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lee from Samaria was the city of Jesrael, situated in a
spacious plain, to which it gave name, and which is still
called the Plain of Esdrelon; North-west of it, along
the coast, is Mount Carmel. At the North of Mount
Carmel is the brook Kison, which rises in Mount Tabor,
or Itabyrius, and flows into the sea a little below Ptole-
mais, so called from the Ptolemies, kings of Egypt, but
antiently Aco, and so memorable in the time of the cru
sades, under the name of *flcre, for the exploits of our
king Richard the First, and in our own time for the de-
feat of Buonaparte by Sir Sidney Smith. South-east of
Ptolemais was the strong city of Sepphoris, afterwards
called Dio Csesarea, now Sefouri; South of it was Naza-
reth, and a little South-east of Nazareth was Mount Ta-
bor, or Itabyrius, thought by some to have been the
scene of the Transfiguration, a little North of which was
Cana of Galilee. Considerably South-east of Mount Ta-
bor, near the Jordan, is Bethsan or Scythopolis, now
Baitsan; it was the chief of the cities of Decapolis,
or the ten confederate cities, which being not inhabited
by Jews, formed a confederation for mutual protection
against the Asmonean princes of Judaea. Between
Mount Tabor and Scythopolis was Endor, near Mount
Hermon, which must not be confounded with the great
range of the same name East of the Jordan. South-east
of Endor, was Gelbus or Gilboa, where Saul perished
after his interview with the witch of Endor. The city
Tiberias or Tabaricij so named by Herod Antipas in



170

honour of Tiberius Caesar, stood on the Western shore of
the lake to which it gave name, which is also called the
Sea of Gennesareth, from a pleasant district called Gen-
nesar, near Capernaum, at the northern extremity of the
lake*. A little North of Tiberias was Magdala, West of
which was Bethulia, or Saphet, where the Jews were
delivered by Judith from the power of Holofernes. Ca-
pernaum stood about midway between Bethsaida, to the
South, and Chorazin, upon the Northern point of the
lake. North-west of the lake is Jotapata, where the
Jewish historian Josephus sustained a siege against Ves-
pasian. On the Northern confines of Palestine was the
district of Trachonitis, in which was the city of Paneas,
antiently Laish, which Herod's son Philip called Ca3sa-
rea, and which received the addition of Philippi to dis-
tinguish it from the Csesarea already noticed. A little
West was Dan, the Northern boundary of the kingdom
of Israel, as Bethel was, on the South.

The country on the East of Jordan, between the two
lakes, was called Paeera, perhaps from xtpctv beyond, ex-
tending from the brook Arnon, which flows into the
North-eastern end of the Dead Sea, to the mountains of
Galaad, near the sea of Tiberias. At some distance from
Jordan, and almost opposite to Jericho, are Mounts Aba-
rim and Nebo, from which Moses had a view of the
Promised Land. A little East of Mount Nebo is Hes-
bon, and North-west of it the very strong fortress of
Amathus, or Jlssalt^ commanding the plain of Aulon, or
JEl-Gour, along the banks of the Jordan, considerably
above which is Bethabara. North-east of Peraea is the

* Mutth. xi. 21.



171

district called Galaaditis, from Mount Galaad, in which,
on the brook Jabbok, is to be found Ramoth, or Ramoth
Gilead. North of Galaaditis is Batanaea, or Batania,
the antient territory of Og, king of Basan, South of
which lay the possessions of Sihon, king of the Amo-
rites. A strong fortress called Gaulon gave the name of
Gaulonitis to the Eastern shores of the lake Gennesa-
reth, at the Southern extremity of which was the im-
pregnable fortress of Gamala; and near it Gadara, or the
country of the Gadarenes, on the torrent Hieromax, or
Yermak, so signalized by the fatal defeat of the Christian
forces by the Saracens, under Abu Obeidah, November
9. A.D. 636. East of Gadara is Adraa, or Edrei, now
Jldreat. Southward of this is Gerasa or Jerash, which
contains many splendid remains of antiquity. North of
the lake Mount Hermon separates Palestine, properly so
called, from the adjacent countries of Trachonitis, (a rug-
ged district, as its name imports, adjoining Coelesyria,)
Itursea, and Auranitis, the chief city of which, Bostra,
now JBosra, was the metropolis of a province formed un-
der the name of Arabia. Below Auranitis was Ammo-
nitis, or the land of the children of Ammon, whose chief
city was Rabbath Ammon, called afterwards Philadel-
phia, but now Jlmman; and below it was Moabitis, or
the land of Moab, the chief city of which was Areopolis,
or Rabbath Moab, now Maab, or El-Raba, and a little
above it Aroer, near the river Arnon.

