Samuel Butler.

Geographia classica, or, The application of antient geography to the classics online

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187



GEOGHAPHIA 0LASSICA:



OR



THE APPLICATION



OF



ANTIENT GEOGRAPHY

.



TO THE



CLASSICS.



BY SAMUEL CUTLER, D.D. F.R.S.&c. &c.

ARCHDEACON OF DERBY,

AND HEAD MASTER OF THE ROYAL FREE GRAMMAR SCHOOL OF
SHREWSBURY.



SECOND AMERICAN, FROM THE NINTH LONDON EDITION,
WITH QUESTIONS ON THE MAPS,

BY JOHN FROST.



PHILADELPHIA:

CAREY AND LEA, CHESNUT STREET.












Entered, according to an Act of Congress, in the year 1831, in the
Clerk's office of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.



Week*, Printer.






CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.




B. C.

4004
2348
2247
2059
1996
1728
1571
1556
1493
1452
1406
1356
1263
1225
1184
1104
1095
1070
1044

1004
975
907
896
884
869
820






Creation of the world.

The deluge.

Tower of Babel built, and confusion of languages.

The Assyrian empire founded.

Birth of Abraham.

Joseph sold into Egypt.

Moses born.

Kingdom of Attica founded by Cecrops.

Thebes built by Cadmus.

The five books of Moses written, who dies the next year.

Minos the Cretan lawgiver.

Eleusinian mysteries introduced at Athens by Eumolpus.

Aygonautic expedition.

Theban war.

Troy taken.

Return of the Heraclidas to the Peloponnese.

Saul made king of Israel.

Codrus last king of Athens.

Settlement of the Ionian colonies in Asia Minor. Age of

Homer.

Dedication of Solomon's temple.
Kingdoms of Israel and Judah divided.
Age of Hesiod.
Elijah taken up to heaven.
Lycurgus the Spartan lawgiver.
Carthage built.
Sardanapalus, last king of Assyrian Median empire

founded.



IV.



Ol.


.u.c.


B.C.




i. 1.




776


Coroebus conquers at the Olympic games;








from which time the regular dates of








the Olympiads begin.


v. 4.




757


saiah begins to prophesy.


vi. 4.




753


lome founded, April 20,


ix. 2.


11


743


First Messenian war; continues 19 years








to the taking of Ithome.


xiv. 4.


33


721


kingdom of Israel finished by the taking








of Samaria by Salmanasar king of As-








syria.


xxiii. 4.


69


685


Second Messenian war; continues four-








teen years to the taking of Ira after a








seige of eleven years. Age of Tyrtxus








and Archilochus.


xxiv. 1.


70


684


Annual Archons established at Athens.


xxx. 2.


95


659


Cypselus usurps the government of Co-
rinth.


xxxix. 2.


131


623


Draco the Athenian lawgiver.


xlviii. 2.


150


604


Age of Arion, Pittacus, Alcxus, Sappho.


xlvii. 2.


163


591


Pythian games established at Delphi, and








continued every second year of each








Olympiad. Age of Chilo, Anacharsis,








Thales, Epimenides, Solon, ^Esop, Ste-








i chorus, 8cc.


xlviii. 2.


167


587


Jerusalem taken by Nebuchadnezzar king








of Babylon, June 9, after a seige of 18








months.


1. 4.


177


577


Death of Jeremiah the prophet.


liv. 3.


192


562


First comedy acted at Athens by Susarion








and Dolon.


liv. 4.


193


563


Pisistratus usurps the sovereign power at








Athens.


Iv. 2.


195


559


Persian empire founded upon the Median








by Cyrus. Age of Anaximenes, Bias,








Anaximander, Phalaris, and Cleobulus.


Iviii. 1.


206


548


Croesus, last king of Lydia, conquered by








Cyrus. Age of Theognis and Phere-








cydes.


Ix. 2.


