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An analysis of derivative words in the English language, or A key to their ... online

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Mellownew, the quality of being soft ; softness,

Bitternew, the quality which excites a biting sense.

Redne^*, the quality of being red ; blood color.

Brightne^^, the quality of being bright.

Goodiness, the quality of being good.

Soundne^j, the state of being sound.

¥Qminess, the state of being faint.

Lamene^^, the state of being lame.

Remote nc55, the state of being remote ; far off.

* Roundy is having* the form of a circle; and roundtwsji, is the
chstract quality of such a figure, without reference to any tiling to"
which it applies^ whether a wheel, a globe, an apple, or whatever maj
nave that form.



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ENGLISH LANGUAOE. 49

•RT— implies containing ; tending to ; <i place ; power of*

Mandatory, containing .^. command.

Explanatory, containing an e:^pIanation. •

Promissory, containing a promise.

Admonitory, containirig an admonition. *

Inflammatory, tending to inflammation.

Consolatory, tending to give comfort.

Derogatory, tending to lessen in reputation.

Observatory, ^ a place for observation.

Laboratory, a place for chemical experim'ents.

Depository, a place where deposits are made.

Dilatory, tending to delay ; tardy ; slow.
* Compulsory, having power to compel.
ous — implies containing ; partaking of; consisting of ; full
of^ or relating to.

SlanderoM^, containing slander ; reproachful.

Humorow^, containing himior ; exciting laughter.

VillanoM^, partaking of villany ;• very vile,

ResinoM^, partaking of resin ; like resin.

InvidioM^, partaking of envy; provoking envy.

Amphibiow^, partaking of two natures.

Ponderwt^^, partaking of weight ; very heavy.

Murderow^, consisting in milirder ; cruel.

Numerowj, consisting of numbers ; many.

jyiWouSy consisting of bile ; partaking of bile.

Miscellaneoz/^, consisting of various topics.

Clauiorow^, full of noise ; vuciforous ; noisy.

* Words ending in ori/, as a snJU, may be very well definod by join-
ing iw«7, to that /onn of\lie word which remains after dropping ori/t
"with those changes of letters required by tiiat termination; thus, Pro-
hibitory, prohibiting; Declaratory, declariw^; Explanatory, explaiii-
wff; F^niiBsory, promistn^, <Sco.

5



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60 ANALYSIS OF THB

MiscldeYouSy yuU £f mischief ; inclined to injture^

Tumultuow^, fuUoftumvlt; disorderly.

P<lpulou^, full o/* people ; abounding with people.
oiD — implies resembling.

Varioloid?, a dtsease resembling small-pox.

Asteroid, a small planet resembling a star.

S'penoid, resembling a wedge, as to fofm.

Typhoid, a fever resembling typhus fever. »

SOME — implies possessing a degree of; quality of, or causing

Handsome^ possessing a degree of beauty.

Gladsome, causing a degree ofiqy ; joyful.

Troublesome, causing trouble, or disturbance ; annopng.

Burdensome, causing uneasiness, or fatigue.

Wholesome, possessing a healthful quality.

Wearisome, causing weariness, or fatigue.
ED— is a verbal and participial termination, impljring past

time of action. It expresses its own meaning; yet, it

may sometimes be made more explicit by adding to<zs, or

did, to the past tense of the verb ; as, I walkei ; mean-

in^I did walk.
INO— is a participial termmation, implying a time of progres'

sive action ; and may be rendered with direct reference

to that time, continuing to.
ING — ^is also frequently used to express some article^ or

thing; as, ~

Clothiw^, Shipping, Sheeting, Vesting, Carpeting.

AST, ^R, ESS, EE, EER, IAN", 1ST, ITE, IX, OR, RRSS, SAN, ZEN

imply a person, or thing, when used as suffixes, er, how-
ever, has many exceptions, as occurring in the compar-
ison of adjectives. Some of the others, also, have a few
exceptions, ess and iZ| always denote tlie feminiiie
gender.



