Samuel Abraham Walker.

The Church of England mission in Sierra Leone: including an introductory ... online

. (page 1 of 73)
Online LibrarySamuel Abraham WalkerThe Church of England mission in Sierra Leone: including an introductory ... → online text (page 1 of 73)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project
to make the world's books discoverable online.

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover.

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the
publisher to a library and finally to you.

Usage guidelines

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for
personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it.

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About Google Book Search

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web

at http : //books . google . com/|



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



CHURCH MISSION
IN SIERRA LEONE.



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



ANDOVCR-HARVARD THCOLOQICAL LIBRARY

M o c e ccx

CAMBRIDQC, MASSACHUSETTS




Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



CHURCH MISSION
IN SIERRA LEONE.



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



""^=5^^




Digitized by



Google



THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND MISSION



IN



SIEEEA LEONE



INCLUDING AN INTRODUCTORY ACCOUNT OF THAT COLOm',

AND A COMPREHENSIVE SKETCH

OF THE NIGER EXPEDITION IN THE YEAR 1841.



BY THE REV. SAMUEL ABRAHAM WALKER, A.M.,

RECTOR OF GALLO, MVATH.
AUTHOR OP " CHURCH MISSIONS IN WBSTBaN AFRICA."



'H a\-fi$ua i\fvB€p6<r€i — ^John viii. 32.



SEELEY, BURNSIDE, AND SEELEY,

FLEET STREET, LONDON.

MDCCCXLVII.



Digitized by



Google



r/7. ^jT

OHe(^tCf4 OF



L. SRRLRV,

THAMKH DITTON.



Digitized by



Google



PREFACE.



Emboldened by the approbation which my former volume, — "Church
Missions in Western Africa," has elicited from many of my brethren
in the ministry, whose praise is in all the churches ; as well as from no
small portion of the periodical literature of the country, I venture to
send forth this my second attempt to record in a condensed form the
labors of the Church Missionaiy Society ; with such collateral matter
of a historical and geographical character, as seemed to me necessary
to enhance the interest and usefulness of the work.

The name of Sierra Leone, the subject of the present compilation,
is familiar to us as a " household word : " it has often mingled itself
with our fears — ^rarely with our hopes. In civil, military, judicial,
and medical circles, the ill-omened appellation has always been heard
with trembling interest, by aspirants after Government appointments,
and with the gloomiest forebodings of bereavement, by the relatives
and friends of West African adventurers. Probably in no department
of society, except among the comparatively insignificant class of
Christian mission advocates and supporters, has ought but ill been
augured of the " white man's grave," as this Colony has lugubri-
ously been denominated ; and in the records of political complaint and
vituperation, the maintenance of this deadly appendage to the British
crown, bears a conspicuous part. Does it not seem strange, that
with scarcely a voice, public or private, to deprecate its abandonment —



Digitized by



Google



VI PREFACE.

and involying as its maintenance does, an immense annual drain on the
British exchequer : not to speak of the fearful consumption of life
and health ; Sierra Leone still continues in proud affiliation with Great
Britain, commanding the earnest attention of her successive Cahinets,
and obtaining almost unlimited supplies of blood and treasure on
demand ?

" Thus saith the Lord, " Destroy it not, for a blessing is in it." I
for one, cannot doubt that this is the simple explication of the matter :
and I entertain no little confidence, that not a few readers of the
following pages will take the same view of so obvious a case of pro*
vidential interposition. It perhaps has not escaped some, who are
acquainted with the history of Uiis distinguished Colony, that a
striking parallelism exists between the christian Church planted here,
now sending forth its ofiPshoots into neighbouring districts, and the
Church of Israel in the Holy Land, from whence in due time went
forth living waters to refresh and heal the nations. May not the
language of the Psalmist, with some restriction, be applied to the one
as well as to the other ; " Thou hast brought a vine out of Egypt ;
thou hast cast out the heathen, and planted it. Thou preparest room
before it, and didst cause it to take deep root, and it filled the land.
The hills were covered with the shadow of it, and the boughs thereof
were like the goodly cedars. She sent out her boughs unto the sea,
and her branches unto the river." * Both vines originally drooped in
the foul atmosphere of slavery, and both were providentially restored
to the land of their fathers, where a home was prepared for them
amidst the darkness of heathenism, in which civilization, freedom, and
spiritual life soon shone conspicuously, and the object 9f this in both
cases evidently was, that in the fulness of time, messengers of peace
and salvation, fitted for their ofiice — in the one case miraculously, and
in the other scarcely less so, that the people to whom they came,
might hear in their own tongue wherein they were bom, the wonderful
works of God — might go forth to proclaim among the heathen the
unsearchable riches of Christ. If the Pentecostal effusion could boast
of its ^' signs from heaven," as indicative of the superhuman source
from whence it flowed; surely the fact, that the representatives of
thirty or forty different African tribes, speaking as many different
languages or dialects, have been assembled independently of all human

