIS SANCTION,

UNTIL HIS DEPARTURE HENCE IN PEACE,

IS

GRATEFULLY AND REVERENTLY

INSCRIBED.



THE



HOMILIES



S. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM,



ARCHBISHOP OF CONSTANTINOPLE,



SECOND EPISTLE OF ST. PAUL THE APOSTLE



CORINTHIANS.



TRANSLATED,



WITH NOTES AND INDICES.



OXFORD,

JOHN HENRY PARKER ;

F. AND J. RIVINGTON, LONDON.

MDCCCXLVIII.



BAXTER, PRINTER, OXFORD.



PREFACE



The present Volume completes the set of St. Chrysostom's
Commentaries on the Epistles of St. Paul, with the exception
of that to the Hebrews, the Translation of which is preparing
for the press. The edition of the original by Mr. Field has
afforded the advantage of an improved text, in fact of one as
good as we can hope to see constructed from existing Mss.

These Homilies were delivered at Antioch in the opinion
of the Benedictine Editors, though Savile doubted it. The
question depends on the interpretation of a passage near tlie
end of Hom. xxvi. in which St. Chrysostom speaks of Con-
stantinople, and presently says ' here.' This, it has been
rightly argued, he might say in the sense of ' in the place
1 am speaking of,' while he was not likely to say ' in Con-
stantinople,' if he were speaking there.

For the Translation the Editors are indebted to the
Rev. J, AsHWORTH, M.A. of Brasenose College. It has
been carried through the press, and supplied with an Index,
by the Rev. J. F. Christie, M.A. late Fellow of Oriel
College, and Rector of Ufton Nervet, near Reading.

C. M.

S. Clement.

1848.




CONTENTS.



HOMILY I.
Page 1.

2 Cor. i. 1—4.

Paul, an Apostle of Jesus Christ hy the will of God, and
Timothy our brother, unto the Church of God which is at
Corinth, with all the saints which are in all Achaia : grace
he to you and peace from God our Father, and from the
Lord Jesus Christ. Blessed be God, even the Father of
our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and the God
of all comfort; Who comforteth us in all our tribulation,
that we may he able to comfort them which are in any
trouble, hy the comfort wherewith we ourselves are comforted
of God.



HOMILY II.

Page 14.

2 Cor. i. 6, 7.

And whether ive be afflicted, it is for your consolation and
salvation : tvhich is icrouyht in the enduring of the same
sufferings which we also suffer. . . . And our hope of you is
stedfast.



X CONTENTS.

HOMILY in.

Page 34.

2 Cor. i. 1-2.

For our rejoicing is this, the testimony of our conscience,
that i7i simplicity and sincerity, not i?i fleshly wisdom, but
in tJie grace of God, we have had our conversation in the
world.



HOMILY IV.

Page 52.

2 Cor. i. 23.

Moreover, I call God for a record upon my soul, that to spare
you I came not as yet unto Corinth.



HOMILY V.

Page 67.

2 Cor. ii. 12, 13.

Furthermore, when I came to Troas to preach Chrisfs Gospel,
and a door was opened unto me of the Lord, I had no rest
in my spirit, because I found not Titus my brother.



HOMILY VL

Page 79.
2 Cor. iii. 1.

Do toe begin again to commend ourselves? or need wc, as some,
epistles of commendation to you, or letters of commendation
from you?



CONTENTS. XI

HOMILY VII.

Page 88.

2 Cor. iii. 7, 8.

But if the ministration of death, in letters, engraven in stones,
was glorious, so that the eliildren of Israel could not
stedfastly behold the face of Moses, for the glory of his
countenance; which glory was to he done away: how shall
not the ministration of the Spirit he rather glorious ?



HOMILY VIII.

Page 106.

2 Cor. iv. 1, 2.

Therefore seeing we have this ministry, as we have received
mercy we faint not, hut have renounced the hidden things of
dislionesty.



HOMILY TX.

Page 114.

2 Cor. iv. 8, 9.

We are troubled on every side, yet not distressed ; we are per-
plexed, hut not in despair; persecuted, hut not forsaken.



HOMILY X.

Page 125.

2 Cor. V. 1 .

For we know, that if our earthly house of this tabernacle were
dissolved, "we have a building of God, an house not made with
hands, eternal in the heavens.



CONTENTS.

HOMILY XI.

Page 136.

2 Cor. V. 11.



Knowing therefore the terror of the Lord, we persuade men :
but we are made manifest unto God; and I trust also are
made manifest in your consciences.



HOMILY XII.

Page 147.
2 Cor, vi. 1, 2.

