Samuel Butler.

Geographia classica, or, The application of antient geography to the classics online

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in the Lower sea ; and North of it was Cuijise t, the
residence of the Cumsean Sybil, the conductress of
vEneas to the shades below. Opposite the promontory
of Misenum are the islands of Prochyta, now Procida,
and Pithecusa, or yEnaria, now Ischia, and on the South
side of the bay called Crater, is the island of Capreae, or
Capri, infamous for the cruelties and debaucheries of
Tiberius J. East of Naples is Nola, where bells are
said to have been first invented, thence called Nolae, or
Campanae, and at the Northern point of the Sinus
Passtanus is Salernum, now Salerno. North-west of
Capua are Teanum and Suessa Auruncorum, now
Tiano and Sezza ; the former of these places was a
favourite residence of the Roman nobility. Above them,
on the confines of Latium, was Venafrum, or Venafro,
celebrated for its olives || and oil. The celebrated vine-
yards IF of Falernum were about Cales near Teanum ; the

* Illi Misenum in littore sicco,

Ut venere, vident indigna morte peremptum ;

Misenum ./Eoliden, quo non prsestantior alter

J&re ciere viros Martemque accendere cantu.

Virg. JEn. VI. 162.
f Laudo tamen vacuis quod sedem figere Cumis

Destinat atque unum civem donare Sibyllse. Juv. Sat. III. 2.
\ Principis angusta Caprearum in rupe sedentis.

Ju-v. Saf, X. 83.
Cras ferramenta Teanum

Tolletis fabri. Hor. Efiist. I. 1.

|| Pressa Venafranac quod bacca remisit olivse Hor. Sat. II. 4.
^f Csecubum, et praelo domitam Caleno

Tu bibes uvam. Mea nee Falernze

Temperant vites, neque Formiani

Pocula colles. Hor. Od. I. 20.


Csecubus Ager near Formiae and Caieta ; and the Mons
Massicus near Sinuessa.

The principal Rivers of Campania are, the Liris, al-
ready described, and Vulturnus, or Volturno, which rises
in the Apennines, in Samnium, and falls into the sea a
little above Liternum, the burial-place of Scipio Afri-
canus ; East of which is Atella, where the Latin farces
called Ludi Atellani originated.

The celebrated Lucrine* Lake was opposite to
Puteoli, near to Lake Avernus, It is now only a muddy
pool, having a conical hill in its centre, which rose in
one night from a subaqueous volcano.

Vesuvius is the principal Mountain in Campania ;
though it does not appear to have been a volcano in
the days of Virgil, who merely celebrates the fertility of
the soil t. The first eruption of Vesuvius which we have
on record is that A.D. 79, when the cities of Pompeii,
Herculaneum, and Stabias, were overwhelmed with
ashes, and the elder Pliny lost his life by approaching
too near the volcano.

At the back of Latium and Campania are Samnium
and Hirpini ; the two first cities of which, beyond Cam-

* An memorem portus, Lucrinoque addita claustra,
Atque indignatum magnis stridoribus sequor :
Julia qua ponto longe sonat unda refuso
Tyrrhenusque fretis immittitur sestus Avt?rnis ?

Virg. Georg. II. 161.

t Talem dives arat Capua et vicina Vesevo

Ora jugo. pirg, Georg. II, 224,

pania, are Caudium, South-east of Capua, celebrated for
the ignominious defeat of the Romans, by the Samnite
General Pontius, at the Furculae Caudinae, A.U.C. 433.
B.C. 321., and North-east of this, Beneventum, or Bene-
vento, originally called Maleventum, but which changed
its name for one of more favourable omen. Here
Pyrrhus was defeated by Curius, and retired to Epirus,
B.C. 274, A.U.C. 480. The Furcuhe Caudinse are
still called Forchie. Northwards, in Samnium, properly
so called, is Allifae, antiently celebrated for its manufac-
ture of pottery *, and considerably North-west, ^Esernia,
now Isernia. Above, bordering on the Sabines, were
the Marsi, celebrated for their valour t, and East of
them the Peligni ; these two Samnite tribes were reputed
to possess great skill in magic J.

Marrubium, the principal City of the Marsi, was
situated on the South-eastern side of the Lake Fucinus,
now Lago di Celano. Among the Peligni was Corfi-
nium, and, a little lower, Sulmo, now Sulmona, where
Ovid was born . On the Coast of the Adriatic were the

* Invertunt Allifanis vinaria tota, Hor. Sat. II. 8.

f Hasc genus acre virum, Marsos pubemque Sabellam,
Assuetumque malo Ligurem, Volscosque verutos,
Extulit. Virg. Georg. II. 167.