* Ps. Ixxx. S-ll.



Digitized by



Google



PREFACE. VU

foresight, in one spot, on which the rays of dirine truth have now
shone for years, in spite of the most formidable disasters and dis-
oouragements, is no less demonstrative of omniscient intervention and
coD^vance.

Human agency in the attempt to regenerate Africa, has hitherto
^Euled. We have now arrived at a juncture when it will be seen whe-
ther He who chooses the ** base things of the world, and things which
are despised," to effect His mighty enterprises, shall not make the
much-abused Colony of Sierra Leone, '* a praise in the earth."

Although the " Niger Expedition,"— a sketch of which I have
included in this volume, does not stand in strict relationship to the
Church Missionary Society's work, yet it cannot be called altogether
independent of it, since the society was collaterally instrumental to
its efficiency, by supplying interpreters to the Expedition, of such a
character as commanded the respect of the native chiefs, who were
visited on the voyage up the river ; and enhancing in no small degree
their admiration of British intelligence and generosity. Moreover, as
the information obtained by the Expedition, regardmg the countries
in the proximity of the Niger, from whence great numbers of the
liberated Africans in the Colony were originally sold into slavery, has
inspired a general desire on their part to return home, and thus ac-
complish the manifest purpose of God in collecting them at the Colony ;
there seemed to me a propriety in taking some notice of the occur-
rence, in wEich such a movement has originated. Besides, the Niger
Expedition appears to me to remove any doubt, if it ever existed, of
the future welfare of Africa ; being under Grod, entirely dependent on
a well-trained native agency : the point to be kept prominently before
us, in every consideration of the value of the Sierra Leone Mission.

To the bulk of the present volume, as well a^ of that which has
preceded it, some may reasonably object, but I beg to assure them
that keeping in view my original object, viz : providing an adequate
representation of missionary experience, for satisfactory reference in
time to come, and for profitable perusal at all times, my great difficulty
has been, in the abundance of valuable matter with which the jour-
nals of the missionaries have supplied me, to confine my work to the
present limits ; but at the same time, I can truly say, that while forced
to a certain selection of matter, my conscientious aim has been that
the character of what was necessarily excluded, should in all its
features be most scrupulously represented by that which appeared ; —



Digitized by



Google



YIU PBBFACE.

and in the absence of all bias of any kind, I trost I have not strayed
from this intent.

I commend my Tolume and its readers to the great first Mbsionary,
Jesus Christy to whom, with the Father and the Holy Spirit, be as-
cribed all the gloiy of every achievement in the field of spiritoal
warfare, at home and abroad. Amen.

Sahuel a. Walker.

Summerhill, Meath, October 1, 1846.



Digitized by



Google



CONTENTS.



INTRODUCTION.

SIEBRA LEONE.



CHAPTER I.

INTBODUCTOKT. J><V« 1



CHAPTER n.

regent's town and GLOUCESTER. page 38



CHAPTER III.

regent's TOWN : MB. Johnson's journal: charlotte town, page 65



Digitized by



Google



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER IV,

REORNT*S TOWN : MR. JOHNSON* 8 JOURNAL : GLOUCESTRR : HR. DURING.
—-CHARLOTTE : MR. TAYLOR DEATH OF MR. RRNNER. poge 102



CHAPTER V.

POPULATION OF FREETOWN^-CHURCH CONGREGATION METHODISTS —

DOMINGO JORDAN HECTOR PETERS THE LORd's DAY BAMBAREA

TOWN COMPOSITION OF JURIES ^AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY ^DEATH

OF MRS. L18K MR. DURING* S RETURN HOME NYLANDER ^DAVID

NOAH FEARFUL CATASTROPHE INCREASE OF POPULATION AT REGENT

NATIVE INDUSTRY SAMPLES OF MISSIONARY SUCCESS. p<ige 146



CHAPTER VI.

