lens, the latter by Valentinian.
Rome taken and plundered by Alaric king of the
The Romans leave Britain.
Attila king of the Huns, surnamed the Scourge of
God, ravages Europe.
Rome taken by Genseric king of the Vandals.
Augustulus, last Emperor of the West.
The Western empire destroyed by Odoacer king of
the Heruli, who assumes the title of King of all
Justinian publishes his celebrated Code, and four
years after, his Digest Age of Belisarius.
About this time Latin ceases to be the language of
Vlahomet, in his 53d year, flies from Mecca to Me-
dina, on Friday, July 16, which forms the first year
of the Hegira, or Mahometan xra.
Jcath of Mahomet.
Jerusalem taken by the Saracens.
Alexandria taken by the Saracens and the library
Battle of Poictiers, in which the Saracens are defeat-
ed and driven out of France by Charles Martel.
Charlemagne crowned emperor of Rome and of the
The first Crusade.
Jerusalem taken by the Crusaders.
.Third Crusade, and seige of Acre.
May 28, Mahomet II. takes Constantinople, and puts
an end to the Eastern empire.
ON THE CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.
THE dates in this table are taken from Blair's Chronology, and
contain the principal events of antient history, most of which were
selected by Dr. Lempriere in the introduction to his useful and
popular work the Classical Dictionary.
In order to find the year of the Olympiad, or the year of Rome
in which any event happened, of which we know the date in years
before Christ, we have to consider that the first Olympiad took
place 776 years before Christ, and that Rome was founded 755
Hence we get the following rules.
To find the Olympiad; substract the given year before Christ
from 776, divide the remainder by 4, and to the quotient add 1 for
the current year of it
Thus, the battle of the Granicus was fought B. C. 334. There-
110 , 2
That is, the battle of the Granicus was fought in the third year
of the 11 1th Olympiad.
Observe that as an Olympiad is a space of 4 years, in dividing
the sum which remains after subtraction, by 4, there will be either
no remainder or a remainder of 1, 2, or 3; if there is no remain-
der, then adding 1, we shall find that the event took place in the
first year of the Olympiad, which we have previously found; if
a remainder of 1, 2, or 3, by adding the 1 for the current year in
each instance, it will have happened in the 2d, 3d, or 4th year.
In the instance above given there was a remainder of 2 after di-
vision, adding 1 to which shows the event to have happened in
the 3d year of the Olympiad (111) previously found. To find the
year of Rome; subtract the given year B.C. from 753; to the re-
mainder add 1 for the current year, and it will give the year of
Rome or subtract the given year B.C. from 754, and it will give
the year of Rome without any addition.
Thus Caesar was killed B.C. 44.
Add . 1
Or from 754
Take . 44
Conversely. Multiply the Olympiad by 4, to the product add
the current year or years of the Olympiad, and from the whole-
subtract 5* then subtract the remainder from 776, and the re-
mainder will be the year B.C. required.
Thus Ol. 111. 3
Add . . 3
Subtract . 5
* Becamfe the int current Olympiad n 1 rears, and the cui'reut rear i one rcur.
Then, from 776
Take ... 442
Remains . . 334 B.C.
or, without subtracting the 5, take the years of the Olympiad
found as above from 781, and you get the year B.C. required.
Thus, from 781
Take ... 447
I have given the longer rules in these cases for the sake of
showing the principle the shorter are better for practice.
For events in the Roman history after the birth of Christ we
have only to add the given year of our Lord to 753, to get the
year of Rome; or subtract 753 from the given year of Rome to
get the year of our Lord.
Thus Varus was defeated A. D. 10
Or Varus was defeated A.U.C. 763
A,G. (Antient Geography) PI. I.
THE antient Greeks and Romans knew only the
three divisions of the world Europe, Asia, and
Africa. In Europe they had little or rather no
acquaintance with the countries North of Ger-
many, now Prussia, Sweden, Denmark, and Nor-
way, which they called Scandinavia, and thought
to consist of a number of islands. East of Ger-
many and North of the Black Sea, was Sarmatia,
now Russia, equally unknown to them. In Asia,
they knew nothing North of the Caspian, but com-
prehended all the country under the general name
of Scythia, divided into Scythia intra Imaum and
Scythia extra Imaum ; that is, on either side
Mount Imaus, part of a chain, the highest point
in which is perhaps Himmel in Thibet. Still East-
ward, they had a confused notion of S erica, or the
North-western part of China, as an undefined con-
tinuation of Scythia. India they knew as far as
the Ganges, and even mention a nation called Sinse,
now part of Cochin China. In Africa they knew
little beyond Lat. 10 N., and little of that per-
fectly, beyond the immediate coast of the Mediter-
ranean and banks of the Nile.
