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An analysis of derivative words in the English language, or A key to their ... online

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. Able and ible, are also common in Latin. '*

nvB — is borrowed from the Latin Uttu; •% na^tviii^ mUunf
jm^Aalurii^iieivdiM^tve; geni^^^


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Mu^ • coattmolNai, m it i* tlUMighty from lih» (3fttdg 4lm^ •%
•Mtflw^ or^&:' Qoa»r howerer, are from LaAaa and Fttmxitk.

noiy, noM^^-ore cUrivsd from Latin^ And in many iaatoaeea diffsr la
•ignifieatiea YWy little from *mg;* aa^ in educ^DN^ or edtt^atli^.
When the Latin sapine^ whence they are borrowed^ endd in fum, w«
^f>ell the £n^iflh word with tion, but whesi the 8iQ>ino is tmn, we updl
it <id»; thus^

Xat Motvm^ eonTen^uns f oniia<«m» oolleehink

Ml. Mottoriy conyeh^tcm^ formtUum, coUee/tdfi.

JJMt AyerjcKm^ Mtbmer^um^ incar«ii]n» adhenmi.

JStk AveraioH, submer^t^ incorJnon^ adhesion.

Others are formed from Latin nomis^ by the addition of n» to ijie
votninative case; a% from na<»o and sta^to, we thus f<»rm na<tof» and

jbxoa, ") These six terminations hare evidently grown out of the
pre& part nom. case of Latin yerb^ because the spelling oi
each, agrees with the four oonjugations. The firsts with
lew vexceptionsy has anoe ; the second and third, ene$; and
the fourth, ienee, LaL^ First conj» Affirmani^ aooordoiii^
ciro!tm«fan«. En* Affirmofu^ aeo<»*diinM, oireums^aitcA
* Lot, Second and third conjk Tendstu^ agf^u^ ardani^ insolreiii;

En, Tendency f eigeney, ardency, insolvent^.

Lot Fororth conj. Aud««7»^ oonyeni^tM^ obedttfiu^ expcrlm*

JSn. Audience, conrenitffM^ obedcetu^ ezperMnM. -
' IM, IMs8onai^^^end<n^ delinqumi^ eKpedimc

En^ Dissonant; dependtffU; delinqutfn^ expedisnt

Dill fiid^ if dt£ly regstrded by t)^e olassioal seholar, would preineait
any mistakes in spelling words of this description. ;

MSWt <md Aftt'^'Hire admitted to be of French origin. Mlmi, k ex-
tttBsiteljnised. *

Att^'-niere is a nmneroos cleiM of words hfl;ving this tarmiaatioii»
which in form exactly agrees with the Lnp. mode of Lat verbs, second
l»«rsoii, pltlral, and tiie Lat perl part, vocative case; yet in signific*-
tion, there is littie or Ao analogy. It is now an English tenniiHiftk)%
eommon to words of Lat derivation; ta, aoeeler«^ oblittnifii d«-
wMNI^ dttiMnitrafi^ Meommodttii^ A&

»-In sceli winds as ttMWtillMMMt divldml





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4^PVllf9IX. WL

r€T6ren4 Ae., is efyidently i contraction of the Lat diu, or dum ; u^
legenef for Xegmdus^ &ti,

ABLB — \& derived from the Latin habiliSy and sometimes spelled, il^U,

KN — is derived from the Saxon an, through the German etif and wai
originally equivalent to our particle to, of the infinitive mode. Among
the Saxons^ en and n, were uded in oonunon with ed, as participial- ter^
minations; aa^ crav^ heav^' barren; for craved^ heav^ barr«^;
both are retained by established usage. We now say given instead ot
givefl^ ot we make use of either ; as» engraven^ or engnYed; yet by
far the most numerous class of words retain ed exclusively. T is
often used like en for ed; as^ buil^ for builded

BIO — ^is derived from German, and implies possession ; aa^ bishopna

DOM — ^is from the German thum, implying a collection of thingsi

ING — ^is taken from the German ung.

