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Ostrea, callebat primo dignoscere morsu. Jwv. Sat, IV. 145.


A little below Dover was Portus Lemanis, or Lymne,
where Caesar is thought to have landed on his first
expedition to Britain, B.C. 55, A.U.C. 699 : having
set out from the Portus Itius, in Gaul, a little South of
Calais. II. South-west of the Cantii were the Regni,
or antient inhabitants of Surry, Sussex, and part of
Hampshire, whose principal city, Neomagus, or Novio-
magus, is placed at Woodcote, nearCroydon, in Surrey;
Regnum was Chichester. III. Nearly West of the
Regni were the Belgae, or inhabitants of Wiltshire^
Somersetshire, and part of Hampshire. The principal
station here was Venta Belgarum, or Winchester. Aquae
Calidse, or Solis, was Bath ; Ischalis, Ilchester; Clausen-
turn, Southampton ; the Isle of Wight was called Vectia.
South-west of them were, IV. The Durotriges, or the
inhabitants of Dorsetshire. The chief towns were Dun-
ium, or Jlggerdon Hill, and Dornovaria, now Dorchester.
V. West of the Durotriges were the Damnonii, or Dum-
nonii, who possessed Devonshire and Cornwall. The
chief towns were Isca Damnoniorum, or Chiselborough,
and Uxela, or Exeter. Tamari Ostia was the mouth of
the Tamar, now Plymouth Sound. Ocrinum was the
Lizard Point ; and Bolerium the Land's End, or Cape
Cornwall. VI. North, above the Cantii, were the Tri-
nobantes, or people of Essex and Middlesex. The prin-
cipal settlements were, Camulodunum, or Maldon ; Co-
Ionia, probably Colchester ; Caesaromagus, Chelmsford ;
and Londinium, or London. VII. South-west of the Tri-
nobantes were the Atrebatii, in Berkshire and part of
Oxfordshire. Their principal town was Calleva, pro-
bably Silchester. VIII. North of the Atrebatii were
the Catti, Catieuchlani or Cattevelauni, in the present


counties of Hertford, Bedford, Northampton, and
Bucks. Their capital was Verulamium, near St. JLl-
ban's. IX. West of the Cattevelauni and Atrebatii were
the Dobuni, who inhabited Oxfordshire and Gloucester-
shire. The two principal stations were Corinium, or
Cirencester, and Glevum, or Gloucester. Wales was di-
vided among two principal nations. X. In South Wales
the Silures inhabited the counties of Hereford, Mon-
mouth, Radnor, Brecon, and Glamorgan ; whose capi-
tal was Isca Silurum, now Caerleon, on the river Isca, or
Uske, in Monmouthshire. The other principal stations
were Bullaeum or Burrium Uske, unless the former name
belong to Builth ; Blestium, or Monmouth ; Gobannium,
or Mergavenny ; Ariconium, or Ross ; and Venta Silu-
rum, or Caer Gwent, near Chepstow. The Demetae were
a tribe of Silures on the coast in Cardiganshire, Pem-
brokeshire, and Carmarthenshire. The great Caracta-
cus, who was defeated by Ostorius Scapula, A.D. 51, was
a prince of the Silures. XI. In North Wales were the
Ordovices, who occupied the counties of Montgomery,
Carnarvon, Denbigh, and Flint. Their capital was
Mediolanum, or Myfod, in Montgomeryshire. Among
them were also Segontium, or Carnarvon, on the river
Seiont, and Conovium, or Conwy, on the river Conwy.
The island of Jlnglesea was called Mona. XII. Return-
ing to the Eastern coast : North of the Trinobantes were
the Simeni, Cenimagni, or Iceni, in Norfolk, Suffolk,
Cambridgeshire, and Huntingdonshire ; whose capital
was Venta Icenorum, or Caister, not far from Norwich.
The famous Boadicea was queen of the Iceni, who revolt-
ed against the Romans, and was defeated by Suetonius
Paulinus, A.D. 61. XIII. North-west of the Iceni were