A.G. Pi. I. VII. III.
ITALY (PI. I.) was called Hesperia* by the
Greeks, as being West of Greece. It was called
Italia from a prince of the name of Italus ; Au-
sonia from the Ausones, a people found in La-
tium; (Enotria from an Arcadian prince called
(Enotrus, the son of Lycaon, who settled in Lu-
cania ; Saturnia f from having been the fabled
residence of Saturn, after his expulsion from
* Est locus, Hesperiam Graii cognomine dicunt,
Terra antiqua, potens armis atque ubere gleba;
(Enotrii coluere viri; mine fama minores
Italiam dixisse, duels de nomine, gentem. Virg. JEn, I, 534.
f Augustus Csesar, Divum genus; aurea condet
Sacula qui rursus Latio, regnata per arva
Saturno quondam Virg. JEn, VI. 7S2.
Salve, magna parens frugum, Saturnia tellus,
Magna virum Virg. Georg, II, 13.
heaven by Jupiter. It was bounded on the
North by the Alps : on the West by the Mare
Tyrrhenum sive inferum, or Lower Sea ; on the
East by the Mare Hadriaticum sive superum, or
Upper Sea) now the Gulf of Venice; and on
the South by the Mare Ionium, or Grecian Sea, so
called, because this sea washes on one side Greece
itself, and on the other side the South oi* Italy,
which, under the name of Magna Graecia, antient-
ly contained many flourishing Greek Colonies.
Italy may be divided into three parts, Northern,
Central, and Southern. The first of these is cal-
led Gallia Cisalpina, or Gaul on this (i. e. the
Roman) side the Alps ; the second Italia pro-
pria, or Italy properly so called ; and the third
Magna Grsecia. Its principal states were Gallia
Cisalpina, Etruria, Umbria, Picenum, Latium,
Campania, Samnium and Hirpini, Apulia, Cala-
bria, Lucania, and Bruttiorum ager.
Gallia Cisalpina (PL VII.) extended from the
Maritime Alps and the river Varus, or Var, to
the shores of the Adriatic, and was also called
Gallia togata, from their use of the Roman toga.
It contained Liguria, on the coast at the bend
or knee of the boot, where is Genua, now the ter-
ritory and Gulf of Genoa. North-west of them
were the Taurini, or Piedmontese, whose capital,
Augusta, still retains the name of Turin. North-
east of Gallia Cisalpina are the Veneti and Carni,
at the top of the Sinus Hadriaticus. North-west
of the Veneti are the Euganei.
The principal Cities in Gallia Cisalpina are, Mediola-
num, now Milan, among the Insubres, near the Raudii
Campi, where Marius defeated the Cimbri, A.U.C. 653.
A.C. 100; and Ticinum, near the mouth of the Ticinus,
now Pavia. Eastward of Ticinum is Cremona, and still
Eastward is Mantua*, on the river Mincius, now Mincio,
the birth-place of Virgil, both which still retain their
antient names. Between them is Bedriacum, now Civi-
dala, where Otho was defeated by the generals of Vitel-
lius, A.D. 69. North-west of Mantua is Brixia, now
Brescia, and still North-west is Bergomium, now Ber-
gamo; West of which is Comum, at the South end of the
Lacus Larius, now the lake of Como, the birth-place of
the younger Pliny, nephew to the naturalist. North-
east of Mantua, among the Veneti, is Verona, on the
river Athesis, or Jldige, the birth-place of Catullus and
Pliny the naturalist ; to the East of this, Patavium, or
Padua, the birth-place of Livy, said to have been founded
by Antenor ; and South of it, Hadria, which gives name
to the Adriatic. Among the Garni are, Forum Julii, now
Fruili, and to the South, Aquileia, which still retains its
name, though not its consequence. On the Sinus Terges-
tinus, East of Aquileia, is the river Timavus t, and then
* Mantua, vas misers nimium vicina Cremonae.
rirg. Eel, IX. 28.
t Antenor potuit, mediis elapsus Achivis,
Illyricos penetrare sinus, atque intima tutus.
