BY SAMUEL CUTLER, D.D. F.R.S.&c. &c.
ARCHDEACON OF DERBY,
AND HEAD MASTER OF THE ROYAL FREE GRAMMAR SCHOOL OF
SECOND AMERICAN, FROM THE NINTH LONDON EDITION,
WITH QUESTIONS ON THE MAPS,
BY JOHN FROST.
CAREY AND LEA, CHESNUT STREET.
Entered, according to an Act of Congress, in the year 1831, in the
Clerk's office of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.
Creation of the world.
Tower of Babel built, and confusion of languages.
The Assyrian empire founded.
Birth of Abraham.
Joseph sold into Egypt.
Kingdom of Attica founded by Cecrops.
Thebes built by Cadmus.
The five books of Moses written, who dies the next year.
Minos the Cretan lawgiver.
Eleusinian mysteries introduced at Athens by Eumolpus.
Return of the Heraclidas to the Peloponnese.
Saul made king of Israel.
Codrus last king of Athens.
Settlement of the Ionian colonies in Asia Minor. Age of
Dedication of Solomon's temple.
Kingdoms of Israel and Judah divided.
Age of Hesiod.
Elijah taken up to heaven.
Lycurgus the Spartan lawgiver.
Sardanapalus, last king of Assyrian Median empire
Coroebus conquers at the Olympic games;
from which time the regular dates of
the Olympiads begin.
saiah begins to prophesy.
lome founded, April 20,
First Messenian war; continues 19 years
to the taking of Ithome.
kingdom of Israel finished by the taking
of Samaria by Salmanasar king of As-
Second Messenian war; continues four-
teen years to the taking of Ira after a
seige of eleven years. Age of Tyrtxus
Annual Archons established at Athens.
Cypselus usurps the government of Co-
Draco the Athenian lawgiver.
Age of Arion, Pittacus, Alcxus, Sappho.
Pythian games established at Delphi, and
continued every second year of each
Olympiad. Age of Chilo, Anacharsis,
Thales, Epimenides, Solon, ^Esop, Ste-
i chorus, 8cc.
Jerusalem taken by Nebuchadnezzar king
of Babylon, June 9, after a seige of 18
Death of Jeremiah the prophet.
First comedy acted at Athens by Susarion
Pisistratus usurps the sovereign power at
Persian empire founded upon the Median
by Cyrus. Age of Anaximenes, Bias,
Anaximander, Phalaris, and Cleobulus.
Croesus, last king of Lydia, conquered by
Cyrus. Age of Theognis and Phere-
Marseilles built by the Phocxans. Age of
Pythagoras, Simonides, Thespis, Xeno-
phanes, and Anacreon.
Babylon taken by Cyrus.
Edict of Cyrus for the return of the Jews,
and rebuilding of the temple,
Egypt conquered by Cambyses.
Darius Hystaspes, king of Persia. Age
of Confucius the Chinese Philosopher.
Tyranny of the Pisistratidx abolished at
Expulsion of the Tarqnins from Rome.
End of the regal, and establishment of
the consular government.
504Sardis burnt by the Athenians, which
causes the invasion of Greece by the
Persians. Age of Heraclitus, Parme-
nides, Milo the wrestler, Aristagoras,
498 Lartius the first dictator created at Rome.
493 Secession of the Roman people to Mons
490 Battle of Marathon. Age of Miltiades.
480 Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis. Age
of jEschylus, Pinder, Anaxagoras, Zeu-
xis, Aristides, Themistocles, Sec.
479 Battles of Plataea and Mycale on the same
477 The 300 Fabii killed in one day.
465 Third Messenian war; continues 10 years.
454 The Romans send to Athens for Solon's
laws. Age of Sophocles, Pericles, Za-
leucus, Nehemiah the prophet, &c.
448 The first sacred war concerning the tem-
ple of Delphi.
447 The Athenians defeated by the Boeotians,
445 Age of Herodotus, Empedocles, Euripi-
des, Phidias, &c.
