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Alps, or Mount Genevre, over which, some have
thought, Hannibal passed in his way to Italy, and which
were so called from a prince named Cotlius, who was
protected by Augustus. Above the Alpis Cottia is tha
Alpis Graia, or Li file Si. Bernard, probably the real
scene of Hannibal's passage; and above it the Alpis Pen-

* Not to be confounded with Vindebona, now Vienna, in Ger-

| Phocaeorum

Velut profugit execrata ci vitas, Hor. Efiod* XVI. 11,


nina, or Grtat St. Bernard. These formed the fifth
province into which Gallia Narbonensis was subdivided.

Aquitania was subdivided into Prima, Secunda, and
Novem Populana. The Bituriges Cubi were the princi-
pal people of Aquitania Prima ; their capital, first called
Avaricum, afterwards took the name of the people, and
is still called Bourges. The Arverni also were very
powerful in the time of Caesar, who occupied the district
still called Jluverne; their capital was Augustonometum,
now Clermont, a little North of Gergovia, which so long
baffled the arms of Caesar. Below them were the Gabali,
whose capital was Anderitum, or Mende; and the Ruteni,
whose capital was Segodunum, or Rodez. West of the
Ruteni were the Cadurci, whose capital was Divona, or
Cahors; above it was Uxellodunum, besieged by Caesar.
The Lemovices, whose capital was Augustoritum, still
give name to Limoges.

The capital of Aquitania Secunda was Burdigala, or
Bourdeaux, near the mouth of the Garumna, among the
Bituriges Vivisci. The Petrocorii gave name to Peri-
geux, the former name of which was Vesuna, still re-
tained in that quarter of the city called La Visone.
Above the Garumna, the Santones gave name to the pro-
vince of Santogne, and their chief city Mediolanum,
afterwards Santones, is now Saint es. Uliarui, above
the mouth of the Garonne, is the Isle of Oleron. Above
them, the Pictonei, or Pictavi, extend to the Southern
bank of the Liger, or Loire; they still give name to
their capital Poictiers, antiently called Limonum.

The third province of Aquitania is that which was


originally comprehended under that name, but which it
exchanged for that of Novem Populana, as consisting of
nine principal nations, of whom the Elusates and Ausci
appear to have been the chief. The Sotiates were a
small tribe, above them, mentioned by Caesar.

Gallia Lugdunensis was subdivided at first into two,
and subsequently into four divisions, called Prima, Se-
cunda, Tertia, and Quarta, or Senonia. It extended from
the city of Lugdunum, or Lyons, on the Rhone, to the
Western Ocean, being bounded on the South by Aquita-
nia, and on the North by Belgia. The capital of Lugdu-
nensis Prima, was Lugdunum, in the small tribe of the
Ambarri, between the junctions of the Arar and Rhoda-
nus, or the Soane and Rhone. The great nation of the
./Edui were in this distaict, whose capital was called
Bibracte in the time of Cassar, Augustodunum under
Augustus, and is now corrupted into Autun. North of
it was the famous city of Alesia, or Jllise, the account of
whose memorable siege occupies the last two-and-twenty
chapters of Cscsar's seventh book on the Gallic war.
North-east were the Lingones, who have given their
name to their capital, once called Andematunum, now
Langres. Immediately joining these, to the North-west,
were the Senones, from whom the Lugdunensis Quarta
was called Senonia, and which will be more conveniently
now described, than in its regular order after the second
and third. Their capital, originally called Agidincum,
is now called, from the name of the people, Sens. To
the North-west of them, the Carnutes have, in like man-
ner, given to their capital Autricum, the name of Char-
tres y North-east of whom, the Parisii' still gave to