^ Nee vocata mens tua

Marsis redibit vocibus. Hor. Ejiod. V, 75.

Quid proderit ditasse Pelignas anus

Velociusve miscuisse toxicum. Hor. Ejiod. XVIII. 8.

Sulmo mihi patria est gelidis uberrimus undis,

Millia qui novies distat ab urbe decem, Ov, Trial. IV. 10.


Samnite tribes of the Vestini, Marrucini, and Frentani.
This part of Italy is now called Jlbruzzo. Among the
Vestini is Amiternum. The principal River in Sam-
nium is the Sagrus, or Sangro.

The remainder of Italy is called Magna Grsecia,
from the number of Grecian colonies which it con-
tained. It is divided into the principal provinces
of Apulia, Messapia, or Japygia, (called also Cala-
bria,) Lucania, and the country of the Bruttii, or
Bruttiorum Ager.

Apulia is now called Puglia ; its coast was called
Daunia, from Daunus, an antient King of Apulia, who
was the father-in-law of Diomede. Diomede settled
here after the Trojan war, and founded the city of
Arpi *, still so called. A little Eastward on the coast,
was Sipontum, near the present city of Manfredonia.
West of Arpi, and bordering on Samnium, is Luceria,
or Lucera, celebrated for its wool t. Towards Lucania
is Venusia, now Venosa, the birth-place of Horace J, and
near it Bantia and Acheronita, or <flcerenza, and Feren-

* Atque iterum in Teucros ^Etolis surgit ab Arpis

Tydides. Virg. JEn. X, 23,

f Te lanas prope nobilem
Tonsse Luceriam, non cithare, decent. Hor. Od. III. 15.

$ ' Lucanus an Appulus anceps,

Nam Venusinus arat finem sub utrumque colonus.

Hor. Sat. II. 1.

Quicunque celsse nidum Acherontisc,
Saltusque Bantinos, et arvum

Pingiie tenent humilis Ferenti. Hor. Od. III. 4.


turn, places only memorable for having been recorded
by him. North of Venusia is Canusium, or Canosa,
built by Diomede*, and a little Eastward of Canusium
is Cannae, the fatal scene of defeat and slaughter to the
Romans, in the dreadful battle against Hannibal, May
21st, A.U.C. 538. B.C. 216. The country between
Apulia and Messapia was antiently called Peucetia, the
principal city of which was Barium t, frequented by
fishermen. The principal River of Apulia was the J
Aufidus or Ofanto, a violent Appennine stream, which
falls into the sea near Cannae. In the spur of the boot
was Mons Garganus , celebrated for its oak groves, and
now called Monte St. Jlngdo ; and near Venusia was
Mons Vultur || bordering on Lucania, frequented by
the infant Horace.

Below Apulia is Messapia, or Japygia, containing two

* Qui locus a forti Diomede est conditus olim. Hor. Sat. I. 5.
f Bari mcenia piscosi. Hor. Sat. I. 5.

^ Sic tauriformis volvitur Aufidus,
Qui regna Dauni perfiuit Appuli,
Cum ssevit horrendamque cultis

Diluviem meditatur agris. Hor. Od. IV. 14.

Garganum mugire putes nemus. Hor. Efiist. II. 1.

. Aut Aquilonibus

Querceta Gargani laborant. Hor. Od. II. 9.

|| Me fabulosje Vulture in Appulo
Altricis extra limen Apulix,
Ludo fatigatumque somno

Fronde nova puerum palumbes
Texere. Hor. Od. III. 4.


nations, the Calabri on the North-east, and the Salentini
on the South-western side of the heel of Italy. The
Calabri have given to this country the general name of
Calabria. On the Adriatic is Brundusium, or Brindisi,
the principal port for the passengers from Greece to Italy.
Horace has described the road from Rome to this place
in the fifth satire of his first book. Below it is Rudise,
the birth-place of Ennius, the friend of Scipio Africanus
and father of Latin poetry *, whose bust was placed on
the tomb of the Scipios ; and still lower Hydruntum,
now Otranto. The extreme promontory of the heel of
Italy was called Japygium, or Salentinum Promontorium ;
above it is Matinum; celebrated for its beest. At the
top of the heel, at the West, is Tarentnm, now Tarento,
founded by the Lacedaemonians. The most celebrated
River of Calabria is the small stream of the Galesus J,
or Galeso.

