ana were the Sacae or Saketa.
The country to the North of these already described
is called Scythia, or Tartary (PL I. ). It was divided
into Scythia intra Imaum *, or Scythia on the West of
the Imaus, and Scythia extra Imaum, to the East of it.
The ridge of mountains called Imaus is^connected with
* Imaus, Emodus, and Himmaleh are all^derived from the
Sanscrit word Hem, mow.
the Paropamisus or Indian Koosh, or Caucasus, which
separates Bactriana from India. To the South-east this
chain takes the name of Emodus or Imeia Pambadam.
Another chain of the Imaus runs North-east, dividing
Scythia intra and extra Imaum in this direction also.
The principal Scythian nation were the Massagetae, or
Great Getes, in Turkistan, North of Bactriana.
North-east of Scythia extra Imaum was Serica, now
Gete, or Eygur, which last denomination is derived
from the Ithaguri and Mons Ithagurus, in this district.
The principal nation in Serica were the Issedones, who
had two towns called Issedon; but their most interesting
town is Sera, the metropolis, now Kan-tcheon, in the
Chinese province of Shefi-si, without the great wall of
China. This city has been erroneously confounded
with Pekin, the capital of China, 300 leagues distant;
but some think that the antients had no immediate know-
ledge of China properly so called. They knew, indeed,
by name, a nation called Sinse, East of Serica, who were
probably settled in the province of Shensi, the most
Westerly province of China, immediately adjoining the
great wall, in which there was a kingdom called Tsin,
which probably gave name to these Northern Sina3, who
are not to be confounded with the Sinae hereafter to be
mentioned in the description of India*.
* But we learn from the Chinese Historians, on the authority
of M. De Guignes, that An-toun, i.e. Antonius, Emperor of the
West, sent a commercial Embassy to Oan-ti, who reigned in Chi-
na about A.D. 150, and this is confirmed by later researches.
See Mr. Murray's Memoir, published in the Edinburg Philoso-
phical Transactions, Vol. VIII. p. 171.
It remains only to give some account of India, in
which we shall briefly notice a few remarkable positions.
India derived its name from the river Indus, or Sind,
which forms its Western boundary. The great stream
of the Ganges divided it into two parts, called India
jntra Gangem, or India to the West of the Ganges, and
India extra Gangem, or India to the East of it.
East of Bactriana (PL XIV.) is Indo Scythia, above
Little Thibet, and the Indian Caucasus, or Koosh, and
West of the junction of the Indus and Suastus is Taxila,
now <Attock, North-west of which is Aornos, now Re-
naSy a fortress thought to be impregnable^ from the cap-
ture of which Alexander assumed to himself so much
glory. From Taxila Alexander advanced across the
Hydaspes, or Shantrou, to give Porus battle, and on its
banks he built the cities of Nicsea in honour of his victo-
ry, and Bucephala in memory of his horse Bucephalus;
he then crossed the Acesines, or Ravei, the Hydraotes,
or JBiah, and the Hyphasis, or Caul*. These five riv-
ers give to the adjacent country the name of Punjab.
On the Eastern shore of the Hyphasis he erected altars
in memory of his progress Eastward, and wept that he
could advance no farthert. Towards the mouth of the
Hydraotes he found the warlike nations of the Oxydracae
* According to Major Rennel and Robertson, higher authori-
ties in this case than D'Anville, the Hydaspes is now the Betah,
and the Hyphasis the Blah or Bajah.
f Yet Timur-leng in this respect surpassed Alexander, for he
boldly entered the Desert, and took the city of Delhi ; but Timur
was familiar with Deserts. Indeed, Seleucus, after the death of
Alexander, seems to have reached the Ganges with an army.
He had a minister at Palibothra.
and Malli, and then, descending the Indus, came to the
royal city of the Sogdi, now Bukor; having then visited
the city of Patala, now Tatta, and the mouths of the In-
dus, he returned through Gedrosia to Babylon.
Many places were known to the antients on the coast
of the peninsula of Hindoostan *, a particular enumera-
tion of which is unnecessary in a work of this nature.