We shall now briefly review the situation of the tribes
of Israel when settled under Joshua. The largest por-
tion was that of Judah, along the Western side of the
lake Asphaltites, and West of Judah was Simeon, bor-
dering on the Philistines, who occupied the Mediterra-




172

nean coast. North of Judah was the smaller tribe of
Benjamin, in which was Jerusalem; and West of Benja-
min the still smaller tribe of Dan, reaching to the coast,
having the Philistines to the South. Above Dan and
Benjamin was a considerable district, from the coast to
Jordan, the portion of Ephraim; above Ephraim, extend-
ing in a like manner, was half the tribe of Manasseh.
The coast then became that of Syro-Phrenicia, along
which, but rather inland, lay the tribe of Asser, forming
a Western barrier to the three following tribes: Issa-
char, (which lay above Manasseh, reaching to the South-
ern extremity of the sea of Tiberias,) Nephtali, and Za-
bulon. The whole North-western coast of the sea of Ti-
berias, and as far as Dan, considerably North of it, was
occupied by the tribe of Nephtali, and between Nephtali,
Issachar, and Asser lay the tribe of Zabulon. The whole
Eastern side of Jordan, to the Southern extremity of the
Sea of Tiberias, was occupied by the other half tribe of
Manasseh; below it was Gad, reaching about half way
between the two lakes; and below it Reuben, reaching
to the plains of Moab at the North-eastern corner of the
Lacus Asphaltites. These two tribes and a half were the
first settled, though their warriors crossed over Jordan to
assist their brethren in subduing the Canaanites on the
Western side.



173



CHAPTEU XIII.



ORIENS.



PART II. CONTAINING THE REMAINDER OF ASIA.



A. G. PL I. XIV. XV. XVII. XX.



A MORE succinct description may suffice in a work like
this for the remainder of Asia.

Arabia (PI. I. ) is divided into Arabia Petrsea, Arabia
Felix, and Arabia Deserta. Arabia Petrsea extends from
the South of Holy Land along the two gulfs which form
the extremity of the Sinus Arabicus, being bordered by
Egypt on the West, and Arabia Deserta on the East.
That part of it which borders on Judaea was called Idu-
maea, or Edom, and was possessed by the posterity of
Esau. The Arabians in general recognize for their an-
cestors Jectan, or Kahtan the son of Eber, and Ismael,
the son of Abraham by his concubine Hagar. In Arabia
Petroea were Mount Sinai and Horeb (PL XX.), between



174

the two gulfs, but nearer the Eastern gulf, which branches
from the extremity of the Red Sea, and which was called
^Elanites, from the city of ^Elana, or Ailath, at its North-
ern point. The other gulf was called the Sinus Hero-
opolites, or the Gulf of Suez, from the city of that name
built on it. The Nabathsei (PI. I.) were a nation of Ara-
bia Petrasa, deriving their name from Nebaioth, the son
of Ismael. Here was Madian, the country of Jethro, the
father-in-law of Moses. Towards Dirse, or the Straights
of Babel Mandeb, were the Sabasi, in Arabia Felix, or
Yemen, East of which is the thurifera regio. The best
frankincense being white, in Arabic Liban, Libanos also
became a Greek name for it, corrupted among the mo-
dern merchants into Olibanum. A little island, South
of this region called Dioscoridis Insula, is now Socotora,
whence the best aloes are brought. Off the coast of
Arabia Deserta, in the Sinus Persicus (PI. XIV.), was
the little island of Tylos, or Bahram, celebrated for its
pearl fishery.