215


539


Marseilles built by the Phocxans. Age of








Pythagoras, Simonides, Thespis, Xeno-








phanes, and Anacreon.


Ix. 3.


216


438


Babylon taken by Cyrus.


Ixi. 1.


218


536


Edict of Cyrus for the return of the Jews,








and rebuilding of the temple,


Ixiii. 4.


229


525


Egypt conquered by Cambyses.


Ivrv. 4.


233


521


Darius Hystaspes, king of Persia. Age








of Confucius the Chinese Philosopher.


Ixvii. 3.


244


51C


Tyranny of the Pisistratidx abolished at








Athens.


Ixvii. 4.


245


5 OS


Expulsion of the Tarqnins from Rome.



Ol.
Ix. i.



Ixx. 3.
Ixxi. 4.

Ixxii. 3.
Ixxv. 1.



Ixxv. 2.

Ixxv, 4.
xxviii. 4.
Ixxxi. 3.



xxxiii. 1.
xxxiii, 2,
xxxiii. 4.
xxxvii. 2.



xxxix. 4.
xci. 1.

xciii. 4.
xciv. 1.



xcv. 1.



A.U.C.



250



256
261

264
274



275

277
289
300



306
307
309

323



333
338

349
350

353

354



B.C.

End of the regal, and establishment of
the consular government.

504Sardis burnt by the Athenians, which
causes the invasion of Greece by the
Persians. Age of Heraclitus, Parme-
nides, Milo the wrestler, Aristagoras,
&c.

498 Lartius the first dictator created at Rome.

493 Secession of the Roman people to Mons
Sacer.

490 Battle of Marathon. Age of Miltiades.

480 Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis. Age
of jEschylus, Pinder, Anaxagoras, Zeu-
xis, Aristides, Themistocles, Sec.

479 Battles of Plataea and Mycale on the same
day.

477 The 300 Fabii killed in one day.

465 Third Messenian war; continues 10 years.

454 The Romans send to Athens for Solon's
laws. Age of Sophocles, Pericles, Za-
leucus, Nehemiah the prophet, &c.

448 The first sacred war concerning the tem-
ple of Delphi.

447 The Athenians defeated by the Boeotians,
at Chaeronea.

445 Age of Herodotus, Empedocles, Euripi-
des, Phidias, &c.

43lPeloponnesian war begins, May 7, and
continues twenty-seven years. Age of
Cratinus, Eupolis, Aristophanes,*Meton,
Democritus, Gorgias, Thucydides, Hip-
pocrates, Malachi the last of the Pro-
phets: and the history of the Old Testa-
ment ends.

421 The fifty years' peace made between the
Athenians and Lacedaemonians, which
is kept but six years and 10 months.

416 Scene of the Peloponnesian war removed
to Sicily. The Agrarian law first mov-
ed at Rome.

405 Battle of ^Egos Potamos. Usurpation of
Dionysius the elder.

404 Athens taken by Lysander, which puts an
end to the Peloponnesian war. Age of
Parrhasius, Protagoras, Lysias, Aga-
thon, Cebes.

401 Cyrus the younger killed at Cunaxa. Re-
treat of the 10,000 Greeks. Expulsion
of the thirty tyrants from Athens by
Thrasybulus.
400 Socrates put to death.



VI.






Ol

xcvi. 1.



xcvi. 2>
xcvi. 3.

xcvii. 3.
xcviii. 1.

c. 4.

cii. 2.

cii. 3.

ciii. 2.
civ. 2.

civ. 3.
cv. 1.

cv. 4.
cvi. 4.

cviii. 1.
cix. 2,

ex. 3,

cxi. 1.
cxi. 2.
cxi. 3.

cxi. 4.
cxiL 1.



A.u.c,

358



359
360

364
366

377
383

384
387
391

392
394

397
401

406
411

416

418
419

420

421

422



B.C.