The promontory of Comaria (PL I.) was unquestionably
Cape Comorin, and Taprobane was the island of Cey-
lon: the Maldives also were known to the antients
The river Chaberis is the modern Cavery: and North of
it Arcati Regia, is Arcot. Maliarpha is Maliapur, near
Madras. The Magnum Ostium of the Ganges was the
Hugley; and to the West of it, in the interior, was Pali-
bothra, perhaps Patna or Allahabad ; though this latter
city seems to correspond with Helabas, and is venerated
among the Indians as the traditional residence of the first
parent of mankind. In India beyond the Ganges, the Au-
rea Chersonesus, is now Malaya; the Southern promon
tory of it was called Magnum Promontorium, now the
Cape of Romania, beyond which was the Magnus Si-
nus, or Gulf of Siam; and beyond the river Serus, or
Menan, was the country of the Sinae, or Cochin China,
to be distinguished from those already mentioned East
of Serica. West of the Chersonesus Aurea was Jabidii
Insula, now perhaps Sumatra, and the antients knew
also the smaller islands lying above it in the Sinus Gan-
geticus, or Bay of Bengal.
* A pot of Roman gold coins, principally of the reigns of Tra-
jan and Antoninus Pius, was found by a peasant at Nellore, in 1787.
A. G. Plate I. XVIII. XIX. XX.
AFRICA (PL I. and XVII.) was called Libya by
the Greek and Roman poets, the name which we
give to the whole continent being more generally,
though not absolutely confined by the Romans to a
particular province. Very little of this division
of the globe was known to the antients, except the
parts adjacent to the coast of the Mediterranean :
the interior of Africa they thought uninhabitable
from the excessive heat, or peopled it with fabu-
lous monsters, of which Africa was proverbially
the nurse*. The first province of Africa, on the
Western side, below the Fretum Gaditanum, or
* Plin. VIII. 16.
Herculeum, now the Straights of Gibraltar, was
Mauritania, now Morocco and Fez. East of it was
Numidia, now Algiers, and East of Numidia, was
Africa Propria, or the province of Africa proper-
ly so called, now Tunis, lying along that part of
the coast which bends from North to South. The
bay formed by the Southern part of this bend
was the Syrtis Minor, a dangerous quicksand,
and in that formed by another sweep of the sea,
after which the coast again takes a North-easterly
direction, was the Syrtis Major : between the two
Syrtes was Tripolis, now Tripoli. East of the
Syrtis Major was Cyrenaica, now Barca, and East
of it Marmarica ; and still East at the Mouths of
the Nile, was jEgyptus, or JEgypt, divided into
JEgyptus Inferior, or Lower jEgypt, on the coast,
and jEgyptus Superior, or Upper ^Egypt, to-
wards the interior of Africa. Below Numidia
was Gsetulia, now Beledulgerid : below Cyrenaica
and Marmarica was Libya properly so called ; be-
low ^Egypt was jEtihopia ; and West of JEthio-
pia the Garamantes.
Mauritania (PL XIX.), now the empire of Fez and
Morocco, was bounded on the North by the Straights of
Gibraltar and the Mediterranean, on the East by Numi-
dia, on the South by Gsetulia, and on the West by the
Atlantic Ocean. It was, properly speaking, in the time
of Bocchus, the ally and betrayer of Jugurtha, bounded
by the river Mulucha, or Molochath, now Malva, and
corresponded nearly to the present kingdom of Fez; but
in the time of the Emperor Claudius, the Western part
of Numidia was added to this province, under the name
Mauritania Caesariensis, the antient kingdom of Mauri-
tania being called Tingitana, from its principal city Tin-
gis, or Old Tangier, on the West of the Straights. Op-
posite to Calpe, or Gibraltar, in Spain, is the other co-
lumn of Hercules, Mount Abyla*, near Ceuta, in Mau-
ritania. The remotest Roman city on the Western shore
of the Atlantic was Sala, now SalZee, a well-known pi-
ratical port. In the South of Mauritania is the celebra-
ted Mount Atlas, which gives name to the Atlantic
Ocean. Mauritania Csesariensis contained many Roman
colonies, but it may be sufficient for us to notice Siga,
which was the antient residence of Syphax, before he in-
vaded the dominions of Masnissa: it is situated North-
east of the river Mulucha.
