Samuel Butler.

A sketch of modern and antient geography, for the use of schools online

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SKETCH



OF



GEOGRAPHY,

FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLa



U-



LOKBON :

Printed by A. & R. Spottiswoode,
New-Street-Squarc.



SKETCH



OF



^oDern anD Sintimt

GEOGRAPHY,



FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS.



By SAMUEL BUTLER, D.D. F.R.S., &c. &c.

ARCHDEACON OF DERBY,

AND HEAD MASTKR OP THE ROYAL FREE GRAMMAR SCHOOL OF SHREWSBURY.




THE EIGHTH EDITION.



LONDON:

PRINTED FOR

LONGMAN, REES, ORME, BROWN, AND GREEN,

PATERNOSTER-R W.
1828.






iMl.:






■If J.n*^;



PREFACE

TO THE SEVENTH EDITION.

In the present edition of this little work, the
author has made some very important additions,
chiefly in the modern part of it. He has en-
deavoured to condense a great quantity of matter,
derived from scattered but interesting docu-
ments, into as small a compass as might be con-
sistent with perspicuity, without altering the
nature of an elementary treatise.

The quantity actually added appears to be
about thirty pages, but is in fact considerably
more, as he has adopted a different form of
printing, which allows a greater quantity of
matter in every page. At the same time, he
feels so desirous of contributing, as far as he can,
to facilitate the means of education, and testify
his gratitude to the public for their favourable
reception of his labours, that he makes no increase
of price for the increased size and materials
of the volume.

He begs al§o to observe that he has added a
map of the West Indies to the modern, and of
Mauritania, Numidia, and Africa propria to the
antient atlas without any increase of price.



Shrewsbury-,
April 6, 18^5.



A S



ifq



K'O ir itmu^



^ih 7.1






CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.



B.C.

4004
2348
2247
2059
1996
1728
1571
1556
1493
1452

1406
1356

1263
1225
1184
1104
1095
1070
1044

1004
975
907
896
884
869
820



Creation of the world.

The deluge.

Tower of Babel built, and confusion of languages.

The Assyrian empire founded.

Birth of Abraham,

Joseph sold into Egypt.

Moses born.

Kingdom of Attica founded by Cecrops.

Thebes built by Cadmus.

The five books of Moses written, who dies the next

year.
Minos the Cretan lawgiver.
Eleusinian mysteries introduced at Athens by Eu-

molpus.
Argonautic expedition.
Theban war.
Troy taken.

Return of the Heraclidae to the Peloponnese.
Saul made king of Israel.
Codrus last king of Athens.
Settlement of the Ionian colonies in Asia Minor. Age

of Homer.
Dedication of Solomon's temple.
Kingdoms of Israel and Judah divided.
Age of Hesiod.
Elijah taken up to heaven.
Lycurgus the Spartan lawgiver.
Carthage built.
Sardanapalus, last king of Assyria. Median empire

founded.

A 4



VIII



01.
i. 1.



V. 4.
vi. 4.
ix. 2.

xiv. 4.
xxiii. 4.



xxiv. 1.
XXX. 2.

xxxix. 2.

xliv. 1.

xlvii. 2,



xlviii. 2.

1.4.
liv. 3.

liv. 4.

Iv. 2.

Iviii. 1.
Ix. 2.



Ix. 3.
Ixi. 1



A.U.C.



11

33
69



B.C.

776



757
753
743

721



685



[

1


1


i
70
95


684
659


131
150


623
604


163


591


167


587


177
192


577
562


193


561


195


559


206


^548


215


539


216
218


538
536

1



Coroebus conquers at the Olympic
games ; from which time the regular
dates of the Olympiads begin.

Isaiah begins to prophesy.

Rome founded, April 20.

First Messenian war; continues 19 years
to the taking of Ithome.

Kingdom of Israel finished by the taking
of Samaria by Salmanasar king of
Assyria.

Second Messenian war; continues 14
years to the taking of Ira after a
siege of 11 years. Age of Tyrtaeus
and Archilochus.