ARRIVAL OF MORE LABORERS RETURN OF MR. DURING DEATH OF

MR. J0HN30N-^F MR. FLOOD— OF MR. FALMER^-OF MRS. TAUOHAN
OF MR. AND MRS. DURING page 185



CHAPTER Vn.

DEATH OF SIR CHARLES MACCARTHY HIS CHARACTER—CHURCH BUILD-
INGS ^ARRIYAL OF FRESH MISSIONARIES DEATH OF MR. BROOKS,

MR. NYLANDER, &C page 231



CHAPTER VIII.

NEW ARRIVALS ^MORE DEATHS— GREAT DISCOURAGEMENTS ^DEPAR-
TURES NEW GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS. . . page 260



Digitized by



Google



CONTENTS. Xi

CHAPTER IX.

OPENING OF ST. GEOKOB's CHUECH DISCOURAGEMENTS FBESH LOSSES

— ^soME iifPROVEMENT page 296



CHAPTER X.

ARRIVALS AND FURTHER LOSSES REVIVALS DEATHS FEEBLE STATE

OP THE MISSION YET SOME FAVOURABLE PROSPECTS. . page 337



CHAPTER XI.

ARRIVAL OP FRESH LABORERS DEATH OP MRS. SCHON ^AND OF MRS.

GRAF ANXIETY OF THE NATIVES FOR INSTRUCTION. . page 383



CHAPTER XII.

INCREASE OF THE POPULATION NEW CHURCHES NATIVE TEACHERS

SCHOOLS ^ARRIVALS DEATHS DEATHBEDS OF NATIVES. page 406



CHAPTER XIII.

ARRIVAL OF MORE LABORERS, 1840 1841 STATE OF THE CHRIS-
TIAN INSTITUTION HAPPY RESULTS SEVERAL DEATHS ^THB TIM-
MAN EE MISSION page 444



CHAPTER XIV.

THE NIGER EXPEDITION P<i9^ ^^^



Digitized by



Google



XII CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XV.

CHURCH mSSIONART ASSOCIATION AT SIERRA LEONE MISSION OF

INQUIRY TO BADAORT THE CHRISTIAN INSTITUTION CHURCH BUILD-
ING EMIGRANTS AT JAMAICA ^VILLAGES— CHURCH RELIEF COMPANY

CHARLOTTE BELL DEATH OF MR. AND MRS. THOMPSON, page 500



CHAPTER XVI.

RET. S. CROWTHER THE YOBUBAS THE HAUSSA PEOPLE SCHOOLS—

ABBEOKOUTA DEATH OF MRS. OOLLMEE SIR F. BUXTON BAPTISMS

SCHOOLS FOURAH BAY INSTITUTION POSTSCRIPT. . JM^e 541



Digitized by



Google



INTRODUCTION.



SIERRA LEONE.



The peniDSula of Sierra Leone on the West Coast of Africa, situated
in 8® 30" N. lat. and 13® 43" w. long., was reached by the Portugese
navigator, Pedro di Sintra, in 1467. The Portuguese called the
promontory to the south of the present settlement, Cape Liedo, and
the mountains in the interior. Sierra Leone,* or Lioness Mountain ;
because, according to the majority of interpreters, this region was found
to abound with lions. '* But," says Winterbottom, " this supposition
is certainly ill-founded, as lions are not to be met with in this part of
the country at present, nor is there any tradition among the natives
of their ever having existed here." In Cada Mosto's relation of Di
Sindra's voyage, the reason ascribed is the tremendous roaring of
thunder over the summit of the mountain, which is continually
wrapped in clouds and mists. The great noise which the sea makes
on this coast, has also been thought from its resembling the roaring
of a lion, to have suggested this appellation.f

The river or estuary of Sierra Leone,^ which bounds the settle-
ment on the north, and separates it from the Bullom country, is one
of the most beautiful in Africa. It is about twenty miles in length,
and it varies from fifteen miles at its entrance between the two extreme
points of Leopold's Island and Cape Sierra Leone, to six or seven
at St. George's Bay, and four or five at the island of Tombo, where
it ceases to be navigable by large vessels, and divides into two principal
branches, the Bokel and Port Lokko rivers. Previous to this, how-
ever, it sends off a smaller branch to the north, called the Bullom

* Sierra Leone belonged to the Timmanees, and was by them called Romarong, or the
Mountain.

t Ilarduin'B notes on Pliny. $ Called also the Mitomba.