UNO and vjx — are also borrowed from the Germitfa, and are cosh
monly used as diminutives; as, duck/in^, a littie duck; lambA;t% a
littie lamU

B00]>— 'is also borrowed from Grcrman; as^ boy^oody prieBt&ood(
dressing a state or condition.

) tiie sul^titute for the German iscTi.

-probably may have come from the German amru

FUL^^ derived from tiie German voll.

LESS — ^is also from the German los.

M>— While a great portion of our verbs derived from the Saxon, ase
very irregular ; as^ drinks swiniy fiing, Ac. ; those of Latin origin are
pretty uniformly marked, by the regular addition of ed^ to tiieir im^
perfeot tense, and perfect participle.

SHIP — seems to be borrowed &x)m some word, implying to fka/pe^ o»
do something; as, friende^ip, f£Uow<Atp, <fec

KBSS — is doubtiess from the German «i«a.

AL — ^may be considered of Latin origin.

JLB and ORY-^are also derived from the Latin.
' izi^ iBT, ISM-— are of Greek derivation.

17BB — ^is from the Latin.

xmfL and tdpe — ^are also from the Latin.

OID - 4S derived from the Greek eido%*
I taken from the Latiii.



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Tlie following words, of Latin and Greek derivation, are more pai*
ticularly analyzed, to induce tlie pupil to a further examination into
the structure of wordd in general. Those of Greek derivation, are
indicated by the abbreviation, gr.
Anniveraary — ^is from anjius, a year ; and verstts, a turning, or retnming:

Ilen^ the import, returning with the year, or a yearly celebration.
Animadvert — is from vertu^ turriing ; -anhmOy the mind ; and act ta

Whence comes the meaning to cwisidery <fec
Apostate-r-is from the gr. «/)o, from or off; and «toa, standing, ^enc6

* one, who has departed from.
Atmosphere— ris from the gr. atmos^ vapor ; and spkaira, round or sphere.
Al{4mbet — ^is from the first two Greek letters, alpha and beta.
Agriculture — ^is from ager or agri, a field ; and cutturOy tillage.
Apode— is from the gr. a, privative, meaning without; and jMitn, a
*foot Whence apode is without feet, like a fislL Polgpod^

antipodes, *

Apology — ^is from the gr. apo, from or off; and logot^ a word.
Blaspheme — ^is from the gr. blax^ nefarious or impious; andphemit to

Conjugal — ^is from coriy with or together ; and jugum^ a yoke ; meaning

yoked together, or married.
Constant, Distant^ Circumstance — are from coiij meaning together, ot

with; d% separated, or apart; cvrcum^ around; and Btafi»^ is

standing. Hence, constant, is standing together, or fixed, firm,

steady, &c jDistant, standing apart ; whence it implies remote^

reserved, <fec So, good ctVcw/nstances is being surrounded by

every thing needful
Consequences, Subsequent — are from, con, with; «i«6, imder or after;

and sequenSf following. Then, consequences are what follow in

connection with ; but «M6sequent is what follows after.
Confident, Diffident^ Infidel, and Perfidy — are all from Jidea op flietu^

meaning faith, trusty ^, modified by the prefixes^ eon, dif, in^

Digiized by VjOO^lC


Cataraet-^ifl from the gr. ibgtto, against ; abd rasao, to daah.

Concomitant — ^is from eaines, a companion ; and cornea is from con and
eo, to go witlu Hence, con repeated, implies a repetition <A
meaning ; as, going and coming together, or a eontinned union.

I/isease — ^is from dis and eaae^ a deprivation of ease.

Dismal — is from malus, evil ; dies^ day. Hence, dire, horrid, gloomy.

Pespiae— is from ^ecio, to look ; de, down, as Mritli contempt ^

Decapolis — ^is from cfcco, ten ; polia, a city. •

Desultory, Insult, Exult^ Result — are from <fc, down or from ; tn, in op
on ; eXf out ; re, again or bock ; and aalio, to leap. Hence, desul*"
tory, is leaping, or passing abruptly from one subject to another ;
insult, leaping on, or gross abuse ; ^anilt, leaping out» or excessive
joy ; and result, leaping Ijack, or a consequence following!