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ENGLISH LANOUAOK Ql

Bak^, one whose occupation is to bake.
Enthusia*^, a person of ardent zeal in some cause.
Auctioneer, the person who sells at auction.
Historian, a writer, or compiler of history.
Poete^^,^ Trustee, Moral w^. Paras j7«, Executna:, Instructiw
Seamstre^^, Artisan, Denizew, all imply persons,
A.R, ARD, ADO, STER, ATE, oso — in somo few cases, imply, a
person ; as, in '

Beggflf, Drunkard, BravacZ(?, Team^/er, Candidate, Virtu-
osi?, Coward, Wizard, &c.
CLE, «T, KIN, LING, LET, ULE — In mauycasos, imply little,
or young ; as, in
Versic/e, a little verse ; Turre/, a little tower ; LambAin, a
little lamb ; DuckZtno^, a little duck ; FilZe^,- a littU
, band ; GlobwZe, a little globe, &c.
ERY — as a suffix, frequently implies an art, or practice ; as, in

Cookery, Quackery, Witchery, Surgery, Gunnery, &c.
ERY — sometimes implies a place where something is made,
• or done ; as, in

Brewery, Fishery, Tannery, Grocery, Nursery, &c.
Y — as a suffix, to monosyllables, implies some, or abundance
if; as, in '

Rainy, some rain, or abundance ofxKin.
Grassy, Hilly, Sandy, Shady, Frosty, Marshy, ^Dewy,
Fleshy, Slimy, Faulty, Spicy, Curly, Shaggy, &c.

KoTK. — ^lii must be remenbered that the foregoing definitions to the
Buffixes, can not be expected precisely to meet every case in the lan-
guage'; but, from careful exaniriation of some thousands of words, it
is believed they will answer aR tJie common purposes of defining; and,
generally, enable the pupil c/tfa/?y to perceive the several modifications
of import^ produced by their conbinationB with the primitiTe wcffd.



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53



ANALYSIS OF THS

SECTION VIII.



ance ancy ion
ence ency ment
ant ent.



.}



SYNOPSIS OF THE SUFFIXES.

aUe ible. That may be ; can be ; capable of being.

abUi^ ibility. | The, property, or quality capable of be-

ableness ibleness. f ing ; the state, or susceptibility of being.

The act of; the state ; the state of be-
ing, or the thing.

The person who, or thing which,

{Pertaining to ; belonging to ; relating to ;
consisting of.
Jurisdiction ; possession.
Made of ; consisting of, or to make, <fec.
Full of ; abounding with.
State ; office ; quality. *



ac ic al ary.

dom ric.
en.

fill ose.
hood ship.



ize fy fit fie ferous. To make, or become.




The state of being ; quality ; power.
Like ; similar to ; somewhat.
Tending to ; relating to ; power of.
The science ; art of; doctfine ; state, &c.
Pertaining to ; easily.
Without; destitute of. ,
The abstract quality, or state
Containing ; tending to ; place.
Containing ; par^king of ; full of.
Possessing a d^ee of; causing.

Commonly iraply the person, or thing.

Sometimea/denote a person. '
Little, or/oung.



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ENGLISH LANOUAOB. 53

/

SECTION IX. '

RULES FOR FORMING DERIVATIVE WORDS.

Rule 1. Final c, must be dropped before the addition
of a syllable, or suffix beginning with a vowel ; as,
blame .' guide recite globe

hlamable guidance recitaZ globwZar

Exception. Words ending in ge, or ce, commonly retain
e final, before able and ous ; as,

peace charge change notice

peaceflfftZtf chargeai/e changeaiZe notice^hle.
Rule 2. Final e, is retained before Zy, less, ness, ful,
and some ; and generally before ment ; as,

wise ^ hope base peace

wiseZy hope/wZ hdAeness peaceZc^*

state . blithe noise grace

statewen/ blithesome noiseless gracey^Z
Exception. Awe, argue, due, true, lodge, judge, abridge^
whole, and acknowledge, do not retain e ; as,

awe due argue awe

aw/wZ duZy arguiwen^ ^wless

Rule '3. When the letter y, terminates a primitive
word, or occurs as the final letter in any of the derivative
forms, and in either case another letter or suffix is added, y
is compionly changed into {, except before ing ; as,
comely ^ fury merry

comeliness furious mevriment

mercy jolly holy

mevciful pllity holiness

Exception 1 . F, is sbmetimes changed into e ; as,
duty beauty pity. plenty

duteous beaut^^ti^ *^ pit^oti^ plenteous



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^ ANALYSIS OF THE

Exception 2. When y, is preceded by a vowel in the
same syllable, except in lay, say, and pay, it remains un-
changed; as,