396 Expedition of Agesilaus into Asia. Age
of Xenophon, Zeuxis, Aristippus, and
Archytas.

395 Corinthian war begun by the alliances of
the Athenians, Thebans ? Corinthians,
and Argives, against the Lacedaemonians.
94Conon defeats the Lacedaemonian fleet
near Cnidus. The allies defeated by
Agesilaus in the battle of Coronea.

o90 Rome burnt by the Gauls. Age of Plato,
Conon, Iphicfates, Camillus.

388 Peace of Antalcidas, which made the
Greek cities in Asia Minor tributary to
the Persians.

377 Lacedemonians defeated off Naxus by
Chabrias. Age of Isxus, Isocrates, Dio-
genes, 8cc.

371 The Lacedaemonians defeated by the The-
bans, commanded by Epaminondas, at
the battle of Leuctra.

370 Messenians return to the Peloponnese, hav-
ing been banished 300 years.

3 67 One of the consuls at Rome elected from
the Plebians.

363 Lacedaemonians defeated by Epaminondas
at the battle of Mantinea. Death of
Epaminondas a year after that of Pelo-
pidas.

62 Agesilaus goes into Egypt, and dies on his
return home.

360 Athenians defeated at Methone by Philip
of Macedon, being the first battle he

357 gained in Greece.

Second sacred war began; the Phocians
having attacked the temple of Delphi.

353 Philip defeats the Phocians commanded
by Onomarchus.

o48 Philip puts an end to the sacred war.

343 Timoleon banishes Dionysius the younger,
tyrant of Syracuse. Age of Speusip-
pus, Protogenes, Aristotle, j32schines,
Demosthenes, Phocion, 6cc.

338 Philip defeats the Athenians and their al-
lies in the fatal battle of Chseronea.

336 Philip killed by Pausanias.

Alexander destroys Thebes.
4 Alexander begins his Persian expedition.
Battle of the Cranicus.

o33 Battle of Issus.

332 Tyre taken and destroyed by Alexander:
Alexander in F<gypt founded by him.



Vll



01.

cxii. 3.

cxiii. 2.
cxiv. 2.
cxiv. 4.
cxv. 1.

cxvi. 2,
cxvii. 1.
cxviii, 2,
cxviii. 3.
cxix. 4.

cxxii. 2.
cxxiv. 1.
cxxiv. 4.

cxxv. 1.
cxxv. 3.



cxxvii. 4.
cxxix. 1.

cxxx. 1.

cxxxi. 1.
cxxxii. 2.

cxxxiv. 1.
cxxxiv. 1.

cxxxiv. 4.
cxxxv. 1.



A.U.C.

423
42?
431
433
434

439
442
447
448
453

463

470
473

474
476

480

485
490

494

498
503

510
512

513

514



B.C

331

327

32



315



307 Democracy



306
301



291



Battle of Arbela. End of the Persian and
commencement of the Grecian empire.

Alexander's expedition against Poms. Age
of Apelles, Hyperides, Lysippus, &c.



Alexander dies May 21. Kingdom of E*

gypt founded by Ptolemy.,
321 Romans defeated by the Samnites at Cau-

dium.

320 Polyperchon 'publishes liberty to all the
Grecian cities. Age of Praxiteles, Me-
nander, Demetrius Phalereus.
Eumenes delivered to Antigonus by his

army.

312 Seleucus takes Babylon. Commencement
of the <era of the Seleucidse.

re-established at Athens by
Demetrius Poliorcetes.
Alexander's successors assume the title

of Kings.

Battle of Ipsus, in which Antigonus is de-
feated and killed by Ptolemy, Seleucus,
Lysimachus, and Cassander. Age of
Zeno, Pyrrho, Philemon, Grantor.
Age of Euclid the mathematician, Epicu-
rus, Bion, &c.
284 Pharos of Alexandria built. The Septua-

gint translated about this time.
281 Lysimachus defeated and killed by Seleu-
cus. Romans begin the Tarentine war.
Achxan league begins.
280 Pyrrhus king of Epirus goes to Italy to as-.

sist the Tarentines.