Lutetia the name of Paris. South of the Carnutes, the
Aureliani still preserve their name in Orleans, called by
Caesar Genabum. Among the Senones was Melodunum,
or Melun, bordering on the Parisii. South of Agidincum
was Antissiodurum, now Jluxerre, and still South, within
the borders of the JEdui, Noviodunum, or Nevers.
North-east of Agidincum was Augustobona, now Troyes,
among the small tribe of the Tricasses. North of the
Lugdunensis Quarta was the Lugdunensis Secunda, near-
ly comprised in the situation of Normandy. The prin-
cipal nation were the Velocasses, whose capital, Rotoma-
gus, is now Rouen. Above them were the Caleti, or
Pays de Caux, whose capital, Juliobona, is now Lille-
bone; and South-west the Lexovii, whose capital, Novio-
magus, is still Lizieux ; South are the Aulerci Eburo-
vices, whose capital, Mediolanum, still retains the name
of Evreux. West of the Lexovii are the Viducasses and
Bajocasses, whose capitals, antiently Viducas and Arae-
geni, are still Vieux and Bayeux ; and the Abrincatui,
whose capital Ingena, is Jlvranches. Below were the
Saii, or Essui, whose capital, Saii, is Seez. Off this
coast were the islands of Csesarea, Sarnia, and Riduna
Jersey, Guernsey, and Mderney.

The Lugdunensis Tertia had for its principal people
the Turones, who have given the name of Tours to
Caesarodunum, their capital. North-west were the Andes,
or Andecavi, whose capital, Juliomagus, has still preserv-
ed the name of Jlngers. And the Aulerci Cenomani
have given to their capital, Suindunum, the name of
Mans. The Arvii have preserved their capital in a
place called Cite, antiently Vagoritum, on the little river


Erve. The Diablintes have given to Neodunum the
name of Jablins. The Redones are easily discoverable
in Rennes, and the Namnetes, in Nantz, which two ca-
pitals were antiently called Condate and Condivincum.
North-west of the Namnetes were the Veneti, whose
antient capital, Dariorigum, still preserves the name of
Vennes. Above them were the Corisopiti and the
Osismii, whose capital, Vorganium, is corrupted into
Karhez. Among the Osismii were also the Brivatus
Portus, Brest; Uxantis Insula, Ushant ; and below it
Sena, or Sain, corresponding in some measure to the
British Mona, as being the sacred residence of the Gallic
priestesses. The whole of this tract between the Seine
and Loire was called Armorica, which at last, however,
was exclusively confined to Sretagne.

Gallia Belgica was divided into Belgica Prima and Se-
eunda, Germania Prima, or Superior, and Secunda, or
Inferior, and Maxima Sequanorum. In Belgica Prima
the principal people were the Treveri, whose capital,
Augusta, is still called Treves, situated near the Mosella,
or Moselle, which flows into the Rhine. Southwards
were the Mediomatrici, whose capital, Divodurum, was
afterwards called Metis, and Metz. Still South were
the Leuci, whose capital was Tullum, or Toul ; and to
their North-west the Verodunenses, whose capital, Vero-
dunum, is still Verdun. North-west of Belgica Prima
was Belgica Secunda. The princical people were the
Remi, who were much attached to the Romans in the
time of Caesar. The capital, Durocortorum, still pre-
serves their name in that of Rheims. On their South-
east, the Catalauni give name to Chalons. Closely con-


fleeted with the Remi were the Suessiones, whose capital,
Augusta, is now Soissons. North wards are the Vero-
mandui, or Vermandois, whose capital, Augusta, is St.
Quintin. West of them were the Bellovaci, a very
warlike nation, well known in Caesar's Commentaries,
whose capital, Caesaromagus, is still Beauvois. North-
wards, the Ambiani had for their capital Samarobriva, so
called from the bridge on the Samarus, or Somme. It
is now, from the name of the people, Jlmiens. Still
Northwards, were the Atrebates, or Jlrtois, whose capi-
tal, Nemetacum, is still <flrras, or Jltrecht. Above these
were the Morini, on the extreme Northern coast*.
Their capital was Taruenna, or Terouenne. On the
coast also was Gesoriacum, or Bononia, now Bologne ;
and above it Portus Itius, or Witsand, from which Cae-
sar embarked for the invasion of Britain. East of these
were the Nervii, whose original capital was Bagacum,
Bavia, in the middle of Hainan,, but afterwards Camara-
cum, or Cambray, and Turnacum, or Tournay. Next
to these was Germania Secunda, Inferior, or Lower, so
called as being near the coast, lying between the Scaldis,
or Scheldt, and the Rhenus, or Rhine. On the West
bank of the Rhine were the Ubii, the chief people, whose
capital, Colonia Agrippina, or Cologne, was so called in
compliment to Agrippina, the wife of the Emperor
Claudius. West of these were the Eburones, a people
who were annihilated by Ca3sar, in revenge for their
having slaughtered a Roman legion ; and their country
was occupied by the Tungri, whose capital, Atuataca, is