boy ■ betray annoy

hoyish betrays J . annoyance

play delay convey

playing delaymo- conveya^/e

Rule 4. Y, is never changed when followed by ing; as,
fly try deny comply

flying trying denying - complying

Ru&£ 5. Verbs ending in ie, change those letters into y,
before ing; as,

die tie vie . belie ^

dym^ tying '^y^^g belym^

Rule 6. Monosyllables, and words accented on the last
syllable, ending with a single consonant, preceded by a short
vowel, double that consonant before an additional syllable,
beginning with a vowel ; as,

gmi pet rob snap

^nner i^etted robber snojipish

Rule 7. Monosyllables ending with a single consonant
preceded by a digraph, or diphthong, do not double the
consonant in their derivatives ; as,

chief clear aid ail

chief?y clearly siding ^ saimerit

Exeeption, If, in forming the derivatives, one letter of
the digraph is dropped, the consonant is sometimes doubled;
as, appeal, appeUan^ ; fail, fal/iiZe.

IfoTE. ,The verbs befall^ install, miscall, recall, forestall, inthratt^
foretell, distill, instill, fulfill, retain both consonants. Such words ^
end m dd, ff, it, also retain both in their derivatLves ; aa^ odd, odd-
imm; Btif^ staff^y; bliss^ blifls/uZ; tuss^ hisstii^



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ENGLISH LANGTTAOE. A5

I

RiTLE 8, When t, or s^ precedes e final, in such words
as admit ion, e is dropped and ion added ; as,

legate promote dilate diffuse

legation promotion dilation diffusion

Rule 9. Many words in ale, drop te, and either take hie,
or cy ; as,

estimate agitate accurate delicate

estima6/e agitaiZe accuracy delicacy
Rule 10. Y, before the suffixes^ ous, al, and able, is
changed to i, and commonly retained ; as,

rely deny injury

reliable denial injurioi/^

Note. — The exceptions are few, and rarely increase the number of
Byllables in the word; a^ Mutiny, mutinous.

Rule 11. Most words ending infy, change y, into i, and
take cation ; as,

deify fortify notify

deification ibrtifica/ton notifica/ion

Exception » A few words ending in fy, drop y, and take
action ; as,

stupefy • tumefy petrify

stupeftfc/ton tumefaction petrifac^ton

lluLE 12. Many words ending ize, drop e, and take
ation; as,

legalize civilize generalize

legalization civilizo/ion generalization

KoTE. — Stome few words also, not ending in ize, take cUion; oa,
sense form inflame

sensation formation inflammation



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56 ANALYSIS OF THB

SECTION X.

AN EXERCISE IN FORMING DERIVATIVES BY SUFFIXES.

Tlie following exercises are specimens ©rthe manner in which deriv*
ative words are formed hj suffixes ; and, thej also exemplify the pre-
ceding rules. The hyphen ( - ) shows that each suffix, consecutively,
one by one, is to be united with its primitive, or the word thus used,
thereby forming the several derivatives ; as, '

1. Help-ed-er-ing-fwl-less. 2. Mix-ed-er-ing-ture-able.
When thus combined, form the words^

1. Helped, Helper, Helping, Helpful, Helpless.

2. Mixed, Mixer, Mixing, . Mixture, Mixable.

Note. — ^Tlie termination ed^ in the past tense and participles of
verbs, retains the vowel e, in this work, for the sake of sliowing the
orthogi*aphy ; but, in customary pronunciation, this vowel is omitted,
except after d, and < ; as, in Mixed, Wished, Loved, pronounced, Mtxt^
Wisht, Lovd.

1. Exercise in forming derivatives by suffixes.

Tax-ed-er-ing. Talk-ed-er-ing.

Wish-ed-er-ing. Nail-ed-er-ing.

2. Exercise. See Rules 1st and 2d wich their exceptions.

Bake-ed-er-ing. Skate-ed-er-ing. >

Trade-ed-er-ing. Taste-ed-er-ing.

3. Exercise. See Rule 1st.

Admire-able-ability. DifTuse-ible-ibility.

Improve-able-ability. Infuse-ibit -ibility.

4. Exercise. See exception 2d under Rule 3 J.

Obey-ed-ing. . Annoy-ed-ing.

Delay-ed-ing. Destroy-ed-ing.
6. Exercise. See Rule 3d.

Glory-ous-ously. Mel«dy-ous-ousIy.

Envy-ous-ously. Penury-ous-ously.