Below Campania and Apulia is Lucania, the first city
of which, under Campania, is Paestum, now Pesti, on

Ennius emeruit, Calabris in montibus ortus,
Contiguus poni, Scipio magne, tibi.

Ovid. De Art. Am. III. 400.
i Ego apis Matinae

More modoque

Grata carpentis thyma per laborem

Plurimum, circa nemus uvidique
Tiburis ripas operosa parvus

Carmina fingo. Hor, Od, IV. 2.

Dulce pellitis ovibus Galesi
Flumen, et regnata petam Laconi
Rura Phalanto, Hor, Od* II. 6.


the coast, celebrated for its roses * ; this city was called
by the Greeks Posidonia, in honour of Neptune. Below
is Helea or Velia, mentioned by Horace t. On the
coast of the Tarentine bay was Metapontum, the cele-
brated school of Pythagoras, who died there B.C. 497.;
below it, Heraclea, of which Zeuxis was a native, and
Archias, Cicero's friend, was made a citizen ; and Sybaris,
or Thurium, so celebrated for the effeminacy of its in-
habitants, that a Sybarite became a term of reproach for
luxurious and dissolute persons.

The principal rivers in Lucania are, the Silarus, or
SilarOj which rises in the Apennines, and falls into the
Mare Tyrrhenum, near Mount Alburnus and Paestum,
the banks of which were much infested by the gad-fly J ;
the Aciris, or tflgri, the Bradanus, or JBradano, and the
Sybaris, rise in the Apennines, and flow into the Gulf
of Tarentum.

South of Lucania are the Bruttii. Near the Mare
Tyrrhenum, a little inland, is Consentia, now Consenza.
Quite in the toe of Italy, on the strait which di-
vides it from Sicily, is Rhegium, now Regio ; and on the
opposite coast of Italy, on the Ionian Sea, are the Locri

* Biferique rosaria Pxsti. Virg. Georg. IV. 119.

f Quid sit hyms Velise, quid cesium, Vala, Salerni.

Hor. Ejiist. I. 15.

^ Est lucos Silari circum ilicibusque virentem
Plurimus Alburnum volitans, cui nomen asilo
Romanum est, cestron Graii vertere vocantes.

Virg. Georg. III. 146.


Epi-Zephyrii, so called from the promontory of Zephy-
rium, a little below it. Above Locri is Scylacium, now
Squillaci, and above it, after the shore has bent to the
East, is the promontory of Lacinium *, now called Capo
delict Colonna, from a column of a celebrated temple of
Juno Lacinia still remaining. A little North is Croto,
or Crotona, the birth-place of the famous Olympic victor
Milo, and once a flourishing city, and celebrated school
of Pythagoreans. Above this is Petiliat, built by Phi-
loctetes, after his return from the Trojan war ; and above
it Roscianum, now Rosano.

The principal Rivers of the Bruttii are, the Crathes,
or Crati, which rises in the Apennines, not far from
Consentia, and falls into the Tarentine bay, flowing by
Sybaris ; and the Neaethes, or Neto, which rises in the
same vicinity, and falls into the sea near Petilia.

The principal Roman Roads (PL XXI. ) were the Via
Appia, from Rome to Brundusium ; the Flaminia, from
Rome to Arimium ; the Aurelia, by the coast of Etru-
ria, to Liguria and Gallia, near Nice ; and the Claudia,
which branched off from the Flaminia, at the Pons
Milvius, near Rome, and proceeding through the more
inland part of Etruria, joined the Via Aurelia at Lucca.

* Hie sinus Herculei, si vera est fama, Tarenti,
Cernitur, attollit se Diva Lacinia contra,
Caulonisque arces, et navifragum Scylacxum.

Virg. &n. III. 551.

See also a beautiful story respecting the painting of Helen, by
Zeuxis in this temple, related by Cicero, De Invent. II. 1.

f Parva Philoctetx subnixa Petilia muro. Virg. JEn, III. 402.