Annual Archons established at Athens.

Cypselus usurps the government of
Corinth.

Draco the Athenian lawgiver.

Age of Arion, Pittacus, Alcaius, Sap-
pho.

Pythian games established at Delphi,
and continued every second year of
each Olympiad. Age of Chilo, Ana-
charsis, Thales, Epimenides, Solon,
JEsopy Stesichorus, &c.

Jerusalem taken by Nebuchadnezzar
king of Babylon, June 9, after a siege
of 18 months.

Death of Jeremiah the prophet.

First comedy acted at Athens by Su-
sarion and Dolon.

Pisistratus usurps the sovereign power
at Athens.

Persian empire founded upon the Me-
dian by Cyrus. Age of Anaximenes,
Bias, Anaximander, Phalaris, and
Cleobulus.

Croesus, last king of Lydia, conquered
by Cyrus. Age of Theognis and
Pherecydes.

Marseilles built by the Phocaeans. Age
of Pythagoras, Simonides, Thespis,
Xenophanes, and Anacreon.

Babylon taken by Cyrus.

Edict of Cyrus for the return of the
Jews, and rebuilding of the temple.



;x



01.
Ixiii. 4«
Ixiv. 4.

Ixvii. 3.

Ixvii. 4.

Ix. 1.



Ixx. 3.

Ixxi. 4.

Ixxii. 3.
Ixxv. 1.

Ixxv. 2.

Ixxv. 4.
Ixxviii. 4.

Ixxxi. 3.

Ixxxiii. 1.
Ixxxiii. 2.
Ixxxiii. 4.
Ixxxvii. 2.



ixxxix.4.



A.U.C.

229
233

244

245

250



256
261

264

274

275

277
289

300

306
307
309
323



333



B.C. I

525|Egypt conquered by Cambyses.

521 Darius Hystaspes, king of Persia. Age

I of Confucius the Chinese Philosopher.
5 lOj Tyranny of the Pisistratidae abohshed

at Athens.
509 Expulsion of the Tarquins from Rome.
End of the regal, and establishment
of the consular government.
504Sardis burnt by the Athenians, which
causes the invasion of Greece by the
Persians. Age of Heraclitus, Par-
menides, Milo the wrestler, Arista-
goras, &c.
498Lartius the first dictator created at

Rome.
493 Secession of the Roman people to Mons

Sacer.

490 Battle of Marathon. Age of Miltiades.
480 Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis.
Age of ^schylus, Pi ndar, Anaxago-
ras, Zeuxis, Aristides, Themistocles,
&c.

Battles of Plataea and Mycale on the
same day.

The 300 Fabii killed in oiae day.

Third Messenian war ; continues 10
years.

The Romans send to Athens for Solon's
laws. Age of Sophocles, Pericles,
Zaleucus, Nehemiah the prophet, &c.

The first sacred war concerning the
temple of Delphi.

The Athenians defeated by the Boeo-
tians at Chaeronea.

Age of Herodotus, Empedocles, Eu-
ripides, Phidias, &c.

Peloponnesian war begins. May 7., and
continues 27 years. Age of Cra-
tinus, Eupolis, Aristophanes, Meton,
Democritus, Gorgias, Thucydides,
Hippocrates, Malachi the last of the
Prophets : and the history of the Old
Testament ends.

Tlie fifty years' peace made between
the Athenians and Lacedaemonians,



479

477
465

454



448



447



445



431



421



OL

xci. 1.

xciii. 4.
xc'f/. 1.



A.U.C.



349
350



xciv. 4. 353



354
358



359

360

364
366

377

383

384
387
391



xcv.


!
1.


xcvi.


1.


xcvi.


2.


xcvi.


3.


xcvii


3.


iccviii.


1.


c.


4.


cii.


2.


cii.


3.


ciii.


2.


civ.


2.



B.C.

416

405
404

401



400
396



395

394

390

388

377

371

370
367
363



which is kept but 6 years and 10
months.