We then, as ivorkers together with Him, beseech you also that
ye receive not the grace of God in vain. For he saith,
I have heard thee in a time accepted, and in the day of
salvation have I succoured thee.



HOMILY XIII.

Page 161.

2 Cor. vi. 11, 12.

ye Corinthians, our mouth is open unto you, our heart is
enlarged; ye are not straitened in us, but ye are straitened
in your own bowels.

HOMILY XIV.
Page 172.

2 Cor. vii. 2, 3.

Receive us: we have wronged no man, we have corrupted no
man, we have defrauded no man. I speak not this to
condemn you ; for I have said before, as I have also
declared above, that ye are in our hearts to die and live
with you.



CONTENTS. Xlll

HOMILY XV.

Page 180.

•2 Cor. vii. 8.

So that though I made you sorry with my letter, I do not
repent, though I did repent.



HOMILY XVI.

Page 193.

2 Cor. vii. 13.

And in your comfort, exceedingly the more joyed tve for the joy
of Titus, because his spirit was refreshed hy you all.



HOMILY XVII.

Page 202.

2 Cor. viii. 7.

Therefore that ye abound in every thing ; in faith and words,
and knowledge, and in all diligence.

HOMILY XVIII.

Page 211.

2 Cor. viii. 16.

But thanks be to God, Which put the same earnest care into
the heart of Titus for you.

HOMILY XIX.

Page 220.

2 Cor. ix. 1.

For as touching the ministering to the saints, it is superfluous
for me to write to you.



XIV CONTENTS.

HOMILY XX.

Page 231.

2 Cor. ix. 10.

Now He that ministereth seed to the sower, both minister bread
for your food , and multiply your seed sown, and increase the
fruits of your 7'ighteousness,

HOMILY XXI.

Page 238.
2 Cor. X. 1, 2.

Now I Paul myself beseech you by the meekness and gentleness
of Christ, who in presence am base among you, but being
absent am bold toward you : but I beseech you, that I may
not be bold when I am present toith that confidence, wherewith
I think to be bold against some, which think of us as if we
walked according to thejiesh.



HOMILY XXII.

Page 247.

2 Cor. X. 7.

Ye look on things after the outward appearance. If any man
trust to himself that he is Christ's, let him of himself think
this again, that as he is Christ's, even so are we.



HOMILY XXIII.

Page 256.

2 Cor. xi. 1.

Would to God ye could bear with me a little in my folly ,- and
ijideed ye do bear with me.



CONTENTS. XV

HOMILY XXIV.

Page 272.

2 Cor. xi. 13.

For such are false ajyostles, deceitful workers, transforming
themselves into the A'postles of Christ.

HOMILY XXV.

Page 281.

2 Cor. xi. 21.

Hoivbeit, whereimoever any is bold, (/ speak foolishly y)

1 am bold also.

HOMILY XXVI.

Page 289.

2 Cor. xii. 1.

It is not expedient for me doubtless to glory, [/or] I will come
to visions and revelations of the Lord,

HOMILY XXVII.
Page 302.

2 Cor. xii. 11.

/ am become a fool in glorying ; ye have compelled me : for
1 ought to have been commended of you.

HOMILY XXVIII.

Page 311.

2 Cor. xii. 16—18.

But be it so, I myself did not burden you : nevertheless, being
crafty, I caught you with guile. Did I make a gain of
you by any of them whom I sent unto you ? I desired Titus,
and with him I sent the brother. Did Titus make a gain of
you ? Walked we not in the same sjnrit ? ivalked we not in
the same steps ?



XVI CONTENTS.

HOMILY XXIX.

Page 320.
2 Cor. xiii. 1.

Thh is the third time I am coming to you. In the mouth of two
or three witnesses shall evert/ word be established.



HOMILY XXX.

Page 333.

2 Cor. xiii. 10.

Therefore I write these things being absent, lest being present
I should use sharpness, according to the power lohich the
Lord hath given me to edification, and not to destruction.




HOMILIES

OF

S. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM,

ARCHBISHOP OF CONSTANTINOPLE,
ON

THE SECOND EPISTLE OF S. PAUL THE APOSTLE

TO THE

CORINTHIANS.



2 Cor. i. 1—4.

Paid, an Apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and
Timothy our brother, unto the Church of God which is at
Corinth, with all the saints which are in all Achaia: grace
be to you and peace from God our Father, and from the
Lord Jesus Christ. Blessed be God, even the Father of
our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and the
God of all comfort; Who comforteth us in all our tribu-
lation, that we may be able to comfort them wJiich are in
any trouble, by the comfort wherewith we ourselves are
comforted of God.