Regna Liburnorum et fontem superare Timavi.
* * * *
Hie tamen ille urbem Patavi, sedesque locavit
Teucrorum Virg. JEn, I, 242.
Tergeste, now Trieste, in Carniola. All these countries*
are in that division of Gallia Cisalpina called Gallia Trans-
padana, or Gaul North of the Po. In Gallia Cispadana,
or Gaul South of the Po, is Placentia, now Piacenza,
near the mouth of the Trebia, where Hannibal gained
his second victory over the Romans, B.C. 218, A.U.C.
536. South-east of it is Parma, which still retains its
name ; then Mutina. now Modena, (where Decimus Bru-
tus was besieged, after the death of Caesar, by the forces
of M. Antony, but was rescued by the last of the free
Roman Consuls, Pansa and Hirtius, who were both kil-
led the same day, the year in which Ovid was born *,
April 15. B.C. 43, A.U.C. 711,) and Bononia, now
Bologna. On the coast is Ravenna, celebrated for a
port and arsenal made there by Augustus as a rendez-
vous for his fleets in the Adriatic ; afterwards, for its
having been the residence of the Emperors of the West,
in the fifth century, when Rome was possessed by the
Barbarians ; and, after that, for its being the seat of the
Exarch, or Governor appointed by the Emperors of the
East, when Italy was in possession of the Lombards. It
was remarkably ill supplied with water till it became the
seat of government, which it was considered till the mid-
dle of the eighth century, t
* Editus ego sum,
Cum cecidit fato consul uterque pari. Ov. Trist. IV, 10.
f Sit cisterna mihi, quam vinea, malo Ravennae,
Cum possim multo vendere plans aquam.
* * * *
Callidus imposuit nuper mihi caupo Ravenna:
Cum peterem mixtum, vendidit ille merum.
Martial III, 56 & ST.
The principal Mountains of Gallia Cisalpina. are the
Alps, which in yarious parts of their course received
various denominations. Near the mouth of the Varus
or Var, at the Western extremity of Liguria, they were
called the Alpes Maritimse, or Maritime Alps. Advanc-
ing in a Northern direction, they were called the Alpes
Cottiae, now Mount Genever.* Still North, where they
begin to turn to the East, Alpes Graiae, now Little
St. Bernard. Then Alpes Penninse (from Pen, a sum-
mit); and Alpes Surnmae, now Great St. Bernard and
St. Gothard. Still Eastward were the Alpes Lepontiae,
which separate Italy from the Helvetii, or Swiss; Alpes
Rhaeticae, which separates it from Rhaetia and Vindelicia,
now in the country of the Grisons; and the Alpes Juliae,
or Carnicae, which separate it from Noricum and Panno-
nia, now the Tyrol, Carinthia, and Stiria. The Apen-
nines branch off* from the Maritime Alps, and run nearly
through the middle of the whole of Italy, from North to
The Rivers in Gallia Cisalpina are, the Padus, or Po,
called also Eridanust, which rises among the Cottian
Alps, and runs from West to East, through the middle
of the country, till it falls into the Adriatic near Hadria ;
the Ticinus, or Tesino, which rises not far from the
Rhone, among the Lepontine Alps in the country of
the Brenni and Genauni, celebrated by Horace as sub-
* This was once thought the most probable passage of Hanni-
bal into Italy, but recent investigation gives it in favour of the Lit-
tle St. Bernard.
insano contorqucns vortice sylvas
Fluviorum rex Eridanus. Virg. Gcorg. I. 462.
dued by Drusus*, and flows through the Lacus Ver-
banus, now Lago Maggiore, into the.Po, near Ticinum,
or Pavia (it was here that the Romans were first de-
feated by Hannibal, the same year with their defeat
atTrebia); the Minciust, or Mincio, which flows from
the lake Benacus J, Lago di Garda, celebrated by
Virgil, and falls into the Po below Mantua ; and the
Trebia, already mentioned, which falls into the Po, in
Gallia Caspadana, near Placentia. The Athesis, or
*ftdige, rises in the Rhaetian Alps, and flowing by Vero-
na, falls into the Adriatic above the Po. Considerably
below Ravenna, and just above the town of Ariminum,
or Rimini, is the celebrated stream of the Rubico ||,
now called Fiumesino, a mountain torrent, or rather one
* Drusus Genaunos, impavidum genus,
Brennosque veloces dejecit Od. IV. 4.
f Propter aquam, tardis ingens ubi flexibus errat
Mincius. Virg. Georg. III. 14.