Scene of the Peloponnesian war re-
moved to Sicily. The Agrarian Jaw
first moved at Rome.

Battle of JEgos Potamos. Usurpation
of Dionysius the elder.

Athens taken by Lysander, which put*
an end to the Peloponnesian war.
Age of Parrhasius, Protagoras, Ly-
sias, Agathon, Cebes.

Cyrus the younger killed at Cunaxa.
Retreat of the 10,000 Greeks. Ex-
pulsion of the thirty tyrants from
Athens by Thrasybulus.

Socrates put to death.

Expedition of Agesilaus into Asia.
Age of Xenophon, Zeuxis, Aristip-
pus, and Archytas.

Corinthian war begun by the alliances
of the Athenians, Thebans, Co-
rinthians, and Argives, against the
Lacedaemonians.

Conon defeats the Lacedaemonian fleet
near Cnidus. The allies defeated by
Agesilaus in the battle of Coronea.

Rome burnt by the Gauls. Age of
Plato, Conon, Iphicrates, Camillus.

Peace of Antalcidas, which made the
Greek cities in Asia Minor tributary
to the Persians.

Lacedaemonians defeated off Naxus by
Chabrias. Age of Isaeus, Isocrates,
Diogenes, &c.

The Lacedaemonians defeated by the
Thebans, commanded by Epaminon-
das, at the battle of Leuctra.

Messenians return to the Peloponnese,
having been banished 300 years.

One of the consuls at Rome elected
from the Plebeians.

Lacedaemonians defeated by Epami-
nondas at the battle of Mantinea.
Death of Epaminondas a^year after
that of Pelopidas.



01.




civ.


3.


cv.


1.


cv.


4.


cvi.


4.


cviii.


1.


cix.


2.


ex.


3.


cxi.


1.


cxi.


2.


cxi.

1


3.


cxi.


4.


cxii.


1.


cxii.


2.


cxiii.


2.


cxiv-


2.


cxiv.


4.


cxv.

V


1.


cxvi.


2.


cxvii. 1.


cxvii]


.2.



A.U.C.

392


BC.

362


394


360


S97


357


401


353


406
411


348
343


416


338


418
419
420


336
335
334


421

422


333
332


423


331


427


327


431


323


433


321


434


320


439


315


442


312


447


307



Agesilaus goes into Egypt, and dies on
his return home.

Athenians defeated at Methone by
Philip of Macedon, being the first
battle he gained in Greece.

Second sacred war began ; the Pho-
cians having attacked the temple of
Delphi.

Philip defeats the Phocians commanded
by Onomarchus.

Philip puts an end to the sacred war.

Timoleon banishes Dionysius the
younger, tyrant of Syracuse. Age
of Speusippus, Protogenes, Aristotle,
-^schines, Demosthenes, Phocion,
&c.

Philip defeats the Athenians and their
allies in the fatal battle of Chaeronea.

Philip killed by Pausanias.

Alexand^er destroys Thebes.

Alexander begins his. Persian expe-
dition. Battle of the Granicus.

Battle of Issus.

Tyre taken and destroyed by Alex-
ander : Alexandria in Egypt founded
by him.

Battle of Arbela. End of the Persian,
and commencement of the Grecian
empire.

Alexander's expedition against Porus,
Age of Apelles, Hyperides, Lysip-
pus, &c.

Alexander dies May 2i. Kingdom of
Egypt founded by Ptolemy.

Romans defeated by the Samnites at
Caudium.

Polyperchon publishes liberty to all
the Grecian cities. Age of Praxi-
teles, Menander, Demetrius Pha-
lereus.

Eumenes delivered to Antigonus by
his army.

Seleucus takes Babylon. Commence-
ment of the aera of the Seleucidae.

Democracy re-established at Athens by
Demetrius Poliorcetes.



xu



01.
cxviii. 3.

cxix. 4.



cxxii. 2.
cxxiv. 1.



A.U.C

448
453



I 463



cxxiv.