Numidia is bounded by Mauritania on the West, the
Mediterranean on the North, Africa Propria on the East,
and Gaetulia on the South, corresponning nearly to the
present state of Algiers. It was occupied by two prin-
cipal nations, the Massyli, towards Africa Propria, in
the Eastern part, and the Massaesili, towards Mauritania,
in the Western; they were separated by the promontory
of Tretum, now Sebda-Ruz, or the seven capes. The
Massyli were the subjects of Masinissa, the Masssesili of
Syphax. This latter prince, having invaded the king-
dom of Masinissa, the ally of the Romans, in the second
Punic war, was overcome and taken prisoner by Masi-
nissa and the Romans, and was carried to Rome by
* Maura Abyla, et dorso consurgit Iberica Calpe.
Avien. Or bis Dcscr, 111.
Scipio, to adorn his triumph, where he died in prison,
B.C. 202, A.U.C. 552. The Romans confirmed Masi-
nissa in the possession of the kingdom of Syphax, and
the history of those transactions, together with an ac-
count of the heroic death of Sophonisha, is to be found
in the 24th book of Livy. After the death of Masinissa
and his son Micipsa, it was divided between his grand-
sons Hiempsal and Adherbal, who were successively
murdered by Jugurtha, and thus Numidia became again
united under one sovereign, and the Romans having re-
solved to punish the crimes of Jugurtha, gave occasion to
the Jugerthine war, the history of which is written by
Sallust. Jugurtha was taken, having been betrayed by
JBocchus, to whom he had fled for refuge, and carried to
Rome to adorn the triumph of Marius, B.C. 106, A.U.C.
648, after which he was starved to death in prison. Nu-
midia was subsequently under the dominion of Juba, who
took part with Pompey and his adherents against Caesar,
but was conquered in the battle of Thapsus, and Numidia
was reduced to a Roman province; but a part of it was
restored by Augustus to the son of Juba, who bore his
father's name, and who also received in marriage from
Augustus, Cleopatra, the daughter of Antony. The capi-
tal of Numidia was Cirta, on the branch of the river
Ampsagas, or Wad-il-Kiber : it was afterwards called
Sittianorum Colonia, from a general of the name of Sit-
tius, who greatly assisted Caesar in the African war, and
was rewarded with this district: but subsequently it took
the name of Constantino,, which it still retains. North-
east of Cirta, on the coast, was Hippo Regius, of which
St. Augustine was bishop; it was near the present town
of Bona; and in a bay, North-west of Hippo, was the
mountain of Pappua, now Edougi to which Gelimas, the
last king of the Vandals retreated after his fatal defeat by
the great Belisarius, A.D. 534.
Africa Propria, or the province of Africa properly so
called, was bounded by Numidia on the West, by the
Mediterranean on the North and East, and by Getulia
and the extremity of Tripolis on the South. It corres-
ponds to the present state of Tunis. Its Eastern boun-
dary was formed by a sudden bend of the Mediterranean
to the South from the Promontorium Hermaeum, or
Cape JBon, to the Syrtis Minor, or Gulf of Cabes.
The first place adjoining to Numidia is the little island
of Tabraca or Tabarca, which we notice only because
it is mentioned in Juvenal*. A little inland is Vacca,
now Veja^ a city of much note in the Jugurthine war.
East of Tabraca, is Utica, the capital of the province
after the destruction of Carthage, and memorable for the
last stand made by the friends of freedom, under the
conduct of Cato, against Caesar. Metellus Scipio, the
father-in-law of Pompey, had been defeated by Caesar,
at the battle of Thapsus. Cato, hence called Uticensis,
retired to this city, and on the appearance of Caesar,
stabbed himself, in the 59th year of his age, B.C. 46,
A.U.C. 70S. The river Bagradas, or Megerda, flows
between Utica, and the renowned city of Carthage, the
queen of Africa and great rival of Rome. It had a
citadel named Byrsa, so called from the stratagem used
by Dido, who agreed to purchase as much land as she
Et tales aspice rugas,
Quales umbriferos ubi pandit Tabraca saltus,
In vetula scalpit mater jam simiabucca.