^ An mare quod supra memorem, quodque alluit infra,
Anne lacus tantos; te, Lari maxime, teque
Fluctibus et fremitu assurgens, Benace, marino.
Virg. Georg. II. 158.
Sive Padi ripis Athesin seu propter amoenum,
Virg. &n. IX. 680.
fj Fonte cadit modico, parvisque impellitur undis
Puniceus Rubicon, cum fervida canduit xstas:
Perque imas serpit valles, et Gallica certus
Limes ab Ausoniis disterminat arva colonis.
Turn vires prxbebat hyems
Cxsar ut adversam superato gurgite ripam
Attigit, Hesperix vetitis et constitit arvis,
Hie ait, hie, pacem temerataque jura relinquo;
Te, Fortuna, sequor Lucan. I. 212.
of three which separates Italia Propria from Gallia Cis-
alpina; but which was crossed by Caesar, when he ad-
vanced to make himself master of the Roman Empire ;
an act equivalent to a declaration of Civil War, as he then
entered Italy with his army.
The first province in Italia Propria was Etruria,
or Tuscia, reaching to the mouth of the Tiber.
The Etrurians were called Tyrrheni by the
Greeks, and are supposed to have been originally
a colony of Mseonians. from Lydia*, in Asia Mi-
nor, and were remarkably addicted to auguries f
and soothsaying. East of Etruria were the Um-
bri, a very antient nation, whose coast along
the Adriatic was subsequently occupied by the
Galli Senones. Their name still remains in Sena
Gallica now Senigaglia. Below these was Pice-
num, celebrated for its apples J. Below Umbria
were the Sabini, separated from Latium by the
river Anio, now the Teverone. On the South of
the Tiber and Anio was Latium ; and on the South
* Hence Horace, addressing Maecenas, who was descended from
the antient Kings of Tuscany :
Non quia, Maecenas, Lydorum quidquid Etruscos
Incoluit fines nemo, generosior est te. Hor. Sat. I. 6,
f Hence Virg.
Inflavit cum pinguis ebur Tyrrhenus ad aras,
Lacinbus et pandis fumantia reddimus exta.
Georg. II. 193.
Picenis cedunt pomis Tiburtia succo. Sat. II.
bank of the Tiber, just below their junction, is
Rome. The river Liris separated Latium from
Campania, at the back of which was Samnium and
The principal Cities in Etruria were Pisae, near the
coast, now Pisa; above it Luca, now Lucca; and North-
west, on the coast, Luna, near Lerici*. East of Pisae is
Florentia, now Florence, and Faesulae, now Fiesole; and
South-east Arretium Vetus, now Jlrezzo; below which
is Cortona, which keeps its name. South of this is the
Lacus Trasimenus, now called the Lago di Perugia, from
Perugia, antiently Perusia, near its South-eastern ex-
tremity. Near this lake was the memorable defeat of
the Romans by Hannibal, B.C. 217, A.U.C. 537. South
of Florentia is Sena, now Siena ; West of which is Vola-
terras, now Volterra ; and South-east is Clusium on the
river Clanis. Below Clusium (PI. VIII.) is Volsinii, now
Bolsena, where Sejanus was born. South-east is Falerii,
or Falisci, a small village, now Falari. Among the
Falisci was Mons Soracte, mentioned by Horace t.
West of Falerii is Tarquinii, from whence the Tarquin
family came to Rome ; and below Falerii is Veil. West
of Veii is Caere, or Agylla, now Cer-Veteri. North-
west of Caere, on the coast, is the port of Centum Cellae,
now Civita Vecchia, the chief port of modern Rome.