4.


cxxv.


1.


cxxv.


3.


cxxvi.


3.



cxxvii. 4.
cxxix 1.

cxxx. 1.



cxxxi. 1.
cxxxii. 2.

cxxxiv. 1.
cxxxiv. 3.

cxxxiv. 4.

ex XXV. 1.

cxxxv. 4.

cxxxvi. 2.
cxxxvi. 4.

cxxxvii. 2.
cxxxix. 1.



470

473

474
476

480

485"
490

494

498
503

510
512

513
514

517

519

521

523
530



B.C.
306 Alexander s successors assume the title

of kings.
301 Battle of Ipsus, in which Antigonus is
defeated and killed by Ptolemy, Se-
leucus, Lysimachus, and Cassander.
Age of Zeno, Pyrrho-, Philemon,
Grantor.

291 Age of Euclid the mathematician, Epi-
curus, Bion, &c.

284 Pharos of Alexandria built. The Sep-
tuagint translated about this time.

281 Lysimachus defeated and killed by
Seleucus. Romans begin the Taren-
tine war. Achaean league begins.

280 Pyrrhus king of Epirus goes to Italy to
assist the Tarentines.

278 The Gauls cut to pieces near Delphi.
Age of Sostratus, Theocritus, Aratus,
Lycophron, &c.

274 Curius defeats Pyrrhus, who retires to
Epirus.

269 Silver first coined at Rome.

264 First Punic war begins, and continues
23 years.

260Duillius gains the first naval victory
with a Roman fleet over the Cartha-
ginians.

256 Regulus defeated by Xanthippus.

251 Age of Aratus, Cleanthes, Manetho,
Timaeus, Callimachus, Zoilus.

244 Citadel of Corinth taken by Aratus.

242 Carthaginians defeated by Lutatius Ca-
tulus. End of the first Punic war.

241 Agis king of Lacedaemon put to death.

240 Plays of Livius Andronicus first acted
at Rome.

237 Amilcar passes into Spain with his son
Hannibal.

235 Temple of Janus shut the first time
since the reign of Numa.

233 Original manuscripts of .^chylus,
Sophocles, and Euripides, lent to
Ptolemy on a pledge of fifteen talents.

231 First divorce known at Rome. Sar-
dinia and Corsica conquered.

224 Colossus of Rhodes thrown down by
an earthquake. Romans first cross,



Xltl



01.


A.U.C.


cxl. 1.


534


cxl. 2.


535


cxl. 3.


536


cxl. 4.
cxli. 1.
cxli. 3.


537
538
540


cxlii. 1.


542


cxliii. 2.


547


cxliv. 3.


552


cxlv. 1.


554


cxlv. 4.


557


cxlvii. 1.


562


cxlix. 2.


571


clii. 2.
cliii. 1.


583
586


clvii. 4.
clviii. 1.
cWiii. 4.


605
606
609



B.C,



220

219
21 B



217
216
214

212



207
202
200
197

192

183

171

168



149

148

f 145



the Po in pursuit of the Gauls. Age
of Chrysippus, Archimedes, Valerius
Messala, C. Nsevius, Aristarchus,
Apollonius Rhodius, Fabius Pictor
the first Roman historian, &c.

Social war between the iEtolians and
Achaeans assisted by Philip, the last
Macedonian king of that name.

Hannibal takes Saguntum, which is the
cause of the second Punic war.

Second Punic war begins, and continues
17 years. Battles of Ticinus and
Trebia.

Battle of Trasymenus.

Battle of Cannae.

Romans begin the war against Philip in
Epirus.

Syracuse taken by Marcellus after a
siege of three years. Death of Ar-
chimedes.

Asdrubal defeated by Claudius. Age
of Plautus, Ennius, &c.

Battle of Zama, which put an end to
the second Punic war.

First Macedonian war begins, and con-
tinues four years nearly.

Philip defeated at the battle of Cynos-
cephale, which puts an end to the
first Macedonian war.