43lPeloponnesian war begins, May 7, and
continues twenty-seven years. Age of
Cratinus, Eupolis, Aristophanes,*Meton,
Democritus, Gorgias, Thucydides, Hip-
pocrates, Malachi the last of the Pro-
phets: and the history of the Old Testa-
421 The fifty years' peace made between the
Athenians and Lacedaemonians, which
is kept but six years and 10 months.
416 Scene of the Peloponnesian war removed
to Sicily. The Agrarian law first mov-
ed at Rome.
405 Battle of ^Egos Potamos. Usurpation of
Dionysius the elder.
404 Athens taken by Lysander, which puts an
end to the Peloponnesian war. Age of
Parrhasius, Protagoras, Lysias, Aga-
401 Cyrus the younger killed at Cunaxa. Re-
treat of the 10,000 Greeks. Expulsion
of the thirty tyrants from Athens by
400 Socrates put to death.
396 Expedition of Agesilaus into Asia. Age
of Xenophon, Zeuxis, Aristippus, and
395 Corinthian war begun by the alliances of
the Athenians, Thebans ? Corinthians,
and Argives, against the Lacedaemonians.
94Conon defeats the Lacedaemonian fleet
near Cnidus. The allies defeated by
Agesilaus in the battle of Coronea.
o90 Rome burnt by the Gauls. Age of Plato,
Conon, Iphicfates, Camillus.
388 Peace of Antalcidas, which made the
Greek cities in Asia Minor tributary to
377 Lacedemonians defeated off Naxus by
Chabrias. Age of Isxus, Isocrates, Dio-
371 The Lacedaemonians defeated by the The-
bans, commanded by Epaminondas, at
the battle of Leuctra.
370 Messenians return to the Peloponnese, hav-
ing been banished 300 years.
3 67 One of the consuls at Rome elected from
363 Lacedaemonians defeated by Epaminondas
at the battle of Mantinea. Death of
Epaminondas a year after that of Pelo-
62 Agesilaus goes into Egypt, and dies on his
360 Athenians defeated at Methone by Philip
of Macedon, being the first battle he
357 gained in Greece.
Second sacred war began; the Phocians
having attacked the temple of Delphi.
353 Philip defeats the Phocians commanded
o48 Philip puts an end to the sacred war.
343 Timoleon banishes Dionysius the younger,
tyrant of Syracuse. Age of Speusip-
pus, Protogenes, Aristotle, j32schines,
Demosthenes, Phocion, 6cc.
338 Philip defeats the Athenians and their al-
lies in the fatal battle of Chseronea.
336 Philip killed by Pausanias.
Alexander destroys Thebes.
4 Alexander begins his Persian expedition.
Battle of the Cranicus.
o33 Battle of Issus.
332 Tyre taken and destroyed by Alexander:
Alexander in F<gypt founded by him.
Battle of Arbela. End of the Persian and
commencement of the Grecian empire.
Alexander's expedition against Poms. Age
of Apelles, Hyperides, Lysippus, &c.
Alexander dies May 21. Kingdom of E*
gypt founded by Ptolemy.,
321 Romans defeated by the Samnites at Cau-
320 Polyperchon 'publishes liberty to all the
Grecian cities. Age of Praxiteles, Me-
nander, Demetrius Phalereus.
Eumenes delivered to Antigonus by his
312 Seleucus takes Babylon. Commencement
of the <era of the Seleucidse.
re-established at Athens by
Alexander's successors assume the title
Battle of Ipsus, in which Antigonus is de-
feated and killed by Ptolemy, Seleucus,
Lysimachus, and Cassander. Age of
Zeno, Pyrrho, Philemon, Grantor.
Age of Euclid the mathematician, Epicu-
rus, Bion, &c.
284 Pharos of Alexandria built. The Septua-
gint translated about this time.
281 Lysimachus defeated and killed by Seleu-
cus. Romans begin the Tarentine war.
Achxan league begins.
280 Pyrrhus king of Epirus goes to Italy to as-.
sist the Tarentines.