The roads of inferior note were, the Via Latinia, which
had the Alban lake on the right, Tusculum on the left,
and led to Mons Albanus, on the summit of which was
the temple of Jupiter Latiaris, where the Latin tribes
used to assemble on the Feria3 Latinae, when sacrifices
were offered by the Roman consuls. The triumphant

Generals used also sometimes to lead their armies in

' ' /;

solemn procession to this temple. Mons Algidus, sacred
to Diana *, runs Eastward from this hill. The Labicana,
to Praeneste, passing through Labicum and haying the
Lake Regillus on the left. The Praenestina, to the same
city, which passed through Gabii, having Collatia to the
left. The Tiburtina or Valeria, which led through
Tibur to the Adriatic. The Nomentana which passed
over Mons Sacer to Nomentum and Cures, among the
Sabini. The Salaria, which passed through Fidenae,
crossed the river Allia, and joined the Nomentana at
Eretum, between Nomentum and Cures, and passed on
to the Adriatic, having at some distance to the left
Capena, and the grove of Feronia. The Cassia, which
passed between the Flaminia and Claudia, over the little
river Cremera, near Veii, and is now the principal road
over the Campagna di Roma, to Rome. The Trium-
phalis, which joined the Claudia six miles from Rome.
The Portuensis and Ostiensis, which led to the Portus
Augusti on the North, and Ostia on the South side of
the mouth of the Tiber. The Laurentina and Ardeatina
led to Laurentum and Ardea, between the Via Ostiensis

Quaeque Aventinum tenet Algidumque

Quindecim Diana preces virorum

Curet Hor. Carm, Sgec. 69.


and Appia. Considerably to the left of the Via Ardeatina,
near the Via Appia, was Lanuvium, and about half way
between this and Rome was Bovillae, where Clodius was
killed by the partisans of Milo, Jan. 20, A.U.C. 702.,
B.C. 52.

The antients used to bury by the sides of their high
roads *.

* Hence Juvenal,

Experiar quid concedatur in illos

Quorum Flaminia tegitur cinis atque Latina.

Saf, 1. ult.





SICILIA was antiently called Sicania, from the Sicani,
a people of Spain, who possessed the island till they
were driven to its Western corner by the Siculi, an
Italian nation, the original inhabitants of Latium. It
was also called Trinacria, from having rg7$ xxpxi, three
celebrated promontories (the island itself being of a tri-
angular shape) ; Pelorum at the East, adjacent to Italy,
Pachynum at the South, and Lilybceum at the West.
It was colonized by the Greeks and Carthaginians, and
came into the possession of the Romans in the second
Punic war. The promontory of Pelorum is now Cape
Faro. A little South of this was Messana, more
antiently called also Zancle, from the curved form of its
harbour, now Messina. Close to this, on the Sicilian
shore, was Charybdis, and above it, on the Italian shore,


Scylla *, the two well-known objects of terror to the
antient mariners, though now much less formidable.
Below it is Tauromenium, now Taormino, and below it
Catana, which still retains its name, at the foot of Mount
JEtna, now called Monte Gibello. The most remarkable
poetic descriptions of the eruptions of ^Etna are in
Pindar, Pyth. 1. 31, ^Eschylus, Pr. Vinct. 362. and Vir-
gil, JEn. III. 571 1. Above Catana was the little river
Acis, for an account of which see Ovid. Met. XIII. 860.,
and near it the Cyclopum Scopuli, mentioned by Virgil,
JEn. I. 201. The plains below the river Sima3thus,
now the Giaretta, were -antiently called the Laestrigonii

* Dextrum Scylla latus, Isevum implacata Charybdis
Obsidet, atque imo barathri ter gurgite vastos
Sorbet in abruptum fiuctus, rursusque sub auras
Erigit alternos, et sidera verberat unda.
At Scyllam csecis cohibet spelunca latebris,
Ora exsertantem et naves in saxa trahentem.
Prinia hominis facies, et pulchro pectore virgo
Pube tenus : postrema immani corpore pristis
Delphinum caudas utero commissa luporum.

Virg. &n. III. 420.

| Horrificis juxta tonat /Etna ruinis.

Interdumque atram prorumpit ad asthera nubem,
Turbine fumantem piceo et candente favilla :
Attollitque globos flammamm, et sidera lambit :
Interdum scopulos avulsaque viscera montis
Erigit eructans, liquefactaque saxa sub auras
Cum gemitu glomerat, fundoque exzestuat imo.
Fama est Enceladi semiustum fulmine corpus
Urgeri mole liac, ingentemque insuper ^Etnam
Impositam, ruptis flammam exspirare caminis :
Et, fessum quoties mutat latus, intremere omnem
Murmure Trinacriam, et ccelum subtexere fumo.