Romans begin the war with Antiochus
the Great, which continues near three
years. Age of Laelius, Massinissa,
the Scipios, the Gracchi.

Death of Hannibal and Philopcemen.
Scipio died the year preceding.

Second Macedonian war.

Battle of Pydna, in which Perses is
defeated by Paulus i^Emilius, and
Macedonia reduced to a Roman pro-
vince. Age of Terence, Polybjus,
Pacuvius, Hipnarchus, Cameades,
&c.

Third Punic war begins.

Romans make war upon the Achaeans.

Carthage destroyed by Scipio. and
Corinth by Mummius.



XIV



A.U.C

608
613
618



619
621

633
64.3
652
653

657
663

665
666

612

676
679
681
683

685
688



689



691



694



709



696


58


699


55


701


53


704


50


706


48


707


47


708


46



B.C.|

146|Viriatug defeated by Laelius in Spain.
14l|Numantine war begins; continues eight years.
136i The famous embassy of Scipio, Metellus, Mum-
mius, and Panaetius into Egypt, Syria, and
I Greece.
135 The history of the Apocrypha ends.
133 Numantia taken. Pergamus annexed to the Roman

empire. Tiberius Gracchus killed.
121 Caius Gracchus killed. Age of Lucilius.
Ill Jugurthine war begins, and continues five years.
102 Teutones defeated by Marius.
101 Teutones and Cimbri defeated by Marius and

Catulus.
97 Cyrene left by Ptolemy Apion to the Romans.
91 Social war begins, and continues three years till

finished by Sylla.
89 Mithridatic war begins, and continues 26 years.
88 Civil wars of Marius and Sylla begin, and con-
tinue six years.
82 Sylla defeats the younger Marius, and is made

dictator.
78 Death of Sylla.

75 Bithynia left by Nicomedes to the Romans.
73 Servile war begins under Spartacus.
71 Spartacus defeated by Crassus and Pompey.
69 Mithridates and Tigranes defeated by Lucullus.
66 Mithridates conquered by Pompey in a night
battle. Crete subdued bv Metellus, who obtains
the surname of Creticus.
Pompey conquers Syria, which puts an end to the

reign of the Seleucidae.
Catiline's conspiracy defeated by Cicero. Mithri-
dates kills himself.
First triumvirate of Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus.
Age of Cicero, Catullus, Lucretius, Sallust, &c.
Cicero banished, and recalled in sixteen months.
Caesar invades Britain.
Death of Crassus.

Civil war between Caesar and Pompey.
Battle of Pharsalia.
Alexandria taken by Caesar.
War of Africa. Cato kills himself. Caesar corrects
the calendar by the advice of Sosigenes : the
year of confusion, consisting of 15 months, or
445 days.
Battle of Munda.



65



63



60



45



xy



A.U.C.

710
711



712
715



718

722
723
724

727



734



770



B.C

44
43



42
39



36

32
31
30



27



20



737


17


739


15


742


12


748


6


749


4




A.D.


755




762


9


763


10


767


14



17



772


19


779


26


784


31


786


33


789


36


790


37



Caesar killed in the senate-house.

Battle of Mutina. Second triumvirate of Oc-
tavius, Antony, and Lepidus. Cicero proscribed
and put to death. Age of C. Nepos, Diodorus
Siculus, Trogus Pompeius, Varro, &c.

Battle of Philippi.

Ventidius defeats Pacorus general of the Parthians
on the same day 14 years after the death of
Crassus.

Pompey the younger defeated in Sicily by Oc-
tavius.

Octavius and Antony prepare for war.

Battle of Actium.

Alexandria taken, and Egypt reduced to a Roman
province.

Title of Augustus given to Octavius. The Au-
gustan age — of Virgil, Manilius, Asinius Pollio,
Mecaenas, Agrippa, Strabo, Horace, Macer, Pro-
pertius, Livy, Tibullus, Ovid, Varius, Tucca,
Vitruvius, Dionysius Halicarnassensis, and Dio-
nysius Periegetes.