It is meet to enquire, first, why to the former Epistle he
adds a second ; and what can be his reason for thus beginning
with the mercies and consolation of God.

Why then does he add a second Epistle .'' Whereas in the
first he had said, / will come to you, and will know not the^^^'^-'^^



2 The reasons for writing this second Epistle.

HoMu,. speech of them ivhich are puffed up, but the power; and
'- — again towards the end had promised the same in milder

1 Cor. terms, thus, I will come unto you ichen I shall pass through
^6,5. G. j^io^f.QfiQj'iid . for I do pass through Macedonia; and it may

be that I will abide, yea, and winter with you; yet now after
a long interval, he came not; but was still lingering and
delaying even though the time appointed had passed away;
the Spirit detaining him in other matters, of far greater
necessity than these. For this reason, he had need to write
a second Epistle, which he had not needed, had he but
u wa^a a little out-tarried his time.

fffXpn But not for this reason only, but also because they were
''"• aiTfiended by the former; for him that had committed forni-
cation, whom before they applauded; and were puffed up
about, they had cut off, and separated altogether. And this

2 Cor. 2, he shews where he says, But if any have caused grief he hath

not grieved me., but in part you all; that I may not be too

severe. Sufficient to such a man is this punishment which

was infiicted of many. And as he proceeds, he alludes again

2 Cor. 7, to the same thing when he says, For behold your sorrowing

^ ' ■ after a godly sort, what carefulness it wrought in you, yea,

what clearing of yourselves, yea, what indignation, yea, what

fear, yea, what vehement desire, yea, ivhat zeal, yea, what

revenge! In all things ye have approved yourselves to be

clear in this matter. Moreover, the collection" also, which he

enjoined, they gathered with much forwardness. Wherefore

2 Cor. 9, also he says, For I know the forwardness of your m,ind,for

v)hich I boast of you to them of Macedonia that Achaia was

ready a year ago. And Titus too, whom he sent, they

received with all kindness, as he shews when he says again,

2 Cor. 7, His inward affection is more abundant toward you, whilst he

remembereth the obedience of you all, how with fear and

trembling ye received him. For all these reasons, he writes

the second Epistle. For it was right, that, as when they

were in fault he rebuked them, so upon their amendment he

should approve and commend them. On which account the

''*'^"" Epistle is not throughout so rebukeful, but only in a few

tioa,. parts towards the end. For there were even amongst them

.lews who thought highly of themselves, and accused Paul,

' Xeyicif, Ben. ih\oy'mv, bounty, as 2 Cor. 9, 5. Engl. Vers.



TlieJudaizers. Timotlii/s name why joined in the salutation. 3

as being a boaster, and worthy of no regard ; whence also 2 Cor.
that speech of theirs ; His letters are weighty, but his bodily ^' ^'^\
presence is weak, and his speech contemptible ; meaning lo, lo.
thereby, when he is present he appears of no account, (for
this is the meaning of, his bodily presence is iceak,) but when
he is away he boasts greatly in what he writes, (for such is
the signification of, his letters are weighty.) Moreover, to
enhance their own credit, these persons made a pretence of
receiving nothing, to which he also alludes where he says,
that wherein they glory, they may be found even as we. 2 Cor.
And besides, possessing also the power of language, they were ^^' ^^'
forthwith greatly elated. Wherefore also he calls Ynmselirude
in speech, shewing that he is not ashamed thereof; nor deems 2 Cor.
the contrary any great acquisition. Seeing then it was likely ' '
that by these persons some would be seduced, after commend-
ing what was right in their conduct, and beating down their
senseless' pride in the things of Judaism, in that out of'aT»'f»/ay
season they were contentious to observe them, he gives them
a gentle^ rebuke on this subject also. - (ruy.y.i-

[2.] Such then, to speak summarily and by the way, appears '^^"'
to me the argument of this Epistle. It remains to consider the
introduction of the Epistle, and to say why, after his accustomed
salutation, he begins, as he does, with the mercies of God. But
first it is necessary to speak of the very beginning, and inquire
why, in this part, he associates Timothy with himself. For, he
saith, Paul an Apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God,
and Timothy our brother. In the first Epistle he promised
he would send him; and charged them, saying, Now if\ Cor.
Timotheus come, see that he may be with you without fear. '
How then is it that he associates him, here, in the outset with
himself? After he had been amongst them, agreeably to that
promise of his master, / have sent unto you Timotheus, who i Cox. 4,
shall bring you into remembrance of my ways which be in
Christ, and had set every thing in order, he had returned
back to Paul; who on sending him, had said, Conduct him"^ Cor.
forth in ^jeace that he may come to me, for I look for him '' '
with the brethren.