Devious, Previous, Pervious — are from cfe, from ; ©to, the way. Hence^
out of the way, or wandering. In like manner, pre, before ; and
per, by or through, give the different imports.

Di^dde — is from tlie obsolete word, viduo, to separate; di, apart;
' whence w^ derive the word individual, meaning one undivided
person, or thing. '

Disaster— is from die, separation ; and the gr. aatron^ a star* The an-
cients supposed the star under which a person was born governed
his destiny ; hence, disaster comes to mean ill-luck, misfortune.

Denocrat — ^is from the gr. demoa, the people; and hratoa, power;
hence, a popular government ,

Discrepancy-^is from crepoy to crackle or jingle; dia, osund^; hence
the import^ .disagreement of parts, like jingling^ asunder.

Expedite — ^is from ex, and pedia, a foot; hence, to faciUtate^ Ac

Epilepsy — ^is from the gr. epi, upon; and lamhano, to leap; os
a fit

Equivocate — ^is from equua^ alike or equal ; and vocatua, called ; wheneo
the meaning becomes doubtful ; uncertain.

Endence — ^is from video, to see or discover ; e, out ; hence, to elucidate^

Epidemic — ^is from the gr. epi, upon ; demoa, the people.

Fhent, Affluent, Superfluous, and Influence— ^are all from^uo, to flow;
modified by their prefixes.

Gtography — ^is from the gr. ge, the earth; and grapho, lo vmlbh

Qiometry^-is from the gr. ge, and metreo, to measm^


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Infiat— Is tmm fori, U> sp^al^ or/oit^ speakiDg; and in^ ndt;

tfiiant^ is one not able to speak or use language.
Metropolis — ^is from the gr. meter, a mother; Kndpoiis, a. city.
Monotony — ^isfrom the gr. mono8,'one or alone; and tanos, a tone» ctr

Manage — ^ib from manus, the hand ; and age, from ago, to do.
Monopolise— «is from the gr. tnono9f alone ; and poleo, to buy.
Mancipate — ^is from tnamia, the hand; and.cajKO, to take; henee^ to

Orb— is from orbis, a spherical body; and orbit^ is the cnrre line in

which it moyes ; whence eax>rbitant if derived, and means depart-
ing from the usual track, oi* course.
Order — ^is from ordo ; whence «rfraordinary.
ft«^et— 4s from the gr. pro, before ; and phemi; to speal^
Period— 4b from the gr. peri, around ; and odot, a way at road Then

a periodical is what goes the rounds at stated times.
Fhmdenee — is from pro and viden^, seeing before.
Perigrinate — ^is frxHn ager, €igri, a field ; and hence *peregiinate^ to

travel through the country.
Panm^Jvania-^ frx>m Penn, the name of the founder ; and i^fia, «

Pedagogue — is from the gr. pais, a child ; and agogos, a leadw.
Pk«posterous — ^is from potterus, from pott, after; and />f^* beftre;

hence, it means, putting that first which should be last> or wlut is

Bepugnant— is from pugnant, fighting; re, back; h^ioe opposite^ •r

Boborant-HLB from robur, oak of the hardest kind, and means strengtl-

ening. Hence, ear for con, makes con*oborate^ to confirm.
SfD^thy— is from the gr. eyn, for sun, meaning with; and patkot

suffering ; then sympathy means suffering witih, or fellow-feeKng

«9athy, without feeling ; an^pathy, opposition of feelings.
Synopsis— is from the gr. sgn, and opsis, the sight ; henoe one view. .
^^ynod— is ttom the gr. <fh» f<»r sun; and odos, a way or road.
Supercilious — ^is from' super, above; eUium, the eye-brow; benci

Snieere— isfromstaiwillioiit; tfsre^wwc; heiio^ nsBiked, <Mr poe.


by Google *.