At the top of the Persian Gulf, on each side of the
Euphrates (PI. XIV.) is Babylonia; the part nearest the
gulf is Chaldsea, which is sometimes taken for the name
of the whole country. It is properly called Irak, a name
which has extended to the adjacent country of Mesopo-
tamia and part of Media, now Irak Jlrabi. The princi-
pal city of Babylonia was Babylon, one of the most an-
tient in the world, built by Belus, who is thought to
have been the same with Nimrod. It is near a place
now called Hellah, on the East bank of the Euphrates,
about 47 miles South of Bagdad. It was surrounded
with a prodigious strong wall, said to have been 480 sta-
dia in circumference (an exaggeration probably for the



175

surrounding region, as this would give an enclosure of 60
miles), 50 cubits thick, and 200 cubits high. It was
built by the celebrated Queen Semiramis, of bricks baked
in the sun, and cemented with bitumen, abounding in the
country. It was the residence afterwards of Nebuchad-
nezzar, who destroyed Jerusalem, June 9, B. C. 587, and
transplanted the Jews to this country, and was taken by
Cyrus, B.C. 538, according to the prediction of the
Jewish prophets, after he had diverted the waters of the
Euphrates into a new channel, and marched his troops
by night into the town through the antient bed of the
river. The city is said to have been so large that the
inhabitants at the opposite extremity did not know of its
fate till the next evening. However, when we consider
that the Eastern cities contained enclosures for the pas-
ture and protection of cattle during a siege, there is not
reason to think that the inhabited part of Babylon was
larger than London. A full account of the seige is to
be seen in Herodotus. Babylon also is memorable for
the death of Alexander the Great, April 21, B.C. 323.
It is now in ruins; but the vestiges of the temple of
Belus remain. After the death of Alexander, Seleucus
Nicator founded a city called Seleucia a little above it,
on the Tigris, which he designed for the capital of the
East, and the kings of Parthia founded one on the other
side called Ctesiphon, which they made their ordinary
residence : they are now called #/ Modain, or the two
cities. A little below Ctesiphon is the river Gyndes,
which was an impediment to Cyrus in his march to
Babylon, who lost his favourite horse there: in revenge
he divided it into 360 channels, so that it might be
forded only knee-deep. The Chaldeans or Babylo-



176

mans, as is well known, were greatly addicted to as-
trology *.

Above Babylon is Mesopotamia (PL XV.), lying, as
its name imports, between the two rivers, the Euphrates,
which divides it from Syria on the West, and the Tigris,
which separates it from Assyria on the East. Towards
the Southern boundary of Babylonia, the rivers approach
each other so as to make it considerably narrower than
on the confines of Armenia, its Northern frontier. The
lower part of Mesopotamia is now Irak *fl.rabi, the up-
per Diar Bekr. The North-western part of Mesopota-
mia was called Osroene, from Osroes, a prince who
wrested from the Seleucida3 a principality here, about
B.C. 120. Its capital was called by the Macedonians
Edessa, now Or ha, or Orfa. South-west of Edessa, at
the pass of Zeugma, was a city called Apamea, and
South-east of it Carrhag, a very antient city, the Charran
of Scripture, from which Abraham departed for the land
of Canaan, and the fatal spot at which Crassust, the Ro-
man triumvir lost his life, in his expedition against the
Parthians, who cut off his head, and poured melted gold
down his throat, B.C. 53, A.U.C. 701. The inhabitants
were greatly addicted to Sabaism, or the worship of the

* Tu ne quajsieris, scire nefas, quern mihi quern tibi
Fin em Dii dederint, Leuconoe, nee Babylonios
Tentaris numeros. Hor. Od. I. 11. 1,

Principis angusta Caprearum in rupe sedentis
Cum grege Chaldzeo. Ju-v. Sat. X. 93.

t Miserando funere Crassus

Assyrias Latio maculavit sanguine Carras.

Lucan. I. 104.