278 The Gauls cut to pieces near Delphi.
Age of Sostratus, Theocritus, Aratus,
Lycophron, Sec.
274 Curius defeats Pyrrhus, who retires to

Epirus.

269 Silver first coined at Rome.
264 First Punic war begins, and continues 23
years.

games the first naval victory with
a Roman fleet over the Carthaginians.
256 Regulus defeated by Xanthippus.

Age of Aratus, Cleanthes, Manetho, Ti-

mexus, Callimachus, Zoilus.
244 Citidel of Corinth taken by Aratus.
242 Carthaginians defeated by Lutatius Catu-

lus. End of the first Punic war.
Agis king of Laced&mon put to death.

" Livius Andronicus first acted at
Rome.



260 Duillius



241

240 Plays of



V11I



01.


A.U.C


B.C




cxxxv. 4.


517


237


Amilcar passes into Spain with his son








Hannibal,


cxxxvi.2.


519


235


Temple of Janus shut the first time since








the reign of Numa.


cxxxvi. 4.


521


232


Original manuscripts of ./Eschylus, Sopho-








cles, and Euripides, lent Ptolemy on a








pledge of fifteen talents.


cxxxvii.l.


523


231


First divorce known at Rome. Sardinia








and Corsica conquered.


cxxxix. 1.


530


224


Collossus of Rhodes thrown down by an








earthquake. Romans first cross the Po








in pursuit of the Gauls. Age of Chry-








sippus, Archimedes, Valerius, Messala,








C. Naevius, Aristarchus, Apollonius Rho-
dius, Fabius Pictor the first Roman his-








torian, &c.


cxl. 1.


534


220


Social war between the -JEtolians and








Achxans assisted by Philip, the last








Macedonian king of that name.


cxl. 2.


535


219


Hannibal takes Saguntum, which is the








cause of the second Punic war.


cxl. 3,


536


218


Second Punic war begins, and continues 17








years. Battles of Ticinus and Trebia.


cxl. 4.


537


217


Battle of Trasy menus.


cxli. 1.


538


216


Battle of Cannas.


cxli. 3,
cxlii. 1.


540
542


214
212


Romans begin war against Philip in Epims.
Syracuse taken by Marcellus after a seige








of three years. Death of Archimedes.


cxliii. 2,


547


207


Asdrubal defeated by Claudius. Age of








Clautus, Annius, &c.


cxliv, 3.


552


202


Battle of Zama, which put an end to the








second Punic war.


cxlv, 1.


554


200


First Macedonian war begins, and conti-








nues four years nearly.


cxlv. 4.


557


197


Philip defeated at the battle of Cynoscep-








hale, which put an end to the first Ma-








cedonian war.


cxlvii. 1.


562


192


Romans begin the war with Antiochus the








Great, which continues near three years.
Age of Lzclius, Massinissa, the Scipios,








the Gracchi.


cxlix. 2.


571


183


Death of Hannibal and Philopcemen. Sci-








pio died the year preceding.


clii. 2.


583


171


Second Macedonian war.


cliii. 1.


586


168


Battle of Pydna, in which Perses is de-








feated by Paulus /Emilius, and Macedo-








nian reduced to a Roman province. Age








of Terence, Polybius, Pacuvius, Hippar-








chus, Carneades, &c.


clvii. 4.


605


149


Third Punic war begins.


clviii. 1.


606


148


Romans make war upon the Achxans.


clviii. 4.


609


145


Carthage destroyed by Scipio, and Co-








rinth by Mummius,



IX



A.C.U.


B.C.


608


146


613


141


618


136


619


135


621


133


633


121


643


111


652


102


653


101


657


97


663


91


665


89


666


88


672


82


676


78


679


75


681


73


683


71


685


69


688


66


689


65


691


63


694


60


696


58


699


55


701


53


704


50


706


48


707


47


708


46


709


45


710


44


711


43



Viriatus defeated by Lselius in Spain.