Since then Timothy was restored to his master, and with (2.)
him having set in order the things in Asia, (for, says he,
/ loill tarry at Ephesus-until Pentecost ;) had crossed again ^ ^°''-

B 2 ' *



iPauVshumility.AllAchaiaaddressed^asallneedingadmomtion.

HoMTi.into Macedonia; as abiding with him Paul not unreasonably

— '- — associates him hereafter with himself. For then he wrote

from Asia, but now from Macedonia. Moreover, by thus

eif^vi- associating him, he at once gains increased respect for him,

'■'^''- and displays his own exceeding humility: for Timothy

was very inferior to himself, yet doth love bring all things

together. Whence also he every where makes him equal

Phil. 2, with himself; at one time saying, as a son with the father

?^A he hath served with me; at another, /b/- he worketh the work

1 Cor. '

16, 10. of the Lord, as I also do ; and here, he even calleth him,
brother; by all making him an object of respect to the
Corinthians, amongst whom he had been, as I have said, and
given proof of his worth.

To the Church of God which is at Corinth. Again he
calleth them " the Church," to bring and bind them all
together in one. For it could not be one Church, while those
within her were sundered, and opposed. With all the saints
which are in all Achaia. In thus saluting all, through the
Epistle addressed to the Corinthians, he would at once
honour these, and bring together the whole nation. But he
calls them saints, thereby implying that, if any be an impure
person, he hath no share in this salutation. But why, writing
to the mother city, does he address all through her, since he
doth not so every where.? For instance, in his Epistle to the
Thessaloniaus, he addressed not the Macedonians also; and
in like manner in that to the Ephesiaus, he doth not include
all Asia; neither was that to the Romans written to those
also who dwell in Italy. But in this Papistic he doth so;
and in that to the Galatians. For there also he writeth not
to one city, or two, or three, but to all who are scattered every

Gal. 1, where, saying. Paid an Apostle, {not of men neither by man,
~ ' but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, Who raised Him
from the dead,) and all the brethren which are with me, unto
the Churches of Galatia. Grace be to you and peace. To
the Hebrews also he writes one Epistle to all collectively;
not distinguishing them into their several cities. What then
can be the reason of this .'' Because, as 1 think, in this case
all were involved in one common disorder, wherefore also he
addresses his Epistle to them in common, as needing one
common remedy. For the Galatians were all of them in-



God''HheFather of inercies^''hacingmerclfidhj dealt wlt}iP(ikd.b

fected. So too were the Hebrews, and so 1 think these 2 Cor.
(Achaians) also. ^' ^"^'

[3.] So then having bronght the whole nation together in
one, and saluted them with his accustomed greeting, for, saith
he, Grace he to you and peace from God. our Fatherland the2Cov.\y
Lord Jesus Christ: hear how aptly to the purpose in hand*"
he begins. Blessed be God, even the Father of our Lord\ev. 3.
Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and the God of all
comfort. Do you ask, how is this aptly to the pur])ose in
hand? T reply. Very much so; for observe, they were greatly
vexed and troubled that the Apostle had not come to them,
and that, though he had promised, but had spent the whole time
in Macedonia; preferring as it seemed others to tliemselves.
Setting himself then to meet this feeling' against him, he ''■«j»>^«f-
declares the cause of his absence; not however directly '"'""''
stating it, as thus; " I know, indeed, I promised to come, but
since I was hindered by afflictions, forgive me; nor judge me
guilt}' of any sort of contempt or neglect towards you :" but
after another manner he invests the subject at once with more
dignity and trustworthiness, and gives it greatness by the
nature of the consolation'', so that thereafter they might not
so much as ask the reason of his delay. Just as if one,
having promised to come to one he loved and longed for,
at length, arrived after dangers innumerable, should say,
" Glory to Thee, O God, for letting me see the sight so longed
for of his dear countenance ! Blessed be Thou, O God, from
what perils hast Thou delivered me!" for such a doxology is
an answer to him who was preparing to find fault, and will
not let him so much as complain of the delay ; for one that
is thanking God for deliverance from such great calamities
he cannot for shame drag to the bar, and bid clear himself
of loitering. Whence Paul thus begins. Blessed be the God
of mercies, implying by the very words that he had been
both brought into and delivered from mighty perils. For as
David also doth not address God every where in one way,
or with the same titles; but when he is upon battle and
victory, / ivill love Thee, he saith, Lord my strength; MePs.i8,i.
Lord is tny buckler- : when again upon delivery from affliction, 2 U5r»f«<r-
and the darkness which overwhelmed him, The Lord is my ^""■''''



Q Mercy God'sattrihute. Godcomfortethintrih ulation,maU,ever.