278 The Gauls cut to pieces near Delphi.
Age of Sostratus, Theocritus, Aratus,
274 Curius defeats Pyrrhus, who retires to
269 Silver first coined at Rome.
264 First Punic war begins, and continues 23
games the first naval victory with
a Roman fleet over the Carthaginians.
256 Regulus defeated by Xanthippus.
Age of Aratus, Cleanthes, Manetho, Ti-
mexus, Callimachus, Zoilus.
244 Citidel of Corinth taken by Aratus.
242 Carthaginians defeated by Lutatius Catu-
lus. End of the first Punic war.
Agis king of Laced&mon put to death.
" Livius Andronicus first acted at
240 Plays of
Amilcar passes into Spain with his son
Temple of Janus shut the first time since
the reign of Numa.
Original manuscripts of ./Eschylus, Sopho-
cles, and Euripides, lent Ptolemy on a
pledge of fifteen talents.
First divorce known at Rome. Sardinia
and Corsica conquered.
Collossus of Rhodes thrown down by an
earthquake. Romans first cross the Po
in pursuit of the Gauls. Age of Chry-
sippus, Archimedes, Valerius, Messala,
C. Naevius, Aristarchus, Apollonius Rho-
dius, Fabius Pictor the first Roman his-
Social war between the -JEtolians and
Achxans assisted by Philip, the last
Macedonian king of that name.
Hannibal takes Saguntum, which is the
cause of the second Punic war.
Second Punic war begins, and continues 17
years. Battles of Ticinus and Trebia.
Battle of Trasy menus.
Battle of Cannas.
Romans begin war against Philip in Epims.
Syracuse taken by Marcellus after a seige
of three years. Death of Archimedes.
Asdrubal defeated by Claudius. Age of
Clautus, Annius, &c.
Battle of Zama, which put an end to the
second Punic war.
First Macedonian war begins, and conti-
nues four years nearly.
Philip defeated at the battle of Cynoscep-
hale, which put an end to the first Ma-
Romans begin the war with Antiochus the
Great, which continues near three years.
Age of Lzclius, Massinissa, the Scipios,
Death of Hannibal and Philopcemen. Sci-
pio died the year preceding.
Second Macedonian war.
Battle of Pydna, in which Perses is de-
feated by Paulus /Emilius, and Macedo-
nian reduced to a Roman province. Age
of Terence, Polybius, Pacuvius, Hippar-
chus, Carneades, &c.
Third Punic war begins.
Romans make war upon the Achxans.
Carthage destroyed by Scipio, and Co-
rinth by Mummius,
Viriatus defeated by Lselius in Spain.
Numantine war begins; continues eight years.
The famous embassy of Scipio, Metellus, Mummius,
and Panactius into Egypt, Syria, and Greece.
The history of the Apocrypha ends.
Numantia taken. Pergamus annexed to the Roman
empire. Tiberius Gracchus killed.
Caius Gracchus killed. Age of Lucilius.
Jugurthine war begins, and continues five years.
Teutones defeated by Marius.
Teutones and Cimbri defeated by Marius and Catu-
Cyrene left by Ptolemy Apion to the Romans.
Social war begins, and continues three years till
finished by Sylla.
Mithridatic war begins, and continues 26 years.
Civil wars of Marius and Sylla begin, and continue 6
Sylla defeats the younger Marius, and is made dicta-
Death of Sylla.
Bithynia left by Nicomedes to the Romans.
Servile war begins under Spartacus.
Spartacus defeated by Crassus and Pompey.
Mithridates and Tigranes defeated by Lucullus.
Mithridates conquered by Pompey in a night battle.
Crete subdued by Metellus, who obtains the sur-
name of Creticus.
Pompey conquers Syria, which puts an end to the
reign of the Seleucidse.
Cataline's conspiracy defeated by Cicero. Mithri-
dates kills himself.
First triumvirate of Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus.
Age of Cicero, Catullus, Lucretius, Sallust, 8cc.
Cicero banished, and recalled in sixteen months.
Caesar invades Britain.
Death of Crassus.
Civil war between Caesar and Pompey.
Battle of Pharsalia.
Alexandria taken by Caesar.