In Umbria (PI. VII.), on the shore of the Adriatic,
near the Rubicon, is Ariminum, now Rimini; below is
* Est operas pretium Lunas cognoscere portum. JSnniu*.
f Vides ut alta stet nive candidum
Soracte /for, Od. I. 9,
Pisaurum, or Pesaro, Sena Gallica, now Senigaglia, and
Ancona, which retains its name. South-west of which
and just East of the Lacus Trasimenus, at the foot of
the Apennines, is Nuceria, now Nocera. Considerably
below it is Spoletium, now Spoleto, where they still show
the gate from which Hannibal was repulsed. Somewhat
East of Spoletium is Nursia, now Norsia, and East of
this, Asculum, now JLscole.
The principal Rivers and Lakes in Etruria (PL VII.)
are, the Arnus, or <ftrno, which rises in the Apennines,
not very far from Florence, and flows into the sea near
Pisa; the Tiber, which flows principally from North to
South, rising in the Umbrian Apennines, and receives
the Clanis, or Chiaca, near Vulsinii (PI. VIII.); and the
Nar*, or Nera, which rises near Nursia, and receiving
the Velinus, which rises near the Lake Fucinus, flows
by Reate, now Reati, near Interamna or Terni, and falls
into the Tiber near Narnia and Ocriculum. The river
Metaurus, or Metro, celebrated for the defeat of Asdru-
bal, the brother of Hannibal, by the Consuls, Liv. Sali-
nator and Claudius Nerot, A.U.C. 547. B.C. 207, rises
in the Umbrian Apennines, (PI. VII.) and falls into the
sea South of Pisaurum.
Below the Tiber (PL VIII.) was Latium, in which is
Ostia, so called from its being the port at the mouth of
* Audiit et Triviae longe lacus, audiit amnis
Sulphurea Nar albus aqua. Virg. Mn. VII, 516.
f Quid debeas, O Roma, Neronibus,
Testis Metaurum flumen, et Asdrubal
Devictus, Hor. Od, IV. 4.
the Tiber, about 20 miles from Rome. Below it is
Antium *, now Jlnzio ; and below it Circeii, celebrated
in the time of Horace and Juvenal for its oysters t, and
fabled as the residence of the enchantress Circe, now
called Monte Cir cello. Eastwards is Caieta, now Gaeta,
celebrated by Virgil as the burial-place of the nurse of
Southward are the small islands of Pontia, now Ponza,
and Pandataria, whither Julia, the daughter of Augus-
tus, was banished. Between Circa3i and Caieta, on an
eminence, is Anxur, called also Tarracina, now Terra-
cina. Here the celebrated Pomptinae Paludes, or
Pontine Marshes, end. In these marshes Marius || hid
himself, and was dragged out from them with a rope
round his neck, to the neighbouring prison of Min-
turna. About twelve miles eastward of Rome we
have Tusculum, where was Cicero's celebrated villa,
* Here was the famous Temple of Fortune, the subject of the
Ode of Horace.
O Diva gratum quae regis Antium. Od. I. 35.
j Ostrea Circaeis, Miseno oriuntur echini. //or. Sat. II. 4.
" Circzeis nata forent, an ,
Lucrinam ad saxum, Rutupinove edita fundo
Ostrea callebat primo dignoscere morsu.
Juvenal, Sat. IV. 140.
$ Tu quoque littoribus nostris, /Eneia nutrix,
-/Eternam moriens famam, Caieta, dedisti.
Vir%. Mn. VII 1.
Impositum saxis late candentibus Anxur. Hor. Sat. I. 5.
|j Hence Juvenal, speaking of Marius :
Exilium et career, Mintumarumque paludes
Et mendicatus victa Carthagine panis. Sat. X, 276.
the scene of his Tusculan Disputations; it is now called
Frascati. Praeneste *, the retreat of Horace, is to the
East of this, now called Palestrina. South-east of Prae-
neste is Anagnia, the capital of the antient Hernici ; and
still South-east is* Arpinum, or Jlrpino, the birth-place
of Marius and Cicero.
The principal Rivers of Latium were, the Anio, or
Teverone, which rises at'Treba near Anagnia, and pas-
sing by the delightful town of Tiburt, celebrated for its
cascades, antiently bounded it on the North-east; and
the Liris, which rose near the Lake Fucinus J, not very
far from the Anio, and, flowing in an opposite direction,
falls into the sea ^near Minturnae. The Liris is now
called the Garigliano. The small river Fibrenus, which
ran by Cicero's paternal villa, falls into it not far from
The city of Rome itself (PL XXI.) was built on seven
hills : Mons Palatinus, in the centre, then Capitolinus,
Quirinalis, Viminalis, Esquilinus, Coelius, Aventinus ;
* Trojani belli scriptorem, maxime Lolli,
Bum tu declamas Roma, Praeneste relegi. //or. Ejiist. II. 6.
| Tibur Argseo positum colono
Sit mes sedes utinam senectse. Hor. Od. II. 6.