177

host of heaven, particularly the moon, under the mascu-
line denomination of the Deus Lunus. The antient name
of Charran is still retained in Haran. Descending the
Euphrates, nearly opposite to Thapsacus in Syria, we
find Circesium, on the river Chaboras: the emperor Dio-
clesian fortified this city, and made it a frontier of the
empire; it is now called Kirkesieh. In Xenophon's ac-
count of the expedition of Cyrus the Chaboras is called
the Araxes. A little below Circesium is the tomb of the
younger Gordian, who was killed there by Philip, who
himself succeeded to the Roman empire, A.D. 245. Be-
low it, at a bend of the Euphrates, is Anatho, or %/inah;
below this on the confines of Babylonia, near a canal
which joined the Euphrates and Tigris, was the celebra-
ted plain of Cunaxa, where Cyrus was defeated and slain
by Artaxerxes, B.C. 401. 01. 94. 4. From this spot
the 10,000 Greek auxiliaries of Cyrus commenced their
immortal retreat, of which so interesting a history is
given by Xenophon, who was himself one of their gene-
rals, and ultimately their chief. Nearly opposite to
Edessa, but East, and rather nearer the Tigris than the
Euphrates, was Nisibis, or Nisbon, the most important
station in Mesopotamia, and long a frontier of the Ro-
man empire, till it was ceded to Sapor, king of Persia,
by the treaty which was made after the death of Julian,
A.D. 363, and below it was Singara, now Singar.

Above Mesopotamia is Armenia (PL XVII.), bounded
towards the South also by Assyria, on the West by the
Euphrates, which separates it from that part of Cappado-
cia called Armenia Minor, after which a ridge of Anti-
Taurus separates it from Pontus; on the North it is
bounded by Colchis and Iberia, and. on the East by the
23



178

barbarous nations North of Media, It was a province
particularly fluctuating between the Persians and Ro-
mans, lying as it were between the two empires. North-
east of the river Lycus, which flows into the Euphrates,
was Arza, now Erze-Roum, signifying that it belonged
to the empire of the Greeks or Roumelia. Eastward is
a district called Phasiana, through which the Araxes*,
or, as Xenophon calls it, the Phasis, flows, giving name
to the country: the beautiful birds which we call phea-
sants still preserve in their name the traces of their na-
tive country. The Araxes, or J2ras, flows from West
to East till it falls into the Caspian, a little South of the
river Cyrus, now the Kur or Terek ; and the Euphrates
flows from East to West, from its fountains in Mount
Ararat, till its approach to the Syrian frontier. Still
proceeding Eastward, along the Araxes, South-east of
Mount Ararat, was Artaxatat, a celebrated and strong
royal city. Returning Westward, between the principal
stream of the Euphrates and Mount Masius, which forms
the barrier of Mesopotamia and Armenia, the district
xvas called Sophene, now Zoph. In this district, a little
above Mons Masius, was Amida, now Kara-Jimid^ or
Diar-Btkr, a celebrated city in the lower Roman em-
pire. East of it, at the foot of Mons Niphates, among
the Carduchi, was Tigranocertat, built by Tigranes in
the Mithridatic war: it was taken by Lucullus, who

* - Pontem indignatus Araxes. Virg. jEn. VIII. 728.

f Sic prastextatos referunt Artaxata mores.

. Sai. ii. iro.



Horace has been thought to allude to it in his story of the
soldier of Lucullus, who having been robbed of his accumulated
savings,



179

found a great treasure there. We should not forget that
Niphates* has been thought by some to be the Jirarat
on which the Ark rested after the Deluge, which, how-
ever, is much more to the North-east. Eastward of
Mons Niphates is the Arsissa Palus, a large salt lake
now called the lake of Van.

Colchis, the celebrated scene of the fable of the Golden
Fleece and the Argonautic expedition, is bounded by
Armenia on the South, by the head of the Euxine on the
West, by Iberia on the East, and by Mount Caucasus on
the North : it is now called Mingrelia. Its principal river
was the Phasis, or Faz-Rione, preserving both its own
name and that of the Rheon, a stream which flows into
it. Its principal cities were JEa, on the river Phasis,
and Cyta, within land, on the Rheon, where Medea was
born, who is hence called Cytasist.