the Coritani, who possessed the counties of Leicester,
Rutland, Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby, and part of
Stafford. Among the principal stations were Lindum,
or Lincoln, and Rata3, or Leicester. XIV. West of the
Coritani were the Cornavii, who were settled in War-
wickshire, Worcestershire, Staffordshire, Shorpshire,
and Cheshire. The principal stations here were Deva, or
Chester; Uriconium*, or Wroxeter, near Shrewsbury,
the antient capital of the Cornavii, Etocetum, or Wall,
near Lichfield, and Manduessedum, or Manceter, in
Warwickshire, though the two last belong more properly
to the Coritani. The Huicii, or Jugantes, as they were
called by Tacitus, were a tribe of the Cornavii settled in
Warwickshire, and Worcestershire. XV. North of the
Coritani were the Parisi, but a small nation, situated in
that part of Yorkshire called Holderness, and subject to,
XVI. The Brigantes, the greatest, most powerful, and
most antient of the British nations. They possessed the
whole extent of Britain from sea to sea, comprising the
counties of York, Durham, Lancaster, Westmoreland,
and Cumberland. The famous Cartismandua, with whom
Caractacus took refuge, was queen of the Brigantes. The
principal towns were, Eboracum, or York, one of the
greatest in the island, and Isurium, or Jlldborough, near
Boroughbridge, which was at one time the capital of the
Brigantes. Longovicum was Lancaster ; Mancunium,
Manchester. These are the principal British nations.
The antient inhabitants of Scotland were very little known
to the Romans ; and it may suffice to mention the Otadeni,
who were seated in the counties of Northumberland,
Merse, and the Lothians ; the Gadeni, West of the Ota-

* Hence the present name of the Wrekin.


deni, in Northumberland and Tevioldale ; the Selgovae,
in Eskdale, JLnnandale, and Nithisdale, on the shores
of the Solway Firth : still West, the Novantae, in Gal-
loway, Carrick, Kyle, and Cunningham; and on the
North-west, above the Otadeni and Gadeni, the Damnii,
in Clydesdale, Renfrew, Lenox, and Stirlingshire.
These five nations were sometimes comprehended under
the general name of the Mseatae.

When Britain was formed into a regular Roman pro-
vince, under the later emperors, the nations above enu-
merated were comprised in the five following grand di-
visions : I. Britannia Prima, comprising the South-east
and probably all the South-west of Britain. II. Britan-
nia Secunda, containing Wales. III. Flavia Caesariensis,
containing probably the parts between the Thames and
Humber on the East, and from the Lower Avon to the
Kibble on the West; though some place it in the West of
England. IV. Maxima Caesariensis, containing the North
of England, from the Humber and Kibble, to the Wall of
Severus. And subsequently, in the time of the Emperor
Valens, A.D. 364. V. Valentia, comprehending the
five Scottish tribes, already mentioned under the name of
Maeatae, lying between the walls of Antoninus and Seve-
rus, about to be described, which were built to prevent
the incursions of the barbarous Scottish tribes into the
Roman provinces. The first of these was built by Agri-
cola, A.D. 79, nearly in the situation of the Rampart of
Hadrian and Wall of Severus, hereafter to be described.
But in A.D. 81, Agricola built a line of very strong forts,
advanced considerably North, from the Firth of Forth,
on the East, to the Firth of Clyde, on the Western coast
of Scotland. These, however, appear to have been insuf-


ficient to restrain the progress of the barbarians after the
departure of Agricola, A.D. 85; and in A.D. 120, the
Emperor Hadrian planned and executed a much stronger
and more important rampart It began from Tunnocelum,
or Boulness, on the JEstuarium, Itunse, or Solway Firth,
near Luguvallium, or Carlisle, on the Western coast,
and was continued almost in a direct line, to Segedenum,
or Cousin's House, beyond Pons JElii, or Newcastle-
upon-Tyne, on the Eastern shore, being a distance of
rather more than 68 English, or 74 Roman miles. It
consisted of a principal agger or vallum, that is, a ram-
part, about 10 or 12 feet high, a ditch, on the North of
this vallum, 9 feet deep and 1 1 feet wide, an agger 20
feet on the North side of this ditch, and an agger, with-
out a ditch, 5 feet on the South of the principal agger,
and nearly of as large dimensions. This work was gar-
risoned by soldiers stationed a-t proper intervals, in forts
which had formed the first Wall of Agricola. Twenty
years after this, A.D. 140, Lollius Urbicus, under the
Emperor Antoninus, having reconquered the Maeatae, re-
stored the second Wall of Agricola, which is commonly
called the Vallum Antonini. This work consisted of a
ditch about 12 feet wide, the principal wall or rampart,
on the South brink of the ditch, whose foundations are
12 feet thick, but the height is unknown, and a military
way on the South of this wall. There were forts, or
stations, at the distance of every two miles, and smaller
towers in the intervals between the forts.