Juv. Sat, X. 193.
could surround with a bull's hide *, which she cut into
very narrow stripes. It was a colony of Tyrianst, and
by them called Carthada, or the New City, by the
Greeks Carchedon, and by the Latins Carthago; and is
immortalized by the Roman poets and historians on ac-
count of the three wars it sustained against the republic.
The first began B.C. 264, A.U.C. 490, and ended B.C.
241, A.U.C. 513, having lasted twenty-three years.
Amongst its most remarkable events are the capture and
cruel death of Regulus the Roman general, the establish-
ment of the Roman marine, and the defeat of the Car-
thaginians by Lutatius Catulus, off the JEgates Insulae,
B.C. 242, A.U.C. 512. The second Punic war began
in consequence of the siege of Saguntum by Hannibal,
B.C. 219, A.U.C. 535, and was ended in consequence
of the victory of Scipio over Hannibal at the battle of
Zama, B.C. 202, A.U.C. 552, having lasted eighteen
years: this was memorable for the severest defeats the
Romans ever experienced, especially in the battles of
Ticinus, Trebia, Trasymenus, and Cannae, all gained by
Hannibal, who maintained himself in Italy sixteen years.
The third Punic war began B.C. 149, A.U.C. 605, and
lasted only three years, being terminated by the total
destruction and demolition of Carthage, by Scipio Afri-
canus Minor, B.C. 145, A.U.C. 609; it was much exci-
* Mercatique solum, facti de nomine Byrsam.
Taurino quantum possent circumdare tergo.
Virg. JEn. I. 367,
f Urbs antiqua fuit, Tyrii tenuere coloni,
Carthago, Italiam longe Tiberinaque contra
Ostia, dives opum studiisque asperrima belli;
Quam Juno fertur terris magis omnibus unam
Posthabita coluisse Samo. Virg- dSn, I, 12,
ted by the elder Cato, who never ended a speech in the
Senate, on any subject, without the words "Delenda
est Carthago," and is remarkable for the cruel and op-
pressive exactions of the Romans, the patient submis-
sion, but at last the obstinate desperation of the injured
Carthaginians, and the conflagration of their city, which
was twenty-four miles in circumference, and continued
burning seventeen days. It was afterwards rebuilt by
Augustus, and became a flourishing city, till it was final-
ly destroyed [by the Arabs under the Kaliphat of Abdel-
Melek, towards the end of the seventh century. A lit-
tle below it was Tunetum, now Tunis. Below the Her-
mseum Promontorium is Aspis, or Clypea, now Jlkiliba:
below tins place the coast takes the name of Zeugitana;
and not quite half-way between the Promontorium Her-
mseum and Syrtis Minor was Hadrumetum, a very con-
siderable city of that part of Africa Propria called Byza-
cium, or Emporise, which comprized the fertile country
adjacent to the Syrtis Minor, and may be considered as
the principal granary of Rome^. Below Hadrumetum is
Leptis Minor, or Lenita, and below it Thapsus, now
Demsas, memorable for the victory we have already
mentioned, obtained there by Ca3sar over Metellus Sci-
pio, and the remnant of Pompey's party who escaped
from the wreck of Pharsalia. Below Thapsus was Tur-
ris Hannibalis, from which Hannibal departed for Asia,
when he was banished by his factious and ungrateful
countrymen from Carthage. In the interior of Africa,
on the Numidian side, are two cities, not far from each
other, the one, Tagaste, or Tajelt, in fact a Numidian
* Frumenti quantum metit Africa. Hor. Sat. II. 3. 87.