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ENGLISH LANOUAOE.



«



6. Exercise. See 1st exception under Rule 3d.



8.



Duty-ous-ously.

Pity-ous-ously. "
Exercise. See Rule 4tli.

Fry-ing.

Cry-ing.
Exercise. See Rule 6tli.

Skim-mer-med.

Whip-per-ped-ping.
9. Exercise. See Rule 7th.

Chain-ed-ing.

Rain-ed-ing.
Exercise. See Rule 8th.

Educate-ion.

Obligate-ion.
Exercise. See Rule 9th.

Separate-ble-bility.

Imitate-ble-bility. ,
12. Exercise. See Rule 10th.

Comply-able.

Apply-able.



10



11



Beauty-ous-ously.
Plenty-ious-ously.

Mortify-ing-ingly.
Satisfy-ing-ingly.

Refer-red-ring.
Concur-rent-fence.

Load-ed-ing.
Sail-ed-ing.

Suffuse-ion.
Confuse-ion.

Confederate-cy.
Intiuiate-cy.

Patrimony-al.
Harmony-ous.



13. Exercise. See Rule 11th and its exception.
Purify-cation. Satisfy-action.

Edify-cation. Rarefy-action.

£xercise. See Rule 12th.
Moralize-ation. Crystalize-ation.

Christianize-ation. Realize-ation.

Exercise. See note under Rule 12th.
Recite-ation. Found-ati6n.

Accuse-ation. Condemn-ation.



14.



15.



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56 AMALYSrS OF THB



SECTION XL

« CLASSIFICATION OF SUFFIXES.

A few exercises, under each of the following examples, in carrying
out the subjoined words, will aid scholars in the general formation of
derivatives.

The suffixes of our language are, to a great extent, grouped together
in classes of similar formations. All words, however, do not embrace
the whole family, as given below ; but such as are taken, are members
of it

The suffix ful^ takes some, or all of those which follow it^vas shown
by No.- 1 ; and the san\e is true of the other classes.

1. ful-fuliy-fulness-less-lessly-lessness.

2. ish-ishly-ishness. 11. ize-ized-ization.

3. ic-ical-ically. 12. ate-ated-ating-ation.

4. able-ably-ableness. 13. ed-edly-edness.

5. ible-ibleness-ibility. 14. fy-fied-fying-jication.

6. ous-ously-ousness. 15. ion-al-ality.

7. ive-ively-iveness. 16. ory-orily.

8. ence-ent-ently. 17. some-somely.

9. ed-er-ing. . 18. ist-ism.

10. ment-al-ary. 19. en-ened-ening.

EXAMPLES.

1. Hope-ful-fully-fuliiess-less-lessly-lessness. •»

Faith, Health, Art, Care, &c., are formed like Hope

-2. Child-ish-ishly-ishness.

Fool, Slave, Clown, &c., are formed like Child,

3. Method-ic-ical-ically.

Poet, Angel, Alphabet, &c., the same as Method,

4. Change-able-ably-ableness-ability. ,

Accept, Commute, Blame, &c., same as Change



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ENGLISH LANOUAOE. 59

5. Resist-ible-ibly-ibility.

Compress, Defense, Contract, &c., same as Resist.

6. Danger-ous-ously-ousness.

Glory, Slander, Ruin, &c.,same as Danger,

7. Attract-ive-ively^-iveness.

Diffuse, Oppress, Coerce, &c., same as Attract,

8. Depend-ence-ent-ently.

Indulge, Confide, Differ, &c., same as Depend.

9. Muffle-ed-er-ing.

Ramble, Swindle, Grumble, &c., same as Mvffie.

10. Aliment-al-ary. ^

Element, Supplement, &c., same as Aliment,

11. Real-ize-ized-izing-ization.

Civil, Human, Mpral, &c., same as Real,

12. Obligate-ed-ing-ion.

Indicate, Accelerate, <fec., same as Obligate,

13. Confuse-ed-edly.

Conceit, Content, Refine, &c., same as Confuse,

14. Clarify-ed-ing-cation.

Gratify, Modify, Sanctify, &c., same as Clarify^

15. Nation-al-ality.

Constitution, Form, &c., same as Nation,

16. Contradict-ory-orily.

Interrogate, Derogate, <fec., same as Contradict,

17. Trouble-some-somely-someness.

Delight, Loathe, Toil, <fec., same Vi^ Trouble.