HoMiL. light and my salvation; and as the immediate occasion sug-
—^ — gests, he names Him now from His lovingkindness, now from
His justice, now from His righteous judgment : — in like way-
Paul also here at the beginning describing Him by His
loving-kindness, calling Him the God of mercies, that is,
" Who hath shewed me so great mercies, as to bring me up
from the very gates of death,"
(3.) And thus to have mercy is the most peculiar and most
excellent attribute of God; and the most inherent in His
nature; whence he calleth Him the God of mercies.

And observe, I pray you, herein also the lowly-minded-
ness of Paul. For though he were in peril, because of the
Gospel he preached ; yet saith he not, he was saved for his
merit, but for the mercies of God. But this he afterwards de-
2Cor.i, clareth more clearly, and now goes on to say. Who comforteth
lis in all tribulation. He saith not, " Who sufTereth us not
to come into tribulation:" but, Who comforteth in tribidation.
For this at once declareth the power of God; and increaseth
Rom. 5, the patience of those in tribulation. For, saith he, tribulation
V&.^ i.y^orkeih patience. And so also the prophet. Thou hast
enlarged me in my distress. He doth not say, " Thou hast
not suffered me to fall into distress," nor yet, " Thou hast
quickly removed my distress," but, whilst it continueth.
Thou hast enlarged me: that is, " hast granted me much
freedom and refreshment." Which truly happened also in
DaD. 3, tijg case of the three children, for neither did He prevent
their being cast into the flame, nor, when so cast, did He
quench it, but while the furnace was burning He gave them
liberty. And such is ever God's way of dealing; as Paul
also implies when he says. Who comforteth us in all tribu-
lation.

But he teaches yet something more in these words: Do
you ask wdiat.? Namely, that God doeth this, not once, nor
twice, but without intermission. For He doth not one while
comfort, another, not, but ever and constantly. Wherefore
he saith, Who comforteth, not, Who hath comforted, and, in
all tribulation, not, " in this or that," but, in all.

That we may be able to con fort them which are in any trouble

by the comfort wherewith we ourselves are comforted of God.

J o-^9a»«- See you not how he is beforehand ' with his defence by suggest-



How Chrisfs sufferings ahotmd in the Apostles. 7

ing to the hearer the thought of some great affliction ; and 2 Cor.
herein also is his modesty again appai'ent, that he saith not for ' ^'t'
their own merits was this mercy shewed, but for the sake of
those that need their assistance; " for," saith he, " to this end
hath He comforted us, that we might comfort one another."
And hereby also he manifesteth the great excellency of the
Apostles, shewing that having been comforted and breathed
awhile, he lieth not softly down, as we, but goeth on his
way to anoints to nerve, to rouse others. Some, however, 1 i.e. for
consider this as the Apostle's meaning. " Our consolation is [,3^^"°™"
that of others also:" but my opinion is, that in this intro-
duction, he is all along too censuring the false Apostles, those
vain boasters, who sat at home, and lived in luxury ; but this
covertly, and, as it were, incidentally, the leading object
being to apologise for his delay. " P'or," [he would say,] "if
for this end we were comforted, that we might comfort others
also, do not blame us that we came not; for in this was our
whole time spent, in providing against the conspiracies,
the violence, in dispersing the teiTors which assailed us."

[4.] For as the sufferings of Christ abound in us, so our con- ver. 5.
solatio7i also aboundeth by Christ. Not to depress the disciples
by an aggravated account of his sufferings; he declarelh on the
other hand, that great and superabundant was the conso-
lation also, and lifteth up'' their heart, not hereby alone, but also
by putting them in mind of Christ, and calling the sufferings
' His,' and ^ prior to the consolation deriveth a comfort from'-^?o tm,-
the very sufferings themselves. For what joy can I have J^|^,'^,,
so great as to be partaker with Christ, and for His sake to
suffer these things .? What consolation can equal this ? But
not from this source only does he raise the spirits of the
afflicted, but from another also. Ask you what other? In
that he saith, abound: for he doth not say. As the sufferings
of Christ are in ics, but as they aboicnd, thereby declaring
that they endure not His sufferings only, but even more
than these '^. For, saith he, " not whatsoever He suffered, that
have we suffered; but even this and more''," for, consider, Vi^/ira-a,

"^ avt(T7r,<rn. The word has here mean, for an instant, to compare the'-'^"'



Online LibrarySaint John ChrysostomThe homilies of S. John Chrysostom, Archbishop of Constantinople, on the second epistle of St. Paul the Apostle to the Corinthians (Volume 27) → online text (page 1 of 38)