Vir%. JEn. III. 57 1.


Gampi, from the Laestrigones, a barbarous antient people,
who, as well as the Cyclopes, inhabited Sicily. The
wine of this region is celebrated by Horace *. On the
coast were the Leontini, now Lentini. Below this were
Hybla minor and the Hyblsei Colles, celebrated for their
bees t. Below was the river Anapus, and the far-famed
city of Syracuse, still called Siracusa. (PI. XXI. ) It
was taken by Marcellus, the Roman Prsetor, in the
second Punic war, B.C. 212, A.U.C. 542.; and was
also the scene of the memorable defeat of the Athenians,
so finely related by Thucydides, in his seventh book of
the Peloponnesian war. The ports of Syracuse lay at
the South, below the town. The lesser port was formed
by the town and the North side of the little island
Ortygia, in which was the fountain Arethusa ; the greater
port, in which was the mouth of the river Anapus,
was formed by the Southern side of the island and a bay
reaching to the promontory called Plemmyrium, in the
recess of which promontory was a castle. That part of
the town called Acradina was nearest the shore, and its
Southern extremity formed one side of the little port.
The South-western side of the city lying towards the
Anapus, and separated from it by some marshy ground,
was called Neapolis, built after the Athenian invasion,
between which and Acradina was Tyche, and above
Neapolis was Epipolse. Between the Anapus and
Neapolis was a grove and temple of Apollo, who
was thence called Temenites. The whole circuit of
Syracuse was 180 stadia, above 22 English miles.

* Quamquam nee Calabrx mella ferunt apes,

Nee Laestrigonia Bacchus in amphora

Languescit mihi Hor. Od. III. 16.

] Hybl<eis apibus fiorem depasta salicti. Virg. Eel. I. 155.


This description may be of service in reading Thucydides.
Below Syracuse (PL VIII.) is Helorum, the vestiges of
which are called Muri Ucci ; the adjacent country was
so beautiful, as to be called the Helorian Tempe. The
extreme Southern point of Sicily is the promontory of
Pachynum, now Passaro. Ascending along the Southern
shore of Sicily is Camarina, antiently called Hyperia, so
often celebrated by Pindar : it is still called Camarana :
above it is Gela, near the modern Terra Nova, and the
Campi Geloi. The river Himera separated the Syra-
cusan from the Carthaginian dependencies in Sicily.
West of the Himera is the city of Agrigentum, or
Agragas, as it is called by the Greeks, so often celebrat-
ed by Pindar, now called Girgenti. Still West was
Selinus, a splendid Syracusan colony. From Selinus
the shore bends upwards to the Western promontory of
Lilyboeum, which is nearly opposite Carthage, and still
preserves its old name in Boeo ; but the city of Lilybrcum
is now called Marsala. North of Lilyboeum is Dre-
panum, now Trapani, and Mount Eryx, celebrated for
its temple of Venus, hence called Erycina *. On the
North side of Mount Eryx was the Trojan colony of Se-
geste, or Egeste. South-west of Mount Eryx are the
^gades or ./Egates Insular, celebrated for the famous
victory gained by the Romans under Lutatius Catulus
over the Carthaginians, which ended the first Punic war,
B.C. 242, A.U.C. 512. Proceeding along the Northern
coast, we find Panormus, now the capital of Sicily, under
the name of Palermo. East of it was the city, Himera,
on another and smaller river of that name, -and a little
East of it Thermae, so called from the warm baths in its

* Sive tu mavis Erycina ridens. Hor, Od. I. 2.


vicinity, now Termini. Towards the Eastern pro-
montory of Pelorum was the city of Tyndaris, which
preserves its name, and Mylae, now Milazzo, between
which place and a station called Naulochus, the fleet of
Sextus Pompeius was defeated by that of the Triumvir
Octavius, B.C. 36, A.U.C. 718. In the interior of the
country, and nearly in its centre, was the celebrated plain
of Enna, from which Proserpine was carried away by
Pluto to the shades below. (See Ovid, Met. V. 341.)
It is now called Castro Janni, or Giovanni.

Each of the promontories of Sicily had a celebrated
temple. At Pelorum was that of Neptune ; at Pachy-
num that of Apollo ; and near Lilyboeum that of Venus*
on Mount Er}^x. The antients fabled that the giant
Typhoeus was buried under Sicily, Pelorum and Pachy-
num being placed on each arm, Lilyboeum on his feet, and
./Etna on his head, and that the earthquakes and eruptions
of jiEtna were caused by his attempts to move *.