Digitized by



Google



XIV INTRODUCTION.

river, from running into that country ; and another to the south
more considerable/^ called the Bance. Of the two principal
branches, the Rokel, which flows through the Timmanee countiy, is
the only one navigable for any considerable distance ; its source is about
200 miles from Sierra Leone.* Parts of it abound in numerous ledges
of rocks which have obtained for it the name of Robung-Dakel or
* river of reefs/ corrupted into Rokel. Several fine bays are formed
on the south side of the Sierra Leone river, all opening to the north.
The navigable entrance of this river is narrow, the tides are strong,
and the Bullom shoal occupying the middle of it very steep, so that
it can be entered only by a sea-breeze, which though pretty regular is
not always certain in strength or duration.f Sierra Leone river con-
tains several islands, as Gambia, at the mouth of the Bance, formerly
a slave-factory belonging to the French; its extent is considerable,
and the land high ; but it is very hot, and consequently unhealthy.
Tasso, formerly a British slave -station, which is also of considerable
extent and very fertile; great exertions have been made here with
considerable success, to introduce the arts of agriculture, and to ex*
emplify to the poor African the value of his native soil. The cultiva-
tion of cotton has made considerable progress. Bance Island about
a mile and half to the north of Tasso and eighteen from St. George's
Bay ; this forms the extreme point of the river to which it is navigable
for ships. From its position it is considered of much importance in
a commercial point of view. Previous to the occupation of Sierra
Leone by the British as a free Negro Colony, they had a small factory
on this island for the purpose of supplying them with the slaves
purchased for the cultivation of their West India islands. It is now
the site of an extendve timber-manufactory. On approaching this
island the eye is met by a fortification, and an elegant range of buildings
and stone-houses. It is however little more than a barren rock of about
three quarters of a mile in extent, considerably elevated, with a dry
gravelly soil. Being placed in the midst of an Archipelago of low
marshy islands, the breeze from whatever quarter it blows, is im-
pregnated with moisture and marsh effluvia, which render it sickly.
The thermometer usually stands four or five degrees higher here than

* Lainf( says the Rokel in the drj season is navigable for boats only 50 miles from
the sea, and Mr. Clarke, senior assistant surgeon to Sierra Leone, remarks, — ^* The
Port Lokkoh runs to the eastward about sixty miles. The source of the Rokel is about
200 miles firom Sierra Leone, but the streams are not navigable more than sixty miles.
This river affords considerable advantage for trade. The Bonce river or estuary runs a
little beyond Waterloo, about eighteen miles from Freetown.

t This shoal or sandbank has been formed by the rapidity of the current, it renders
the N. E. half of the bay inaccessible to large vessels ; but, to the S. £. there is a fine
channel more than a league in breadth, and from seven to ten &thoms in depth, extending
as far as Gambia island.



Digitized by



Google



INTRODUCTION. XV

at Freetown, the capital of the Sierra Leone Colony. Besides these,
there are several other islands, mostly small and overgrown with man**
groves, but some, such as Robanna, Tambo, &c. have native towns
upon them, and plantations of rice.*

The land forming the peninsula of Sierra Leone, when viewed
from the sea, or from the Bnllom shore on the opposite side of the
river, where the ground is low, appears like a number of hills heaped
upon each other in a very irregular manner. On a nearer approach,
however, the eye is delighted with the grandeur and beauty of the
scenery formed by these hills, and the vaUies and prairies discovered
in the intervals between them.f Lofty forests clothing the mountains,
lend an air of richness and luxuriance to the landscape, and pleasingly
contrast with the dull flatness of the Bullom shore ; % and indeed with
the whole coast northward to the Gambia, and from the Sherbro south-*
ward to d^ Palmas, where the thick woods appear to the approaching
voyager to grow out of the water ; their foliage and lofty stems stand-
ing in Mi view often for many hours, whilst the land beneath remains
unseen. § The shore of Sierra Leone, to the extent of six or seven
miles from the mouth of the river, is very rugged, and consists
chiefly of rocks abounding in iron, which lie upon a sandy bottom.
Much of the coast is marshy and covered vrith a sort of brushwood
or jungle. With regard to the soil, it must be confessed a great part
is far from fertile. There are round Freetown several small plains
of indurated claystone covered with grass, which are incapable of cul-
tivation, as are also the granitic mountains of the Sierra ; but in the
vallies, in the plains up the river Sierra Leone, and below the river
Kates, in the highlands and towards the Sherbro, the land is as good
and as fertile as in any part of the world, and there is also excellent