Numantine war begins; continues eight years.

The famous embassy of Scipio, Metellus, Mummius,
and Panactius into Egypt, Syria, and Greece.

The history of the Apocrypha ends.

Numantia taken. Pergamus annexed to the Roman
empire. Tiberius Gracchus killed.

Caius Gracchus killed. Age of Lucilius.

Jugurthine war begins, and continues five years.

Teutones defeated by Marius.

Teutones and Cimbri defeated by Marius and Catu-
lus,

Cyrene left by Ptolemy Apion to the Romans.

Social war begins, and continues three years till
finished by Sylla.

Mithridatic war begins, and continues 26 years.

Civil wars of Marius and Sylla begin, and continue 6
years.

Sylla defeats the younger Marius, and is made dicta-
tor.

Death of Sylla.

Bithynia left by Nicomedes to the Romans.

Servile war begins under Spartacus.

Spartacus defeated by Crassus and Pompey.

Mithridates and Tigranes defeated by Lucullus.

Mithridates conquered by Pompey in a night battle.
Crete subdued by Metellus, who obtains the sur-
name of Creticus.

Pompey conquers Syria, which puts an end to the
reign of the Seleucidse.

Cataline's conspiracy defeated by Cicero. Mithri-
dates kills himself.

First triumvirate of Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus.
Age of Cicero, Catullus, Lucretius, Sallust, 8cc.

Cicero banished, and recalled in sixteen months.

Caesar invades Britain.

Death of Crassus.

Civil war between Caesar and Pompey.

Battle of Pharsalia.

Alexandria taken by Caesar.

War of Africa. Cato kills himself. Caesar corrects
the calander by the advice of Sosi genes: the year
of confusion, consisting of 15 months, or 445 days.

Battle of Munda.

Caesar killed in the senate-house.

Battle of Mutina. Second triumvirate of Octavius,
Anthony, and Lepidus. Cicero proscribed and put
to death. Age of C. Nepos, Diodorus Siculus, Tro-
gus Pompeius, Varro, &c.



kA.U.C


B.C.


712


42


715


39


718


36


722


32


723


31


724


30


727


27


734


20


737


17


739


15


742


12


748


6


749


4




A.D,


755


2


762


9


763


10


767


14


770


17


772


19


779


26


784


31


786


33


789


36


790


37


792


39


793


40


794


41


796


43


797


44


804


51


807


54


812


59


817


64


818


65


819


66



Battle of Philippi.

Ventidius defeats Pacorus general of the Parthian*,
on the same day 14 years after the death of Crassus.

Pompey the younger defeated in Sicily by Octavius.

Octavius and Antony prepare for war.

Battle of Actium.

Alexandria taken, and Egypt reduced to a Roman
province.

Title of Agustus given to Octavius. The Augustan
age of Virgil, Manilius, Asinius Pollio, Maecenas
Agrippa, Strabo, Horace, Macer, Propertius, Livy,
Tibullus, Ovid, Varius, Tucca, Vitruvius, Di ony-
sius Halicarnassensis, and Dionysius Periegetes.

Tiberius recovers the Roman standards from the
Parthians.

Secular games celebrated at Rome.

Rhseti and Vindelici defeated by Drusus.

Pannonians defeated by Tiberius.

Tiberius retires to Rhodes for seven years*

Our Saviour born, four years before the vulgar sera.

Tiberius returns to Rome.

Ovid banished to Tomos.

Varus defeated in Germany by Arminius.

Augustus dies at Nola, and is succeeded by Tiberius,
Age of Phaedrus, Asinius Gallus, Paterculus, Cor-
nelius Celsus, 8cc.

Twelve cities in Asia Minor destroyed by an earth-
quake.