But the greatest work of all was that of Sererus, yet
to be described. It was begun A.D. 209, and finished
the next year, and was only a few yards to the North of
Hadrian's Wall. This great work consisted of a ditch,


the dimensions of which are not known, except that it was
in all respects larger and wider than that of Hadrian, on
the South brink of which stood the wall, built of solid
stone, and cemented with the strongest mortar. The
height of this wall was 12 feet, besides the parapet, and
its breadth 8 feet, defended at intervals by fortresses of
three different kinds. Those called stationes were very
strong garrisons, the least of them capable of containing
600 men, and having a town without their walls ; the
number of these wafc not less than 18, at an average dis-
tance of four miles from each other, but placed with some
irregularity, according to the nature of the surrounding
country and the exigency of defence. Besides these,
there were in the intervals of the stations, 81 cas fella, at
the distance of about 7 furlongs from each other. These
were very strong forts, each exactly 64 feet square.
Lastly, between every two castella were 4 turres, or tur-
rets, 12 feet square, 324 in number, and 300 yards dis-
tant from each other. These were used as watch-towers,
and, being within reach of each other, communications
could be made with the utmost facility. For convenience
of relieving guards, there was a military way, made of
square stones, the whole length of the wall, on its South
side, and communicating with each turret and castle ; and
at some distance, South of this, was another larger mili-
tary way, paved also with square stones, communicating
from station to station. The whole body of forces em-
ployed to garrison this stupendous work was not less than
10,000 men, 1600 of whom were cavalry and 600 mari-
ners, at the points where the ramparts communicated
with the shore.

The four principal Roman roads, Vi& stratx, or paved


roads, hence called Streets, were, the Watling Street,
from Dover to Chester, passing through Londinium, or
London, Verulamium, St. Jilbans, Magiovintum, Dun-
stable, Lactodorum, Stoney Stratford or Towcester,
Manduessedum, Manceter, Etocetum, Wall, Pennocru-
cium, Stretton near Penkridgc, to Deva or Deona, Ches-
ter. A branch of this communicated between Pennocruci-
um and Uriconium. Its etymology is uncertain, but it
is perhaps corrupted from the name of Vitellianus into
Vitellin or Watling Street. The Foss Way, derived
from fossa, a ditch, extended from Totness in Devon-
shire, through Cirencester and Lincoln to North Britain.
The Ikenild Street, probably so called from the Iceni,
through whose country it ran, extended from Southamp-
ton, through York, to Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The Ermm
Street, most probably derived from the Saxon Herrman,
a warrior, signifying that it was a military road, extended
from Menapia, St. David's, to Southampton. From
these principal roads there were many minor branches.

Of the British Islands, Vectis was the Isle of Wight ;
the Cassiterides were the Stilly Islands, which are said
to have been frequented by the Phoenicians ; Mona Taciti,
or the Mojia described by Tacitus, in his Life of Agri-
cola, is the Isle of Jlnglesea ; and Mona Caesaris the Isle
of Man. lerne, or Hibernia, was Ireland. The Hebu-
des mentioned by Pliny, Ptolemy, and Solinus, are now,
by a slight corruption of the name, called the Hebrides.



The Roman Wall





A.G. Plate. III.