Iberia, now called Imeriti and Georgia, is bounded on
the West by Colchis, on the North by Mount Caucasus,

Presidium regale loco dejecit, ut aiunt,
Summe munito et multarum divite rerum.

Hor.Efiist.il. 2. 30.

But I cannot think this interpretation sufficiently authorised by the
words of the poet.
* Horace, speaking of the conquests of Augustus, says

Nova

Cantemus August! tropaea
Cae saris, et rigidum Niphatem,
Medumque flumen gentibus additum
Victis minores volvere vortices,

Hor. Od, II. 9. 18.

f Non hie herba valet, non hie nocturna Cytaeis.

Pro fieri Elfg. II. 4.



180

on the East by Albania, and on the South by Armenia.
This country and Albania contained some very strong
passes, which were fortified against the inroads of the
more Northern and still more barbarous tribes of Mount
Caucasus; that in Iberia was called Pylsa Caucasia?, or
the gates of Caucasus, and was about midway between
the Euxine and Caspian seas; that in Albania, between
Caucasus and the Caspian, was called Pylse Albania?, or
Caspise, which was afterwards the celebrated strong city
of Derbend. The country beyond Caucasus, between
the Palus Maeotis and the Caspian, was called Sarmatia
Asiatica, and was inhabited by barbarous and roving
tribes, who, after the lapse of ages, seem but little civi-
lized.

Immediately above the Sinus Persicus, or Persian
Gulf, is Persia (PI. XIV.), bounded by it on the South,
by the Tigris and Babylonia on the West, by Media and
Assyria on the North, and by Carmania on the East. It
is called in Scripture Paran, and preserves that name in
its modern term Fars. That part of it which approaches
Babylonia is called Susiana, or Khuristan, which was
divided into two districts, the larger to the North, called
Elymais, from the Elymsei, who inhabited it, and the
more Southerly and maritime, but smaller district, Cis-
sia, in which was its capital Susa, or Susan, a word sig-
nifying, in the language of the country, Lilies; it is now
Suster. This was generally the winter residence of the
Persian kings, who in summer retired to the cooler situ-
ation of Ecbatana. The fiver Choaspes* whose waters
were so excellent that the kings of Persia would drink

* Rfegia lympha Choaspes. Tibull. I, 4. 140.



181

no other, rune by Susa; and below it is the Eulseus, or
Ulai of Scripture, which is joined by the Pasi-Tigris
near the mouth of the United rivers Tigris and Eu-
phrates. In Persis, or Persia properly so called, was
Persepolis, burnt by Alexander; its ruins are still very
magnificent, and are known by the name of Tshelmi-
nar, or the forty, i. e. the many columns. Below it
was an ancient royal city called Pasargada, where was
the tomb of Cyrus; it is still called Pas a Kuri. North
of Persepolis, towards Media, was Aspadana, now Ispa-
han.

Carmania, now Kerman, is bounded by Persia on the
West, Media and Aria on the North, Gedrosia on the
East, and the Sinus Persicus on the South. The limit
between it and Persia was fixed by Alexander's admiral,
Nearchus, at the island of Cata3a, or Kais, in the Persian
Gulf, remarkable as a great emporium of commerce till
it was superseded by Ormus, or Ormuz, a little East of
it. The capital of Carmania was Carmana, or Kerman,
South-east of Persepolis.

Gedrosia is bounded by Carmania on the West, Ara-
chosia on the North, the Indus on the East, and the
Erythrseum Mare on the South. , It is now called Mek-
ran. In passing through this country the army of Alex-
ander underwent very great hardships from want of pro-
visions and water, and from columns of moving sand,
which had previously destroyed the armies of Semiramis
and Cyrus. Its principal city was Pura, now Fohrea.

Assyria (PL XV.) is separated by the Tigris from
Mesopotamia on the West, and is bounded by Armenia



im

on the North, Media on the East, and Babylonia on the
South. It is now called Kurdistan, from the Carduchi,
a people in its Northern parts, between Media and Ar-
menia. It was the most antient of the four great empires
of the world, and had for its capital Ninus, or Nineveh,
so often mentioned in Scripture, founded by Ninus, on
the Tigris. Its site is now supposed to be occupied by
a village called Nunia. South-east of Ninus was Arbe-
la, or Erbil; and on the opposite side of the Zabata, or
Zab, somewhat North-east of Ninus, was the fatal plain
of Gaugamela, where the third and decisive battle was
fought between Alexander and Darius, Oct. 2, B.C. 331,
01. 112, 2, which put an end to the Persian empire.
Gaugamela being an obscure place, this battle was gene-
rally called the battle of Arbela.