Germanicus, poisoned by Piso, dies at Antioch.

Tiberius retires to the island of Caprese.

Sejanus disgraced and put to death.

Our Saviour crucified.

Conversion of St. Paul.

Tiberius dies, and is succeeded by Caligula. Age of
Valerius Maximus, Columella, Philo Judxus, Sec.

St. Matthew writes his gospel.

The disciples first called Christians at Antioch.

Caligula killed by Chssrea and succeeded by Clau-
dius.

The expedition of Claudius into Britain.

St. Mark writes his gospel.

Caractacus brought a prisoner to Rome.

Claudius poisoned by Agrippina and succeeded by
Nero.

Agrippina put to death by her son Nero.

First persecution of the Christians.

Seneca and Lucan put to death by Nero.

Nero visits Greece. The Jewish war begins, Age
of Persius, Q. Curtius, Pliny the naturalist, Jose-
phus, Frontinus, &c.



A.U.C.

820
821

822


B.C.

67
68
69


823


70


832


79


834


81


848
849


95
96


851
855


98
102


856
859


103
106


860
867
870
871
874
'883


107
114
117
118
121
130


884


131


891


138


914


161


922
933


169
180


945


192



St. Peter and St. Paul put to death.

Nero killed and succeeded by Galba.

Galba killed and succeeded by Otho. Otho, defeat-
ed by Vitellius, kills himself. Vitellius defeated,
and killed, and succeeded by Vespasian.

Jerusalem taken and destroyed by Titus, Saturday,
Sept. 8.

Death of Vespasian: succession of Titus. Hercu-
laneum, Pompeii, and Stabile destroyed by an erup-
tion of Vesuvius, in which Pliny the elder lost his
life. Age of Josephus.

Death of Titus and succession of Domitian. Age of
Sil. Italicus, Martial, Apollonius of Tyana, Vale-
rius Flaccus, Solinus, Epictetus, Quintilian. Agri-
cola, &c.

Second persecution of the Christians.

Domitian killed by Stephanus and succeeded by Ner-
va. Age of Juvenal, Tacitus, Statins, 8cc.

Death of Nerva and succession of Trajan.

Pliny, proconsul of Bithynia, writes his famous letter
to Trajan giving an account of the Christians,

Trajan reduces Dacia to a Roman province.

Trajan's expedition to Parthia. Age of Floras, Sue-
tonius, Pliny the younger, Plutarch, &c.

Third Persecution of the Christians.

Trajan's column erected at Rome.

Death of Trajan: succession of Hadrian.

Fourth persecution of the Christians,

Hadrian builds his wall in Britain.

Hadrian rebuilds Jerusalem and erects a temple
there to Jupiter.

The Jews rebel, and after a war of five years are de-
feated and all banished.

Death of Hadrian and succession of Antoninus Pius.
In the reign of Hadrian flourished Phavorinus,
Aristides the sophist, Polycarp, Arrian, Ptolemy
the geographer, 8cc,

Death of Antoninus; succession of Marcus Aurelius
and L. Verus. In the reign of Antoninus flourish-
ed Maximus Tyrius, Pausanias the topographer of
Greece, Diophantus the mathematician, Lucian,
Hermogenes, Polyzenus, Appian, Artemidorus,
Justin Martyr, Apuleius, &c.

War of the Marcomanni.

Death of Aurelius: succession of Commodus. In the
reign of Aurelius flourished Galen, Athenagoras,
Tatian, Athenacus, Diogenes Laertius.

Commodus killed by Martia and Lxtus: succeeded
by Pertinax, who reigns a few months. In this
reign flourished Julius Pollux, Theodotian, Ire-
naeus, &e.