Domus Albunex resonantis,
Et prxceps Anio, et Tiburni lucus, et uda
Mobilibus pomaria rivis. Hor. Od. I. 7.
jf. Te nemus Angitize, vitrea te Fucinus unda,
Te liquid! flevere lacus. Virg. JEn. VII. T59.
Hence Horace :
Diis quibus septem placuerc colks, Carm. Sxc. 7.
the most extreme*, North and South, were Quirinalis
and Aventinus. On the Esquiliaet were the splendid
palace and gardens of Maecenas. On the Palatine Hill
was the celebrated Palatine library J of Augustus. This
was the first inhabited part of Rome ; and is sometimes
put by way of eminence for the whole . Indeed, here
was the residence of Romulus and the Roman Kings, of
Augustus and the Roman Emperors; whence Palatium
has ever since been applied to the residence of a
monarch. On Mons Capitolinus was the Capitol, and
Tarpeian Rock. Mons Aventimjs was the burying-
place of Remus ; hence it was looked upon as a place of
ill omen ||. Between the Collis Capitolinus, Quirinalis,
and the Tiber, was the Campus Martins, the principal
situation of modern Rome ; and opposite Mons Pala-
tinus, across the Tiber, on the Tuscan side, was the
Janiculum. The Collis Hortulorum, now Monte Pincio,
on which were the gardens of Sallust. is a sort of con-
tinuation of the Quirinal Hill in a North-west direc-
tion. At the foot of the Capitol was the Forum
* Hence Horace :
Cubat hie in colle Quirini,
Hie extreme in Aventino : visendus uterque :
Intervalla vides humane commoda. Efiist. II. 2.
f Nunc licet Esquiliis habitare salubribus, atque
Aggere in aprico spatiari, qua modo tristes
Albis informem spectabant ossibus agrum. Hor. Sat. I. 8.
t Scripta Palatinus quaecunque recepit Apollo. Hor. Efiist. 1. 3.
$ Hence Hor.
Si Palatinas videt aequus arces
Remque Romanam Latiumque felix. Carm. Saec. 65.
|| Ut immerentis fluxit in terram Remi
Sacer nepotibus cruor. //or. Efiod. VII. 18.
Romanum, and on one side of it the famous Milliarium
aureum, er Golden Milestone, from which all the Roman
roads were measured. This curious monument was dis-
covered in 1823. The nations in the immediate vicinity
of Rome, during the earlier periods of the Roman history
(PI. VIII. XXL), were, the Latini below Rome ; the
JEqui East, and Hernici South-east of Rome ; the
Volsci South-westward;, and Aurunci below them, on the
coast of Latium, towards Campania ; the Marsi East of
theJEqui; the Sabini North-east of Rome; and to the
North-west of it, the Veientes.
Below Latium (PL VIII.), and separated from it by
the Liris, was Campania, now Campagna, and part of
the Kingdom of Naples. The chief city of Campania
was Capua, on the river Vulturnus, celebrated for the
luxury of its inhabitants ; and below it, on the coast, is
the no less celebrated city of Neapolis, a Greek colony,
which is now Naples. Neapolis was antiently called
Parthenope, from the name of one of the Sirens, said
to have lived there : and was the favourite residence of
Virgil*, who is said to be buried near the promontory
of Misenum. Baiae and Puteoli were on the opposite
sides of a bay a little West of Naples, and celebrated
for the residence of the Roman nobility t, who built here
magnificent palaces. The former of these is now called
Baja, the latter Pozzuolo. Misenum, which received
its name from the trumpeter of ^Eneas, whose death is
* Illo Virgilium me tempore dulcis alebat
Parthenope studiis fiorentem ignobilis oti.
Virg. Georg. IV. 563.
| Marisque Bails obstrepentis urges
Summovere littora. //or. Od. II. 18,
recorded by Virgil *, was the station of the Roman fleet