t ^

TTniTerae— 4i from vermju^ a turning; unua, into one; a coIleetiTe wholes
Vague — ^is from vaguSy wanderi^ ; extra^ beyond, making ex^royagant
Astronomy — ^is from the gr, nomoSy a law ; and astfon, a star.
Analysis — ]a from, the gr. Zwais, a loosing; ana, again.
Antipode — ^is from the gr.'an^i, oppoate to ; jwww, a foot
Anatomy — ^is from the gr. tcme, cutting ; anct^ through.
Chronology — ^is from the gr. logot^ a word or discourse ; ehr<mos^ tima
Euphony — is from the gr. eu, good or agreeable ; phoM, sound.
Epitaph — ^is from the gr. epiy upon ; taphoSy a tomb.*
Monarch — ^is from the gr. archCy a chief; monoSy alone.
Oxygen — ^is from the -gr. gennaOy to produ^ ; ovoiy acid.
Philanthropy — is from the gr. pkilos, a lover ; anthropoSy of man.
Polytechnics — is from the gr. jt)o/y, many ; technCy art
Rirenology — ^is from the gr. logoSy a discoursing; phrerty the mind.
Syllable— is from the gr. lambanoSy taken ; simy together.
Synthesis — ^is from the gr. 'tithemiy to put or place ; stttiy together.
Thermometer — ^is from the gr. metrojiy a measure ; and t?iermo^ warmth.
Telescope— is from the gr. skopeoy to spy ; teloSy the end.
Orthography— is from the gr. graphoy writing ; orihos, right
Apogee — ^is ^om the gr. apOy from ; ge, the earth.
Apheli(m^ — ^is from the gr. a, from ; kelioSy the sun.
Hydraulics — ^is from the gr. hudoVy water; and atduSy a pipe.
Hydrc^hobia — ^is from the gr. phoheoy fear ; hudoty water.
Polyglot — ^is from the gr. polyy many ; glottciy tongue, ot language^
Asteroid — ^is from the gr. eidoSy like ; (Mtrofty a star.
Ar^pelago— is from the gr. archey chief; pelagoSy sea.
Amphibious — ^is from the gr. dmphiy about, or both ; UoSy lifa
Prognostic — ^is from the gr. gnoOy to know ; proy before.
Diagonal — ^is from the gr. dioy through; gonioy the angle.
Trigonometry — ^is from the gr. metreoy to measure ; treis, three ; gonUi^
Isosceleo — ^is from the gr. isoSy equal ; skeloSy legs. [anglea.

Apostasy — ^is from the gr. iatemiy to stand ; apOy from..
BhinoceroB — ^is from the gr. kertiSy a horn ; rhiriy nose.
Autocrat — is from the gr. kratoSy power ; OMtaty one's sell
Monk — ^is from the gr. monoSy one alone.
Pi^Tiieffifr— is from the gr. polu»y many ; and f mm^^ an isle.

Digitized by CjOOQ IC


No. IV^


From the vast number of Latin words, wliich have either ia whola
or in /part become incorporated with the English language, much
benefit is derived from a knowledge of tlieir primitive impoi*t In
most cases, tliey give that turn to the English signification, which
accords with tlieir original meaning. Hence, the primary signification
of such Latin roots as are extensively involved in the comi^osition of
our language, must necessity furnish an important auxiliary in de*
ternliniug tlie true import of all such English words.

For instance, the verb facio, with its supine factum^ whose simple
primitive meaning is to (2o, to makey or to camey enters in some form
into the composition of more than 500 of our English words; and in
every case imparts more or less of its original signification. A know-
ledge, therefore, of the meaning of that verb and its supine, with the
ability to distinguish its combination in any word, must of necessity
aid the scholar in a more perfect comprehension of the true import of
all English words, of which it is a component part.

Tliis is a consideration, fully equivalent for learning the primitive
meaning of facio, factum. The same is true to a very great extent, in a
^ vast jnultitude of Latin primitives. •Much, therefore, would be gained
by committing Latin primitives as they occur.

Words of Greek origin, while they furnish a fruitful source of deri-
vation, are by no means as nymerous or important as those of Latin.

We will subjoin a few bf the most prominent words in Latin and
Greek, with something near the niunber of their several combinations
in the formation of English words, viz. :

Facio and factum enter into the composition of about 600 ; x>ono^
positum, 250; plico, 200; fero, latum, 198; specio, 177; mitto, mis-
Bum, 174; teneo, tentum, 168; capio, captum, 197; tendo, tensum,
tentum, 162; duco, ductum, 156; Ic^os, gr., 156; grapho, gr., 152.
These twelve words, in some shape, enter into the composition of
nearly 2500 English words.