A.U.C

946


fl.C

193


P


947
951
955
960
962
964


194
199
202
207
209
211


S
S
F
S
S<

s<


965
970


212
217


c;
c


971


218


M


975


222


E


988


235


T


989


236


M


990


238


Pi


997
1002


244
249


G<

J ]


1003
1004


250
251


Se
1)(


1006


253


G-<


1010
1012


257
259


V,

Vi

'


1013


260


G;

i


1021


268


G<

i


1023
1025
1026


270
272
273


Cl

Ni

Ze

1


1028


275


.

\\



Pertinax killed by the Prretorian guards, who self
the empire to Didius Julianus. Didius Julianus kil-
led by the Prastorian guards, and succeeded by Se-
verus.

Severus defeats his rival Niger at Issus.

Severus defeats and kills his rival Albinus at Lyons.

Fifth persecution of the Christians.

Severus visits Britain.

Severus builds his wall in Britain.

Severus dies at York, and is succeeded by Caracalla
and Geta. In the reign of Severus flourished Ter-
tullian, Minucius Felix, Papinian, Clemens Alex-
andrinus, Philostratus, &c.

Geta killed by his brother Caracalla.

Caracalla killed, and succeeded by Macrinus. In
this reign Oppian flourished.

Macrinus killed by the Praetorian guards and suc-
ceeded by Elagabalus.

Elagabalus killed by the Prxtorian guards and suc-
ceeded by Alexander.

The sixth persecution of the Christians. Alexander
killed by the soldiers and succeeded by Maximin.
In the reign of Alexander flourished Dion Cassius,
Origen, and Ammonius.

Maximin killed by the soldiers and succeeded by the
two Gordians, who are killed by Pupienus and
Balbinus,

upienus and Balbinus killed by the soldiers and suc-
ceeded by Gordian.

jordian killed and succeeded by Philip.

~hilip killed by the soldiers and succeeded by De-
cius.

Seventh persecution of the Christians,

Decius killed in battle against the Goths and succeed-
ed by Gallus-.

alms killed and succeeded by ./Emilianus, who is
soon killed by his soldiers and succeeded by Vale-
riaij.

Eighth persecution of the Christians.

Valerian taken by Sapor king of Persia, by whom he
is kept prisoner, and at length flayed alive.

Gallienus succeeds Valerian. The thirty pretenders
to the empire called the thirty tyrants,
allienus killed by the soldiers and succeeded by
Claudius.

Claudius dies and is succeeded by Aurelian.

S"inth persecution of the Christians.
Zenobia defeated by Aurelian at Edessa. Age of
Longinus.

Aurelian killed and succeeded by Tacitus, who



Xlll



A.U.C.


B.C.


1035


282


1037


284


1039


286


1056


303


1057


304


1059


306


1065

1072
1077
1078
1081


312
319
324
325
328


1083


330
331




337




340
350
360
363
364




410




426

447




455
474
476




529




581




622




632



reigned only six months, and was succeeded bjr
Probus.

Probus killed by his soldiers and succeeded by Cams
and his two sons, Carinus and Numerianus.

Cams killed by lightning and succeeded by Diocle-
sian,. Carausius in Britain.

Dioclesian takes Maximianus as his partner in the
empire.

Tenth persecution of the Christians, which continues
ten years.

Dioclesian and Maximianus abdicate the empire, and
are succeeded by Constantius Chlorus and Gale-
rius.

Constantius dies, and is succeeded by his son Con-
stantine the Great.

Maxentius defeated and killed by Constantine.

Constantine begins to favour the Christians.

Licinius defeated and banished by Constantine.

The first general Council of Nice,

The seat of Empire removed from Rome to Constan-
tinople.

Solemn dedication of Constantinople.

Constantine orders all the heathen temples to be des-
troyed.

Death of Constantine and succession of his three sons,
Constantine, Constans, and Constantius,

Constantine killed by Constans at Aquileia.

Constans killed in Spain by Magnentius.

Death of Constantius: succession of Julian.

Death of Julian: succession of Jovian.

Death of Jovian. Division of the empire into Eastern
and Western; the former being governed by Va-


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