Quicquid de Lybicis verritur areis. Hor. Od* 1. 1. 10.
city, which was the birth-place of St. Augustine, the
other Madaurus, the birth-place of Apuleius; near to
which is Sicca, and South-east of it, about the centre of
the province, is Zama, the memorable scene of the vic-
tory obtained by Scipio Africanus the elder over Hanni-
bal, B.C. 202, A.U.C. 552. In the interior of Byzaci-
um was Capsa, now Cafsa, in which Jugurtha deposited
his treasures. We find from Sallust that it was a very
strong city, in the midst of deserts very difficult of ac-
cess, and below it were two lakes, much celebrated in
antiquity under the names of the Palus Tritonis and Pa-
lus Lybia, now Faro-oun and El-Loudeah. On the
former of these Minerva is said to have first appeared,
whence she is called Tritonia. Near the latter the Gor-
gons are feigned to have had their abodes*. These lakes
are in the neighbourhood of what is now called Beled-ul-
Geridy JBeledulgerid, or the Region of Grasshoppers.
Tripolis (PI. XVIII,) was bounded on the West by
Africa Propria, of which it originally formed a part, by
the Mediterranean on the North, by Cyrenaica on the
East, and by Phazania, or Fezzan, on the South. It
still retains its name which it originally received from
three cities on the coast, Sabrata, now Sabart, QEa, now
Tripoli, and Leptis Magna, the ruins of which are stilj
called Labida. It lies between the Syrtis Minor,, or
Gulf of Cabes, so called from the city Tacape, which
was at the head of it, and the Syrtis Major, or, as it is
now corruptly called, the Gulf of Sidra. The Syrtes
were very dangerous to mariners, from the shoals and
* Jam Summas arces Tritonia, respice, Pallas
Insedit nimbo effulgens et Gorgone sieva.
Virg. 3n. II. 615.
quicksands, and a peculiar inequality in the motion of
the waters, by which they drew in and ingulfed vessels,
whence they derived their name*. Towards the Syrtis
Major is the small river Cinyphs, the goats of which are
mentioned by Virgil, as proverbially shaggy t: it is now
called the Wad-Quaham. Inland is the town of Geri-
sa, or Gherze, fabled to be petrified with its inhabitants,
which probably arose from some statues of men and ani-
mals remaining there, which have been thus misrepre-
sented by the ignorant natives. South of the Syrtis Ma-
jor, in the interior, were the Garamantes, who derived
their name antiently from the city of Garama, now
Gharmes. They were faintly known to the Romans
under Augustus, in whose time some claim was made to
a triumph over them, on which account they are men-
tioned by Virgil J. At the extremity of the Syrtis Ma-
* *A?fo rov crvpttv.
The Syrtis Minor is mentioned by Virgil, in his account of the
storm which dispersed the fleet of ^Eneas.
Tres [naves] Eurus ab alto
In brevia et Syrtes urget, miserabile visu,
Illiditque vadis atque aggere cingit arenac.
Virg. JEn. I. 110.-
f Nee minus interea barbas incanaque menta
Cinyphii tondent hirci. Virg. Georg. III. 311.
4: Hie vir, hie est, tibi quern promitti ssepius audis,
Augustus Cxsar, divum genus: aurea condet
Ssecula qui rursus Latio, regnata per arva
Saturno quondam. Super et Garamantas et Indos
Proferet imperium ; jacet extra sidera tellus,
Ultra anni solisque vias, ubi coelifer Atlas
Axem huraero torquet stellis ardentibus aptum.
Virg. JEn. VI. /91.
jor are the Philaenorum Arse, altars erected to mark the
boundary between the territories of Carthage and Cy-
rene, on the spot where two Carthaginian brothers suf-
fered themselves for this purpose to be buried alive. The
story may be seen in Sallust Bell. Jugurth. C. 79.
Next to Tripolis is Libya properly so called, which
contained the two countries of Cyrenaica and Marmarica,
together with a very extensive unknown region in the
interior. Cyrenaica is bounded on the West by Tripo-
lis, on the North by the Mediterranean, on the East by
Marmarica, and on the South by the deserts of Libya,
the North-western part of which was inhabited by the
Nasamones, a barbarous people, who lived by the plun-
der of the vessels shipwrecked in the Syrtis Major, and
who almost destroyed the nation of the Psylli, so cele-
brated in antient and even modern times for the power
they appear to possess in charming serpents, and curing
the bite by sucking the wound. They are mentioned by
Lucan, in his noble description of the serpents which
infested the army of Cato during his march between the
Syrtes*. The province of Cyrenaica was called Penta-
polis from five principal cities which it contained. Af-
ter the coast of the Syrtis Major has bent towards the
North-east, is Berenice, or Hesperis, now JSernic, where
some have placed the gardens of the Hesperides. Above
it is Barce, or Barca, and Ptolemais, now Tolomela.