Media (PI. XIV.) is bounded by Assyria on the West,
and is separated from Armenia by the Araxes, and is
farther bounded on the North by the shore of the Cas-
pian, on the East by Aria, and on the South by Persia.
Media is now called Irak-J^jami^ or Persian Irak, to dis-
tinguish it from Irak-</lrabi, or Babylonian Irak. The
Northern part of Media, which borders on Armenia, was
called Atropatene, from Atropates, a satrap of this pro-
vince, who erected it, after the death of Alexander, into
an independent kingdom. Its capital was Gaza, or Ga-
zaca, now called Tebris or Tauris. The capital of
Media was Ecbatana, or Hamedan. The Persian, and
afterwards the Parthian monarchs, made Ecbatana their
summer residence, to avoid the excessive heat of Susa
and Ctesiphon. On the road between Bagdat and Hame-
dan was an antient monument, said to be that of Semira-
mis, at a place called Bagistana. North-east of Ecbatana



183

was Ragae, or Rages, mentioned in the history of Tobit.
Under the Parthian dynasty of the Arsacidse, it was Ar-
sacia, but is now called JRei.

Aria was properly a particular province, but the name
was given to a country of large extent*, answering to
the present Khorasin, comprising several provinces, and
bounded on the West by Media, on the North by Hyr-
cania and Parthia, on the East by Bactria, and on the
South by Carmania and Gedrosia. The capital of Aria
was Artacoana, now Herat, on the Western side, situ-
ated on the river Arius, now Heri. From hence Alex-
ander passed Southward to the country of the Zarangae,
or Drangae, whose capital, Prophthasia, on the river Ely-
mander, is still called Zarang. Below them the Ari-
aspse, who were called Euergata3, from the succours they
afforded to Cyrus, are still known by the name of Der-
gasp. East of these are Afachosia, now *flrrokage,
from which region Alexander crossed the Paropamisus,
one of the highest mountains in Asia, to invade Bactri-
ana: the Macedonians, in order to flatter him, called it
Caucasus.

North of Media and Aria, along the South-eastern
coast of the Caspian, is Hyrcania, whose capital bore the
same name, now Jorjan or Corcan. The Eastern part
of Hyrcania was Parthiene, the original seat of a nation
which, under the name of Parthians, founded an exten-
sive empire over Persia, Media, and Aria. Its principal
city was Nysasa, still called Nesa.



* The Medes, as we learn from Herodotus, were originally
called Arii.



184

Bactriana is bounded by Aria on the West, the moun-
tains of Paropamisus on the South, a chain called the
Emodi Montes on the East, and Sogdiana on the North.
The capital was Zariaspa Bactra, now Balk. East of it
was the rock of Aornos, thought to be impregnable; it
is now Telekan, situated on a high mountain called
Nork-Koh, or the mountain of silver.

The river Oxus, or Gihon, separates Sogdiana from
Bactriana. The country is now Jli-Sogd; in which was
Maracanda, the celebrated Samarcand of Tartar history,
which was the royal city of Timur-leng, whose name has
been corrupted by European writers into Tamerlane.
South of this was Oxiana, or Termid, and North-west
was Petra, a strong rock besieged by Alexander, now
called Shadman. North-east of this was Gaba3, or Ka-
ous, also named from the conquests of Alexander. East-
wards on the Jaxartes, Shion, or Sir, was a city called
Cyroschata, or Cyropolis, built by Cyrus, and re-founded
by Alexander under the name of Alexandria Ultima, now
Cogend. The Chorasmii, or Kharasm, were between
Sogdiana, and the North-eastern shore of the Caspian;
their capital was Gorgo, now Urgheng. East of Sogdi-


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