SPAIN was divided by the Romans at first into two
provinces, called Hispania Citerior, or nearer, and His-
pania Ulterior, or farther Spain. Hispania Citerior was
afterwards called Tarraconensis, from Tarraco its capital,
and extended from the foot of the Pyrenees to the mouth
of the Durius, or Douro, on the Atlantic shore, compre-
hending all the North of Spain, together with all the
South as far as a line drawn below Carthago Nova, or
Carthagena, and continued, in an oblique direction, to
the Durius, above Salmantica, now Salamanca. His-
pania Ulterior was divided into two provinces, Baetica,
or the South of Spain, between the river Anas, or Gua-
diana, and Hispania Citerior; and above it, Lusitania,
corresponding in great measure, but not entirely, to our
Portugal. Hispania Citerior, or Tarraconensis, con-
tained many nations. The Ceretani, Cosetani, Lace-



tahi, and Ilergetes, occupied what is now Catalonia.
Here was Bareino, or Barcelona, Tarraco, or Tarra-
gona, the capital of the province, and Ilerda, the capital
of the Ilergetes, now Lerida, celebrated for the resist-
ance it made against Caesar, under the Lieutenants of
Pompey, Afranius, and Petreius. North-westward, at
the foot of the Pyrenees, were the Jacetani. The Vas-
cones were seated in the kingdom of Navarre ; whose
chief city was Pompelo, or Pampeluna. The Cantabri *
possessed Biscay, and part of Jlsturias, and held out
against the Roman power for many years. Among them
were the Concani, whose ferocity is also celebrated by
Horace t. Next to the Cantabri were the Astures, or in-
habitants of Jlsturias* whose capital Asturica is still
called Jlstorga. The station of the seventh legion gave
name to the colony of Legio, or Leon. Still Westward,
the Callaeci or Calliaci inhabited the country now called
Gallicia. Here was the promontory of Artabrum, or
Cape Finisterre, North-east of which was Brigantium,
Betancos, near Corunna. At the mouth of the Durius
is the port of Calle, which having been corrupted into
Portugal, has given a modern name to the antient pro-
vince of Lusitania. South-east of the Astures are the
Vaccsei, and South-east of them the Arevaci, in Leon
and Castile. Among the Vaccaei, was Palentia; and
East of it was Numantia, among the Pelendones, which
resisted the Roman armies fourteen years, and was utter-
ly destroyed by Scipio Africanus Minor, B.C. 133,
A.U.C. 621. It was situated near the sources of the

* Cantabrum indoctum juga ferre nostra. //or. Od. II. 6.

Cantaber sera domitus catena. Hor. Od. III. 8.

f Et laetum equino sanguine Concanum. Hor. Od. III. 4,


Douro. Below the river Iberus, or Ebro, were the
Geltiberi, a great and powerful people, in part of Jlrra-
gon and Valencia, who long resisted the Romans.
Among them we may notice the city of Bibilis, South-
east of Numantia, the birth-place of the poet Martial.
East of the Celtiberians, below the Iberus, were the
Edetani, in the other part of *ftrragon and Valencia,
whose Northern boundary was the Iberus, and Southern
the Sucro, or Xucar. Their capital, Caesar Augusta,
has been corrupted into Saragossa. North-west of
which is Calagurris, now Calahorra, memorable for the
dreadful sufferings of the army of Sertorius, when be-
sieged there by Pompey and Metellus, A.U.C. 67.9,
B.C. 75. (See Juv. Sat. XV. 92.) A little above the
Southern boundary of the Edetani, was Valentia, and
above it the famous city of Saguntum, by the siege of
which Hannibal began his first attack on the Romans,
which was the commencement of the second Punic war,
B.C. 219, A.U.C. 535. Hannibal took it after a siege
of four months, and the inhabitants burnt themselves and
their effects that they might not fall into his hands. It
was afterwards rebuilt, and some remains of it are still to
be seen, under the name of Murviedro, a corruption of
Muri Veteres. North-west of Saguntum was Segobriga,
now Segorbe. East of the Edetani, near the mouths of
the Iberus, were the Ilercaones. At the back of the
Celtiberij below the Arevaci, were the Carpetani, in New
Castile, occupying the centre of Spain. Their principal
city was Toletum, now Toledo, and North-east of this,
Complutum, now *filcala. West of Toletum was Libora,
now Talavera, on the Tagus. Below the Carpetani
were the Oretani, about La Mancha; East of whom on


the coast, were the Contestant, in the kingdom of Jl/wr-
cia. Their capital was the celebrated city of Carthago
Nova, or Carthagena. The shore of this country was
called the Spartarius Campus, from the quantity of rushes
growing there.