* Tbe l>eaati{iil Banana Iilandi on the eoast, S. W. of Freetown, were ceded to the
crown in 1819 by the £Eunily of the Caulkerg, who receive for them an annual payment.
They are remarkhble for their salubrity, ranking, in this particular, as respects the colo-
nies, with Madeira and the Isle of Wight. The Eastern is much larger than the West-
em, and contains two Tillage*, Dublin and Ricketts — the population of the former being
oTer 500 — of the latter about 300. These islands are very productive, and promise in
every respect to be a valuable acquisition to the colony ; but, perhaps, their ftiU value
is not yet ascertained. See p. 547, and seq. of the former volume.

t ** When we reach the entrance of the bay, the eye is immediately attracted by a
deep valley, which is entirely covered by the river, having no greater space at most than
a hundred fathoms between ita waters and the woods and hillocks which form its banks.
On the right hand the ground is low ; on the left it rises into amphitheatres, covered
with majestic trees of remarkable grandeur, and adorned with foliage rich, various and
luxuriant. The masts of vessels at anchor near the village of Sierra Leone, two other
negro villages, the busy movements of men and boats returning from fishing, all con-
spired to animate this interesting landscape. Europe may present prospects more rich
and brilliant, but in no part of the world can there be found a site so delightful as the
Bay of Sierra Leone.**— Golberry.

Z The word Bullom signifies low land. II Rankin.



Digitized by



Google



XTl INTRODUCTION.

water carriage. Major Gray testifies that this Colony is able to vie
with many of the West India islands in all the productions of tropical
climates, but particularly in the article of coffee, which has been
already raised here, and proved by its demand in the Enghsh
market, to be of as good if not superior quality, to that imported
from our other Colonies. Arrow-root has also been cultivated with
advantage; nor can there be a doubt that the sugar-cane could be
produced. Cotton, ginger, indigo, &c. already abound.*

It is not easy to define the boundaries of this settlement. In 1 787
a tract of the peninsula of Sierra Leone was ceded to England by
Naimbanna, the king of Sierra Leone, who resided on the small island
of Robanna, between the Bance and the Gambia, extending fifteen miles
from N. to S. by four from E. to W ; the western boundary subse-
quently advanced to the sea as far as the point of land called False
Cape. In the charters granted to the Sierra Leone Company in 1800,
1809 and 1821, the Colony is described as the peninsula of Sierra
Leone, bounded on the N. by the river of that name ; on the S. by
the Camaranca river ; on the E. by the river Bance ; and on the W.
by the sea. The peninsula as at present known, is bounded on the
N. by the Sierra Leone river : on the S. and W. by the sea at Calmont
creek ; on the E. by a line up the Calmont to the Waterloo creek,
and down this last, to the Bance, constituting a tract 18 miles from
N. to S., and 12 from E. to W. By a convention in 1819, between
Sir C. MacCarthy, Governor of Sierra Leone, and a Timmanee chief,
named Ka Kouka, possessing country on the boundary of the peninsula,
that chief ceded to Great Britain the unlimited sovereignty of the lands
known by the name of Mar Ports and Roe Boness, on the banks of the
Bance river. In 1824, Ba Mauro, king of the North Bulloms, ceded
to Great Britain the islands of Bance, Tasso, Tombo and all the other
islands on the N. side of Sierra Leone, between Zogrine point and Ka
Keeper creek ; as well as the N. bank of the river for one mile inland
from the river Couray Bay, on the W. to the Ka Keeper creek on the
E. ; with a right and title to the navigation of the river Sierra Leone
&c. On the N. the boundaries touch the Little Scarcies river, in lat.



Online LibrarySamuel Abraham WalkerThe Church of England mission in Sierra Leone: including an introductory ... → online text (page 1 of 73)