War of Africa. Cato kills himself. Caesar corrects
the calander by the advice of Sosi genes: the year
of confusion, consisting of 15 months, or 445 days.
Battle of Munda.
Caesar killed in the senate-house.
Battle of Mutina. Second triumvirate of Octavius,
Anthony, and Lepidus. Cicero proscribed and put
to death. Age of C. Nepos, Diodorus Siculus, Tro-
gus Pompeius, Varro, &c.
Battle of Philippi.
Ventidius defeats Pacorus general of the Parthian*,
on the same day 14 years after the death of Crassus.
Pompey the younger defeated in Sicily by Octavius.
Octavius and Antony prepare for war.
Battle of Actium.
Alexandria taken, and Egypt reduced to a Roman
Title of Agustus given to Octavius. The Augustan
age of Virgil, Manilius, Asinius Pollio, Maecenas
Agrippa, Strabo, Horace, Macer, Propertius, Livy,
Tibullus, Ovid, Varius, Tucca, Vitruvius, Di ony-
sius Halicarnassensis, and Dionysius Periegetes.
Tiberius recovers the Roman standards from the
Secular games celebrated at Rome.
Rhseti and Vindelici defeated by Drusus.
Pannonians defeated by Tiberius.
Tiberius retires to Rhodes for seven years*
Our Saviour born, four years before the vulgar sera.
Tiberius returns to Rome.
Ovid banished to Tomos.
Varus defeated in Germany by Arminius.
Augustus dies at Nola, and is succeeded by Tiberius,
Age of Phaedrus, Asinius Gallus, Paterculus, Cor-
nelius Celsus, 8cc.
Twelve cities in Asia Minor destroyed by an earth-
Germanicus, poisoned by Piso, dies at Antioch.
Tiberius retires to the island of Caprese.
Sejanus disgraced and put to death.
Our Saviour crucified.
Conversion of St. Paul.
Tiberius dies, and is succeeded by Caligula. Age of
Valerius Maximus, Columella, Philo Judxus, Sec.
St. Matthew writes his gospel.
The disciples first called Christians at Antioch.
Caligula killed by Chssrea and succeeded by Clau-
The expedition of Claudius into Britain.
St. Mark writes his gospel.
Caractacus brought a prisoner to Rome.
Claudius poisoned by Agrippina and succeeded by
Agrippina put to death by her son Nero.
First persecution of the Christians.
Seneca and Lucan put to death by Nero.
Nero visits Greece. The Jewish war begins, Age
of Persius, Q. Curtius, Pliny the naturalist, Jose-
phus, Frontinus, &c.
St. Peter and St. Paul put to death.
Nero killed and succeeded by Galba.
Galba killed and succeeded by Otho. Otho, defeat-
ed by Vitellius, kills himself. Vitellius defeated,
and killed, and succeeded by Vespasian.
Jerusalem taken and destroyed by Titus, Saturday,
Death of Vespasian: succession of Titus. Hercu-
laneum, Pompeii, and Stabile destroyed by an erup-
tion of Vesuvius, in which Pliny the elder lost his
life. Age of Josephus.
Death of Titus and succession of Domitian. Age of
Sil. Italicus, Martial, Apollonius of Tyana, Vale-
rius Flaccus, Solinus, Epictetus, Quintilian. Agri-
Second persecution of the Christians.
Domitian killed by Stephanus and succeeded by Ner-
va. Age of Juvenal, Tacitus, Statins, 8cc.
Death of Nerva and succession of Trajan.
Pliny, proconsul of Bithynia, writes his famous letter
to Trajan giving an account of the Christians,
Trajan reduces Dacia to a Roman province.
Trajan's expedition to Parthia. Age of Floras, Sue-
tonius, Pliny the younger, Plutarch, &c.
Third Persecution of the Christians.
Trajan's column erected at Rome.
Death of Trajan: succession of Hadrian.
Fourth persecution of the Christians,
Hadrian builds his wall in Britain.
Hadrian rebuilds Jerusalem and erects a temple
there to Jupiter.
The Jews rebel, and after a war of five years are de-
feated and all banished.