In Hispania Exterior, the province of Bsetica was so
called from the river Baetis, or Guadalquiver. It is now
known by the name of Andalusia, a corruption of Van-
dalitia, from the Vandals, who in the decline of the Ro-
man empire were settled there. Along the Southern
shore were the Phoenician Bastuli, occupying part of the
Kingdom of Granada *. North-west of these were the
Turdetani, in part of Seville, towards the mouth of the
river Baetis. North of them was Bseturia, below the
river Anas, or Guadiana, in part of Estremadura and
the kingdom of Seville. Below them were the Turduli,
in Cordova ; and Eastward the Bastitani, in Jaen.
Among the Bastuli was Malaca, now Malaga; and a
little South-west of it is Munda, celebrated for the vic-
tory of Caesar over the younger Pompey, March 17,
B.C. 45, A.U.C. 709. At the Fretum Herculeum stood
Calpe, or Gibraltar, celebrated for one of the pillars of
Hercules ; the other was at Abila, on the African coast.
These pillars are said to have been erected by Hercules
as the limits of the Western World. Gibraltar is a cor-

* Hence we may fully understand Horace, when he says
Latius regnes avidum domando
Spiritum, quam si Libyam remotis
Gadibus jungas, et uterque Poenus

Serviat uni. Qd. II. 2.

Alluding to the Carthaginians, or African Poeni, and the Bastuli
Pceni, in whose country Gades was situated.


ruption of Gibel Tarik, the Mountain of Tarik, a Moor-
ish general, who first led the Moors into Spain, A.D.
710. On the Atlantic side of the straits is Junonis Pro-
montorium, the ever-memorable Cape Trafalgar.
Above it is Gades, slightly corrupted into Cadiz; and
Tartessus, an island formed by the two mouths of the
Bsetis, one of which is now dried up. Among the Tur-
detani was Hispalis, now Seville ; and not far from it,
Italica, the birth-place of the Emperor Trajan. Among
the Turduli was Corduba, now Cordova, the birth-place
of both the Senecas and Lucan.

In Lusitania the principal nation was that of the Lusi-
tani, between the Durius and Tagus ; which latter river,
though called the Tajo by the Portuguese, still retains
its name in general use. Below the Durius was Conim-
briga, now Coimbra, on the Munda or Mondego; and
considerably below it, on the Tagus, was Scalabis, after-
wards called St. Irene, and now corrupted into Santarem.
At the mouth of the Tagus was Olisippo, fabled to have
been founded by Ulysses, the name of which is now cor-
rupted into Lisbon. The Vettones occupied the pro-
vince of Estremadura. On the frontier of the Lusitani
is Lancia Oppidana, now La Guarda, near the source of
the Munda ; and North-east of it Lancia Transcudana,
or Lancia beyond the Cuda, now Ciudad Rodrigo. On
the frontier of the Arevaci is Salmantica, now Salaman-
ca. About the middle of Lusitania, on the Tagus, was
Norba Ca3sarea, now ^Alcantara. Below it, on the
North bank of the Anas, is Emerita Augusta, now Meri-
da. On the South part of Lusitania were the Celtici, in
Jllontejos : their principal town was Pax Julia, or Beja;
and below them the extreme Southern part of Lusitania


was called Cuneus, or the wedge, now dlgarve, or the
Western part, Garb, in Arabic, signifying West. Its
extreme promontory was called the Sacrum Promonto-
rium, now the memorable Cape St. Vincent. It was
called Sacrum, because the antients believed this the place
where the Sun plunged his chariot into the sea *.

The islands of Majorca and Minorca were called by
the Romans the Baleares Insulae, and by the Greeks the
Gymnesiae. Their inhabitants were celebrated for their
skill in slinging t. In Majorca was Palma, which still
retains its name. In Minorca was Portus Magonis, so
called by the Carthaginians, from Mago, one of their Gene-
rals, now slightly corrupted into Port Mahon. South-
west of these were the Pityusae, or Pine Islands; Ebu-
sus, corrupted into Yvica; and below it, the small island
of Ophiusa, now Formontera,

* Hence
Audiet Herculeo stridentem gurgite solem. Ju~v. XIV. 280.

f ' Ut cum Balearica plumbum

Funda jacit, volat illud et incandescit eundo.