Tiberius recovers the Roman standards from the
Parthians.

Secular games celebrated at Rome.

Rhaeti and Vindelici defeated by Drusus.

Pannonians defeated by Tiberius.

Tiberius retires to Rhodes for seven years.

Our Saviour born, four years before the
aera.



vulgar



Tiberius returns to Rome.

Ovid banished to Tomos.

Varus defeated in Germany by Arminius.

Augustus dies at Nola, and is succeeded by Ti-
berius. Age of Phaedrus, Asinius Gallus, Pater-
culus, Cornelius Celsus, &c.

Twelve cities in Asia Minor destroyed by an earth-
quake.

Germanicus, poisoned by Piso, dies at Antioch.

Tiberius retires to the island of Capreae.

Sejanus disgraced and put to death.

Our Saviour crucified.

Conversion of St. Paul.

Tiberius dies, and is succeeaed by Caligula. Age
of Valerius Maximus, Columella, Philo Judaeus,
&c.



xrt



A.U.C

792
793
794

796
797
804

807

812
817
818
819



820
821

822



823



832



834



848
849

851
855



856
859

860

867
870

871
874



A.D.

39 St. Matthew writes hi^ gospel.

40 The disciples first called Christians at Antioch.

41 Caligula killed by Chaerea and sujsceeded by Clau-

dius.

43 The expedition of Claudius into Britain.

44 St. Mark writes his gospel.

51 Caractacus brought a prisoner to Rome.

54 Claudius poisoned by Agrippina and succeeded by

Nero.
Agrippina put to death by her son Nero.
First persecution of the Christians.
Seneca and Lucan put to death by Nero.
Nero visits Greece. The Jewish war begins. Age

of Persius, Q. Curtius, Pliny the naturalist, Jo-

sephus, Frontinus, &c.
St. Peter and St. Paul put to death.
Nero killed and succeeded by Galba.
Galba killed and succeeded by Otho. Otho,

defeated by Vitellius, kills himself. Vitellius

defeated, and killed, and succeeded by Ves-
pasian.
Jerusalem taken and destroyed by Titus, Saturday,

Sep. 8.
Death of Vespasian: succession of Titus. Her-

culaneum, Pompeii, and Stabiae destroyed by an

eruption of Vesuvius, in which Pliny the elder

lost his life. Age of Josephus.
Death of Titus and succession of Domitian. Age

of Sil. Italicus, Martial, Apollonius of Tyana,

Valerius Flaccus, Solinus, Epictetus, Quintilian.

Agricola, &c. f

Second persecution of the Christians.
Domitian killed by Stephanus and succeeded by

Nerva. Age of Juvenal, Tacitus, Statins, &c.
Death of Nerva and succession of Trajan.
Pliny, proconsul of Bithynia, writes his famous

letter to Trajan giving an account of the

Christians.
Trajan reduces Dacia to a Roman province.
Trajan's expedition to Parthia. Age of Florus,

Suetonius, Pliny the younger, Plutarch, &c.
Third Persecution of the Christians.



59
64
65
66



67
68
69



70



79



81



98
102



103
106

107



117
118
121



114 Trajan's column erected at Rome.



Death of Trajan : succession of Hadrian.
jFourth persecution of the Christians.
Hadrian builds his wall in Britain.



XVll



A.U.C.

883
884.
891



914



A.D.

130



922
933



945



946



947
951

955
960
962
964



965
970

971

975

988



131



138



161



169
180



192



193



194
199

202
207
209
211



212
217

218

222

235



Hadrian rebuilds Jerusalem and erects a temple
there to Jupiter.

The Jews rebel, and after a war of five years are
defeated and all banished.

Death of Hadrian and succession of Antoninus
Pius. In the reign of Hadrian flourished Pha-
vorinus, Aristides the sophist, Polycarp, Arrian,
Ptolemy the geographer, &c.