18. Method-ist-ism.

Federal, Formal, Roman, &c., same as Method,

19. Sharp-en-ened-ening.

Sweet, Soft, Hard, Quick, &c., same as Sharp,



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fO ANALTSIS OF THE

SECTION XII.

SPECIA.L RULES FOR FORMING DERIVATIVES BY PREFIXES.

Many words, so far as respects the English, language, are
primitives ; yet in that language from which they are de-
rived, they are either compound, or derivative words. Such,
especially, are words of Greek and Latin origin. For ex-
ample. Abscond, so far as our language alone is concerned, is
a primitive word, because we have no such English word as
scond. But in the Latin, from which it is derived, the word
is a compound, from the prepositions ahs and con, and the
verb do. Also, Advert, in English, is primitive, but in Latin,
frqm which it is derived, it is compounded of ad, meaning to,
and verto, to turn. Hence, Advert signifies to turn to.
Now, supposing the word and its prefixes to stand thus,
re-a-Ad,vert, or thus, re-a. Ad, vert, we first take away ai,
and substitute a, which is another Latin preposition, and it
becomes -4., vert, and literally means to turn away. Again, we
drop a, and substitute re in its place, and it becomes jRc,vert,
signifying to turn hack. Hence, it must not be forgotten by
the student, that, in all cases, when one prefix is to be drop-
ped, and another substituted in its place, this class of primi-
tive words will be printed. thus, Con,vert, Ac,cord, Ex,clude,
De,flect ; and that the part of the word which precedes the
comma, must be dropped, when another prefix is to be used.

, EXAMPLE.

at-dis-de-re-pro. Con, tract, to draw together

Explanation. — First drop con, and substitute pro, and it
becomes Protract, to draw out. Again, drop pro, and substi-
tute re, and it forms RftiRct, to draw back. In the samii



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ENGLISH LANGUAGE. :^1

manner, de fonns D^ftract, to draw away from ; dis fonns JMs*
tract, to draw apart, or to separate ; and at forms il/tract, to
draw to, or to unite. ^

When no part of the primitive word is separated by a
comma, the combination is simply ^ drop one prefix, and.
join another.



" SECTION XIII.

MANNER OF DEFINING BY PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES.
V
We will now endeavor to explain, in a familiar way, die
manner of defining words by their prefixes and suffixes:
And it is simply to give the signification of the primitive
word, in connection with the separate import of such pre-
fixes and sufl[ixes, as constitute the whole word. For an
example, we will take fiame^ which is a primitive, and means
iire. Now, if we prefix in^ii makes /wflame, and increases
the import of the primitive word, and literally means to put
fire m, or to set on fire. Again, if we take /nflarnmai/e —
ahlsy means capable of, or capable of being ; hence, we join
capable of being, to the meaning of in, and flame, and the
whojp word means capable of being set on fire. Now take
InfL&mmability — ability, means the quality capable of being.
This expression being joined, in like manner, to what In-
flame means, will make the literal signification of Jnflamma-
bility to be, the quality capable of being set on fire. Next,
if we add the second prefix, and form ZJntnflamma^/*, we
must add the meaning of un to what InfLBmmable means, and •
the whole expression will be, Unin^ammable, not capable of
being set on fire. Again, take Unin^ammableness — ablenefs,
means the property capable of being. Now give the whole
^ * 6



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fi3 ANALYSIS OF TH«

impoH, and UninfLammableness literally signifies, the jMvp-
eriy not capable of being set on fire.

If we take Delude, signifying to deceive, we can form

Deludcr, the person wJio deceives.

jyelvLsion, the act 'of deceiving.

Dehisive, tending to deceive.

Redeem signifies to ransom ; ir means not ; and abU, capa*
hie of being. Hence, Irredeemable means, not capable of
being ransomed.

Join is a primitive word, and signifies to unite. Let it
stand thus with its prefixes and sufiixes :
inter-mis-sub-dis-un-re-coh-ad-Join. ion-ed-ing.

Explanation. — j^d, means to ; con, with, or together with ;
re, again ; un, not ; dis, parting ; mis, wrong ; sub, under ;
inter, between ; ion, the act of ; ed, was ; ing, continuing to.
Hence, Adjoin, is joining to ; Co7?junct2on, the act of join-
ing with ; Recon]\xncXion, the act of joining with again ; Tin*
con]omed, not joined with, or together ; Reioined, was joined
again ; Un]0\Tied, was not joined ; Dispin, parting what was
joined ; Subjoin, to join under ; Mis]om, to join wrong ;
Interjoining, continuing to join between.