* Vix miseris serum tanto lassata periclo
Auxilium fortuna dedit: gens unica terras
Incolit a sxvo serpentum tuta veneno,
Marmaridse Psylli: par lingua potentibus herbis,
Ipse cruor tutus, nullumque admittere vims
Vel cantu cessante potest, &c. Lucan, IX. 890, &G.
The extreme Northern point of the coast was called
Phycus Promontorium, now Cape Rasat; East of it was
Apollonia, now Marza Susa or Sosash, which was the
port of Cyrene, that city being a little inland: it was
founded by Battus, who led thither a Lacedaemonian
colony from Thera, one of the Cyclades, B.C. 630, 01.
37. 3, and the kingdom was bequeathed to the Romans,
B.C. 97, A.U.C. 657, by the last of the Ptolemies, sur-
named Apion; it was by them formed into a province
with Crete. Some vestiges of it still remain under the
name of Curin: East of it, on the coast, is the fifth city,
Darnis, now Derne.
A place called the Catabathmus Magnus, now Jlka-
betossolom, separated Marmarica from Cyrenaica on the
West. It was bounded by Egypt on the East, the Me-
diterranean on the North, and the Hammonii and Libya
Interior on the South. We need only notice here Pa-
rsetonium, now JH-Baretoun, which was considered as a
sort of advanced frontier of Egypt. South of Marma-
rica, in the midst of the sands of the Libyan Desert, was
a small and beautiful spot, or Oasis, as it is called, re-
freshed by streams and shade, and luxuriant with ver-
dure, in which was the celebrated temple of Jupiter
Hammon, said to have been founded by Bacchus in
gratitude to his father Jupiter, who appeared to him in
the form of a ram, and showed him a fountain, when
himself and his army were perishing with thirst. Here
was the Fons Solis, whose waters were cold at noon and
hot at night*. Here was the antient and much-famed
* Esse apud Ammonis fanum tons luce diuma
Frigidus, at citlidus nocturne tempore iertur.
Lucret. VI. 848.
oracle so difficult and dangerous of access through the
Libyan Deserts*, consulted by Alexander the Great,
who, by the flattery of the priests, was saluted as the son
of Jupiter, and whose head, on some of his medals, bears
a ram's horn in token of this descent. The site of this
temple, which had been long unknown, has been at
length discovered by an English traveller, Mr. Browne,
in the year 1792, in a fertile spot called the Oasis of
Siwah, situated in the midst of deserts, five degrees near-
ly West of Cairo t.
JEgypt (PI. XX.) is bounded on the West by Mar-
marica and the Deserts of Libya, on the North by the
Mediterranean, on the East by the Sinus Arabicus, or
Red Sea, and a line drawn in a North-east direction
from Arsinoe, or Suez, to Rhinocorura, or El-Jlrish,
* I cannot avoid quoting a sublime passage in the first part of
the Botanic Garden of the late Dr. Darwin, descriptive of the in-
vading army of Cambyses overwhelmed by those mighty columns
of sand, which may be called the waves, or rather the moving
mountains of the desert.
Wave over wave the driving desert swims,
Bursts o'er their heads, inhumes their struggling limbs.
* * * *
And one great earthy ocean covers all.
Then ceased the storm, Night bowed his ^Ethiop brow
To earth, and listened to the groans below.
* awhile the living hill
Heaved with convulsive throes and all was still.
Botanic Garden, Part I. Canto II. v, 489.
f Considerable confirmation is given to this discovery by the
visit of Mr. Horneman, to the same spot, A.D. 1798, and the
question seems to be fully decided in an able memoir written by
Sir William Young, Bart. Horneman appears to have discovered
*lie Fons Solis.
which separates it from Arabia, and on the South by
./Ethiopia. It is one of the most antient countries known,
highly memorable both in sacred and profane history,
and the mother of all the arts and sciences of the an-