Death of Antoninus ; succession of Marcus Aure-
lius and L. Verus. In the reign of Antoninus
flourished Maximus Tyrius, Pausanias the topo-
grapher of Greece, Diophantus the mathema-
tician, Lucian, Hermogenes, Polyaenus, Appian,
Artemidorus, Justin Martyr, Apuleius, &c.

War of the Marcomanni.

Death of Aurelius ; succession of Commodus. In
the reign of Aurelius flourished Galen, Athena-
goras, Tatian, Athenaeus, Diogenes Laertius.

Commodus killed by Martia and Laetus : suc-
ceeded by Pertinax, who reigns a few months.
In this reign flourished Julius Pollux, Theo-
dotian, Irenseus, &c.

Pertinax killed by the Praetorian guards, who sell
the empire to Didius Julianus. Didius Julianus
killed by the Praetorian guards, and succeeded
by Severus.

Severus defeats his rival Niger at Issus.

Severus defeats and kills his rival Albinus at
Lyons.

Fifth persecution of the Christians.

Severus visits Britain.

Severus builds his wall in Britain.

Severus dies at York, and is succeeded by Cara-
calla and Geta. In the reign of Severus flou-
rished Tertullian, Minucius Felix, Papinian,
Clemens Alexandrinus, Philostratus, &c.

Geta killed by his brother Caracalla.

Caracalla killed, and succeeded by Macrinus. In
this reign Oppian flourished.

Macrinus killed by the Praetorian guards and suc-
ceeded by Elagabalus.

Elagabalus killed by the Praetorian guards and
succeeded by Alexander.

The sixth persecution of the Christians. Alex-
ander killed by the soldiers and succeeded by



XTIU



A.U.C.


A.D.


989


236


990


238


997
1002


244.
249


1003
1004


250
251


1006


253


1010
1012


257
259


1013


260


1021


268


1023
1025
1026


270

272
273


1028


275


1035


282


1037


284


1039


286


1056


303


1057


304


1Q59


306


1065
1072


312
319



M aximin. In the reign of Alexander flourished

Dion Cassius, Origen, and Ammonius.
Maximin killed by the soldiers and succeeded by

the two Gordians, who are killed by Pupienus

and Balbinus.
Pupienus and Balbinus killed by the soldiers and

succeeded by Gordian.
Gordian killed and succeeded by Philip.
Philip killed by the soldiers and succeeded by

Decius.
Seventh persecution of the Christians.
Decius killed in battle against the Goths and suc-
ceeded by Gallus.
Gall us killed and succeeded by ^milianus, who

is soon killed by his soldiers and succeeded by

Valerian.
Eighth persecution of the Christians.
Valerian taken by Sapor king of Persia, by whom

he is kept prisoner, and at length flayed alive.
Gallienus succeeds Valerian. The thirty pretenders

to the empire called the thirty tyrants.
Gallienus killed by his soldiers and succeeded by

Claudius.

Claudius dies and is succeeded by Aurelian.
Ninth persecution of the Christians.
Zenobia defeated by Aurelian at Edessa. Age of

Longinus.
Aurelian killed and succeeded by Tacitus, who

reigned only six months, and was succeeded by

Probus.
Probus killed by his soldiers and succeeded by

Carus and his two sons, Carinus and Numeri-

anus.
Carus killed by lightning and succeeded by Dio-

clesian. Carausius in Britain.
Dioclesian takes Maximianus as his partner in the

empire.

Tenth persecution of the Christians, which conti-
nues ten years.
Dioclesian and Maximianus abdicate the empire,

and are succeeded by Constantius Chlorus and

Galerius.
Constantius dies, and is succeeded by his son Con-

stantine the Great.
Maxentius defeated and killed by Constantine.
Constantine begins to favour the Christians.



XIX



A.U.C

1077
1078
1081

1083



A.D.

324 Licinlus defeated and banished by Constantine.

325 The first general Council of Nice.

328 The seat of empire removed from Rome to Con-
stantinople.

330 Solemn dedication of Constantinople.


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