North of Sicily are some volcanic islands, called the

* Vasta giganteis injecta est insula membris
Trinacris ; et magnis subjectum molibus urget
TEtherias ausum sperare Typhoea sedes.
Nititur ille quidem, pugnatque resurgere ssepe ;
Dextra sed Ausonio manus est subjecta Peloro :
Lseva, Pachyne, tibi : Lilybceo cirira premuntur :
Degravat ./Etna caput : sub qua resupinus arenas
Ejectat, flammamque fero vomit ore Typhoeus.
Ssepe remoliri luctatur pondera terrae,
Oppidaque et magnos evolvere corpore monies ;
Inde tremit tellus. Ovid. Met. V. 346.


Insulae ^Eoliae *, Vulcanise t, et Liparseae, from ./Eolus
and Vulcan, who were supposed to have their dwellings
here, and Lipara, the principal island. Here were the
forges of Vulcan, described by the poets, particularly
by Homer and Virgil. Below Sicily were the islands
of Melite, now Malta, and Gaulos, or Goza, adjacent
to it.

North-west of Sicily are the two islands of Corsica
and Sardinia. The former lies under Liguria, and was
peopled by the Ligurians, and colonized by the Cartha-
. '"; ians, from whom it was taken by the Romans, B.C.
231, A.U.C. 523. It was celebrated for its yew trees,
which gave a poisonous quality to the honey J. The
Greeks called it Cyrnos. It had two colonies, Mariana
planted by Marius, and Aleria by Sylla. On the North-
western coast was the Casalus Sinus, thought to be Calvi,
and on the opposite side, above Mariana, Mantinorum
Oppidum, now Bastia. About the middle of the
Western side was Urcinium, now i&jaccio, said to have

* Nimborum in patriam, loca foeta furentibus Austris,
^Eoliam venit, hie vasto rex JEolus antro
Luctantes ventos tempestatesque sonoras
Imperio premit, et vinclis et carcere fraenat.

Virg* JEn.1.51.

f Insula Sicanium juxta latus ^Eoliamque
Erigitur Liparen spurn antibus ardua saxis :

# * # #

Vulcani domus, et Vulcania nomine tellus.

Virg. ln. VIII. 416.

\ Hence Virg.
Sic mea Cyrnieas fugiant examina taxos,

Eel. IX. 30.


been founded by Eurysaces, the son of Ajax. Below
Corsica is Sardinia, called by the Greeks Ichnusa *,
from its fancied resemblance to the print of a foot. It
derived its name from Sardus, the son of Hercules, chief
of an African colony planted there. It was taken by the
Romans with Corsica. The air of Sardinia was consi-
dered very unwholesome, and the quantity of wormwood
and bitter herbs it produced, particularly a species of
ranunculus, was proverbial t. As the features were con-
tracted by the taste of these, the expression Sardous risus,
a Sardonic smile, was used to signify a malevolent grin.
The principal towns were Caralis, now Cagliari, in the
South, and Olbia, in the North, nearly opposite to which
was Tibulae.

Late events have given celebrity to the little island of
Ilva, now Elba, lying between the extreme Northern
point of Corsica and Etruria. Its iron mines were cele-
brated by the antients J.

* The adjacent countries have been generally assimilated to
some well-known form. Italy to a boot ; Sicily, by the antients,
to a triangle, hence called Triquetra ; by the moderns, to the less
philosophic form of a shoulder of mutton ; Corsica to a heart.

f Immo ego Sardois videor tibi amarior herbis.

Virg. EcL VII. 41.

$ Ilva

Insula inexhaustis Chalybum generosa metallis.

Virg. Mn. X. 173.




A. G.Plate II.

As Britain appears to have been peopled by successive
migrations from the neighbouring coast of Gaul, it will
be our most natural way of proceeding to begin with de-
scribing the parts nearest that country.

Opposite the coast of Gaul, and divided from it by a
narrow strait, were, I. The Cantii, or people of Kent,
and part of Middlesex, whose principal harbour was
Rutupise, or Richborough, where the Romans generally
landed. Even in the days of Juvenal the oysters of
Richborough were imported into Italy *. Durovernum,
or Darvernum, was Canterbury j Durobrivse, Rochester,

* Circseis nata forent, an

Lucrinum ad saxum, Rutupinove edita fundo

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