From 154 Greek and Latin primitives which have been examined,
in reference to this pointy it is found that not Ceut from 18,000, English


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xrords receive more or less of their component parts, characterizing the
English signification to a greater or less extent

yo. V.


The brevity of this article precludes the possibility pf giving but
little more than the simple results to which learned men h^ve, by their
researches, been led.

Tli^ word LANGUAGE, is derived from Latin lingua^ and in its pioper
sense, means the expression of human thoughts, by means of articulate

The use of language was doubtless communicated to Adam, at tlie .
time of his creation. See Gen. ii. 19, 20.

Tlie language spoken by Adam, was the language of the antediluvian
world ; and Noah and his sons transmitted the same to the postdilu-
vians, by whom it was spoken till the confusion of tongues at BabeL
See Gen. xL 1.

Tlie radical stem of this primitive language, doubtless remained in
most, if not all the dialects, or ramifications, growing out of the con-
fusion of tongues.

In the family of Shem, it is believed the primitive language was re-
tained nearly the same, as before the flood. From Eber, the third in
descent from Shem, originated the- word Hchrew^iht name given to the
descendants of Abraham, and applied to tlieir language.

Abraham migrated from Chaldea, and consequently spoke the lan-
guage of that country, wliich, in his line of descendants, was called
Hebrew, being tlie same as the ancient Chaldaic. In this language,
Moses wrote the Pentateuch, believed to be the first written production
in the world.

From one colony of Noah's descendants, ^rang the ancient Arme-
nian, Persian, and Sanscrit, the latter of which is the parent of oirep
thirty of the peninsular languages of India. From another colony,
originated the Egyptian, the Coptic, and Ethiopian, with their several

Tbe andent* Ungnages of ^hosnicia, Pales^e, SyTia» Mesopotamia




«id8 AP98N9IX.

andArabif^area€tlmttedtob«He]b^u<^orofth6C3laId^ Tb»

ancient Persian and Scythian^ are from the same stock. The Phondflianfl
carried their langxiage tlirough Asia Minor, and it became the original
stock of the Pek^c, the parent of the Greek. From the JEolic-Greek,
with a mixture of tlie Etmscan and Sabine dialects, originated the
Latin. The Gothio and Celtic languages, were brought by colonies
^m the regions of the CaspiAn and Enxine seas,' and are in some
aflBnity with the Phoenician stock*

Tliree successive streams of Eastern emigration poured into Europe,
at an early period. Ist The Kimmerians, or Kelts. 2d. The Scythian,
or Gothic tribes. 3d- The Sarmatian, or Sclavonic race.

The Saxons were Germanic, or Teutonic tribes ;^ or, more ancientlj,
Gothic, or Scythian.

•From the Kimmerian, or Keltic source, originated the "Welsh» Gaelic
Irish, Cornish, and Gaulish languages.

From the great Gothic, or Scythian stock, and its ramiBcations of
tribes^ originated the Saxon, Anglo-Saxon, Meso-Gothic, German, Swiaa^
Putch, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Lowland Scotch, and English

From the Sarmatian, or Sclavonic stock, ^e Poles and BuasiiiiiB seem
to have derived tiieir origin and languages.

TKe Infant state of the Saxons scarcely attracted the notice of the
.^m^ns. Their territorial limits were confined to Cimbric Chersonesus^
japd thre^ small islands. In 449 after Christy the Saxons entered
^itaii^ and' eventually became masters of the island. From tlie name
of one of the $axon tribes, called Angles, originated the name of the
nation (J^ngli8k\ and the name of the language we, as Americans,
epeak. 'Its i^me^iate parent is Saxon.

Tihe English language is probably destined to be more njuversanf
spoken, than any other lapguage of the wiurld*




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Online LibrarySalem TownAn analysis of derivative words in the English language, or A key to their ... → online text (page 11 of 11)