Death of Hadrian and succession of Antoninus Pius.
In the reign of Hadrian flourished Phavorinus,
Aristides the sophist, Polycarp, Arrian, Ptolemy
the geographer, 8cc,
Death of Antoninus; succession of Marcus Aurelius
and L. Verus. In the reign of Antoninus flourish-
ed Maximus Tyrius, Pausanias the topographer of
Greece, Diophantus the mathematician, Lucian,
Hermogenes, Polyzenus, Appian, Artemidorus,
Justin Martyr, Apuleius, &c.
War of the Marcomanni.
Death of Aurelius: succession of Commodus. In the
reign of Aurelius flourished Galen, Athenagoras,
Tatian, Athenacus, Diogenes Laertius.
Commodus killed by Martia and Lxtus: succeeded
by Pertinax, who reigns a few months. In this
reign flourished Julius Pollux, Theodotian, Ire-
Pertinax killed by the Prretorian guards, who self
the empire to Didius Julianus. Didius Julianus kil-
led by the Prastorian guards, and succeeded by Se-
Severus defeats his rival Niger at Issus.
Severus defeats and kills his rival Albinus at Lyons.
Fifth persecution of the Christians.
Severus visits Britain.
Severus builds his wall in Britain.
Severus dies at York, and is succeeded by Caracalla
and Geta. In the reign of Severus flourished Ter-
tullian, Minucius Felix, Papinian, Clemens Alex-
andrinus, Philostratus, &c.
Geta killed by his brother Caracalla.
Caracalla killed, and succeeded by Macrinus. In
this reign Oppian flourished.
Macrinus killed by the Praetorian guards and suc-
ceeded by Elagabalus.
Elagabalus killed by the Prxtorian guards and suc-
ceeded by Alexander.
The sixth persecution of the Christians. Alexander
killed by the soldiers and succeeded by Maximin.
In the reign of Alexander flourished Dion Cassius,
Origen, and Ammonius.
Maximin killed by the soldiers and succeeded by the
two Gordians, who are killed by Pupienus and
upienus and Balbinus killed by the soldiers and suc-
ceeded by Gordian.
jordian killed and succeeded by Philip.
~hilip killed by the soldiers and succeeded by De-
Seventh persecution of the Christians,
Decius killed in battle against the Goths and succeed-
ed by Gallus-.
alms killed and succeeded by ./Emilianus, who is
soon killed by his soldiers and succeeded by Vale-
Eighth persecution of the Christians.
Valerian taken by Sapor king of Persia, by whom he
is kept prisoner, and at length flayed alive.
Gallienus succeeds Valerian. The thirty pretenders
to the empire called the thirty tyrants,
allienus killed by the soldiers and succeeded by
Claudius dies and is succeeded by Aurelian.
S"inth persecution of the Christians.
Zenobia defeated by Aurelian at Edessa. Age of
Aurelian killed and succeeded by Tacitus, who
reigned only six months, and was succeeded bjr
Probus killed by his soldiers and succeeded by Cams
and his two sons, Carinus and Numerianus.
Cams killed by lightning and succeeded by Diocle-
sian,. Carausius in Britain.
Dioclesian takes Maximianus as his partner in the
Tenth persecution of the Christians, which continues
Dioclesian and Maximianus abdicate the empire, and
are succeeded by Constantius Chlorus and Gale-
Constantius dies, and is succeeded by his son Con-
stantine the Great.
Maxentius defeated and killed by Constantine.
Constantine begins to favour the Christians.
Licinius defeated and banished by Constantine.
The first general Council of Nice,
The seat of Empire removed from Rome to Constan-
Solemn dedication of Constantinople.
Constantine orders all the heathen temples to be des-
Death of Constantine and succession of his three sons,
Constantine, Constans, and Constantius,
Constantine killed by Constans at Aquileia.
Constans killed in Spain by Magnentius.
Death of Constantius: succession of Julian.
Death of Julian: succession of Jovian.
Death of Jovian. Division of the empire into Eastern
and Western; the former being governed by Va-