Ov. Met, II. 727.
Stupea torquentem Balearis verbera funds,

Virg. Georg, I. 309,



A.G. Plate IV.

GALLIA was originally divided among three great na-
tions, the Belgae, the Celtae, and the Aquitani. Of these
the Celts were the most extensive and indigenous, and
their name is that under which the whole nation was
known to the Greeks, the word Galli being the Latinized
native term Gael. The Celtae extended from the Se-
quana, or Seine, in the North, to the Garumna, or Ga-
ronne, in the South of Gallia. The Belgae lay above the
Celtae, between the Seine and Lower Rhine, and of
course were intermixed with the Germanic tribes ; and
the Aquitani lay between the Garumna and Pyrenees,
and were intermixed with the Spanish tribes. These
great divisions, however, were subsequently altered by
Augustus, B.C. 27, A.U.C. 727, who extended the pro-
vince of Aquitania into Celtica, as far as the river Liger,
or Loire. The remainder of Celtica, above the Lager,


was called Gallia Lugdunensis, from the colony of Lug-
dunum ; and the part towards the Rhine, was added to
the Belga3, under the title of Belgica. Lastly, the South
of Gaul, which, from having been the first province pos-
sessed by the Romans, was called Gallia Provincia, a term
which may be still traced in Provence, took the name of
Narbonensis. This province was antiently called also
Gallia Braccata *, from the braccae, or breeches, worn by
the inhabitants ; while Gallia Celtica was called Comata,
from the long hair worn by the natives. These earlier
distinctions are of use, as prevailing in the time of Caesar,
before the quadruple partition above alluded to.

These four great provinces, in later ages, were called
the four Gauls, and were subdivided into seventeen
others. Of these, Narbonensis contained five: Narbo-
nensis Prima, Viennensis, Narbonensis Secunda, Alpes
Maritinae, Alpes Graia3 et Pennine. We shall very
briefly mention some of the principal tribes, or cities, in
each of these. Narbonensis Prima was at the Western
bend of the Sinus, nearly corresponding to Languedoc.
The principal tribes were the Volcse Arecomici, towards
the Rhodanus, or Rhone, and the Volcae Tectosages,
South-west of them. Among the former was the city of
Nemausus, or Nismes, which still possesses some fine

* Breac is the Celtic word for a stripe. Hence we need not
doubt that these breeches were made of strified materials. Hence
also we may understand what is meant by the -virgati Dahae, hav-
ing a reference to their strified garments. Traces of this early
apparel may yet be observed in the Scotch plaid, the patterns of
which are always longitudinal and transverse stripes. The High-
landers are a Gaelic (f. e. a Celtic) race.


remains of antiquity ; among the latter Tolosa, now
Toulouse. On the coast, under the bend of the Sinus
Gallicus, was Narbo, now Narbonne, which gave name
to this division of Gaul. Above them, and on the East
bank of the Rhone, was Viennensis, so called from Vien-
na, now Vienne *, in Dauphine. In the North of this
province were the Allobrogesj in the South the Vocontii;
below them we may notice Avenio, Avignon, Arelate,
rfrles, and Massilia, or Marseilles, a celebrated colony
founded by the Phocaeanst B.C. 600. In Narbonensis
Secunda, the Salyes were the principal people, who were
descended from the Ligurians, and stretched along the
South bank of the Druentia, or Durance, almost to the
Alps. The capital was Aquas Sextia3, or JLix. South-
east, on the coast, was Telo Martius, now Toulon; but
the celebrated Roman port was North-east of this, at
Forum Julii, now Frejus, the birth-place of Agricola.
North-east of Narbonensis Secunda was the province of
the Alpes Maritime, whose metropolis was Ebrodunum,
or Embrun. The most considerable people were the
Caturiges. They were situated at the foot of the Cottitn

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