Hope implies expectation ; Hopeful, full of expectation ;
and Ho^^eless, without hope, or expectation. *

The primitive word must in all cases be learned ; then if
you pronounce its primitive signification in connection with
what all its component parts mean, you have the precise
analytic import of the entire word. A little careful study
will render this exercise perfectly familiar, and give the
student an entire and ready command of language, and an
instantaneous mental perception of the true import of words,
written or spoken.



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ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 63

SECTION XIV.

THE DIFFERENT IMPORT OF CERTAIN. PREFIXES.

Most of the prefixes are uniform in their distinctive im-
port, while a few are used in two or more senses,^widely
different; as, tm, in, il, ir, &c.

These prefixes, more generally, when united to verbs,
increase or strengthen the original meaning 6f the primitive
words ; as, in /mpress. Infold, J/luminate, Irradiate. In
each case, additional ijprce is given to the primitives, press,
fold, luminatei, and radiate, by prefixing im, in, il, and ir. But
when the same prefixes are united to adjectives, and occa-
sionally to some other parts of speech, they entirely reverse
QX change the primitive signi^cation ; as, in /^possible. In-
sensible, //legible, /rrational. These words now mean the
same as not possible, not sensible, not legible, not rational.

As this work is specially designed to aid English scholars
who have no knowle/dge of the classics, and consequently
could not trace out very remote derivations, it was thought
advisable, for their benefit, to accommodate the arrangement
in this respect, to their understandings, by giving those words
whose signification is greatly expanded, under different
heads, or by repeating the root, in connection with such pre-
fixes, as in each case would best correspond with the several
primitive meanings.

For example : ^wnounce, signifies to publish, or declare
to ; and, in its natural connection, is Pronounce. But Re^
nounce, means to disown, or reject ; and, in accordance with
this, is Denounce ; yet all these words have the same root.
Also, /nstmct, to teach ; Construe, to translate ; Structwr^, a
building ; Obstruct, to block up ; and Destroy, to pull down.



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1}4 ANALYSIS OF THE

are from ' the same root, Struo, to build. All these words
have corresponding prefixes, and when relatively arranged,
the whole becomes perfectly • intelligible to the English
scholar.

The scholar must also remember that some of the prefixes,
,and especially un, rarely combine with the primitive* word
till it has assumed some of its derivative forms by the addi-
tion of a suffix ; as, Faith can not with propriety become C/n-
faith, but Z7nfaith/i//.

A little observation will afford the best guide on this point.
Re and un are prefixed to adjectives and participles almost
at pleasure ; and, are not always inserted in this work -where
they might be used with propriety.

It is now thought the prefixes have been explained so
clearly, that no scholar, who, wishes to understand and apply
them correctly, need make a mistake, although he may not
be under the care of any teacher. * ^

Scholar^ will derive much benefit in defining words, by
understanding the parts of speech. These may generally
be known by the termination, or suffix ; thus,

Verbs are indicated by — fy, ize.

Verbs, participles, or adjectives, by — ate, ed, en.

Participles, adjectives, or nouns, by — ing.

Noims, or adjectives, by— ant, ent, ory, er.

Nouns by — ableness, ibleness, ability, ibility, anee, ancy,
. ence, ency, ion, ity, ism, age, dom, hood, ric, ship, cy,^ ist,
ics, ment, ure, ness.

Adjectives by — able,, ible, ao, al, ful, ic, ive, ish, ile, less
lar, ous, fie.

Adverbs by— ably, ibly, antly, ently, ately, ally, fully,
ively, ingly, edly, ishly, l^ssly, ously, somely, urely, oriljr.



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SNOLI8H LANOUAaB.



65



I^ECTION XV.

AN EXERCISE IN FORMIHB DERIVATIVES BY PREFIXES.

Let the pupil read the follomng words with their several definitioiua^
then join the several prefixes, and give their impprt, as thus modified.

When no separation of any part of the word to be defined, is made
by a comma, each prefix, one by one, is to be joined to the entire
word ; and, when sucli word has b^en defined by one prefix, that pre-
fix must be dropped, and another taken ; thus,


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