* Hence Virgil
Extremique hominum Morini. Mn, VIII, 72r.


still called Tongres. All these- nations were of Ger-
manic origin. Between these and the Treveri was the
great forest of Arduenna, or *flrdenne, extending from
the confines of the Nervii to the Rhine. Above them
were the Toxandri and Menapii ; and still North, the
Batavi, who possessed an island between the right branch
of the Rhine and the Vahalis, or Waal, its left branch.
The principal city of the Batavi, was Lugdunum Bata-
vorum, which still preserves its name in Ley den. No-
viomagus also is easily recognised in Nimeguen.

Germania Prima, Superior, or Upper, so called as be-
ing more inland, lay along the Western bank of the
Rhine, and contained three Germanic nations the Van-
giones, Nemetes, and Triboci. The capital of the Van-
giones was Borbetomagus, or Worms ; North of which
were Moguntiacum, or Mentz, and Confluentes, or Co-
blentz: the capital of the Nemetes was Noviomagus, or
Spires ; and of the Triboci, Argentoratum, or Stras-

Maxima Sequanorum had for its principal nation the
Sequani ; their capital was Vesontio, or Besancon, on
the river Dubis, now Doux. Next to them were the
Helvetii, part of Switzerland, whose principal city was
Aventicum, now *ftvenche ; Turicum is now Zurich.
Above the Helvetii were the Rauraci, whose principal
city was Augusta, now *ftugst, a little South-east of
Basilia, or Basle.




A.G. Plate V.

THE first grand division of the German nations is into
the Istsevones, on the West of Germany, who inhabited
the countries adjacent to the Rhine; the Hermiones, on
the South, who were those. adjacent to the Danube; and
the Suevi, and afterwards the Vendili, or Vandals, in
the North,, who were contiguous to the Baltic, and the
most celebrated of the three.

The Western bank of the Rhine has already been de-
scribed, as containing several German nations, in the
three Gallic provinces along the Rhine. On the Eastern
bank of the Rhine, on the coast, are the Frisii, or Pri-
sons; their country was intersected by a canal, made by
Drusus, called Flevo, the waters of which, having in
time in creased, now form the Zuyder Zee, or Southern
Sea, one of whose channels, the Vlie, still retains traces


of the original name. North-east of the Frisii were the
Chauci Minoresand Majores, a Suevic race, distinguished
by Tacitus as the most noble and just of all the German
nations. The Minores were situated between the Amisia,
or Ems, and the Visurgis, or Weser; the Majores be-
tween the Visurgis and the Albis, or Elbe, South of
the Frisii were the Bructeri ; in the Eastern parts of
whose country were the Chamavi and Angrivarii. The
former had originally been settled on the banks of the
Rhine, till removed by the Usipii ; the latter gave name
to *flngria, the kingdom of the Saxon Witikind. The
Marsii or Marsaci, and Chasuarii were also in this dis-
trict, the former on the West, the latter on the Eastern
side. South-east of the Chauci, between the Visurgis
and Albis, were the Cherusci, who, under the conduct of
Arminius, defeated and slew the three Roman legions
commanded by Varus, A.D. 10, in the Saltus Teutober-
giensis, or Bishopric of Paderborn. They were after-
wards defeated by Germanicus, and never recovered
their former eminence. On the East bank of the Rhine,
South of the Usipii, were the Sicarsbri, who were driven
over it by the Catti, in the time of Augustus, and settled
in Germa lia Prima, under the name of Gugerni. The
Tencteri inhabited a district South of the Sicambri. East
of these was the great and powerful nation of the Catti,
called by Caesar the Suevi, an Hermionic tribe, who were
seated in Hesse. A fortress of the Catti, called Castel-
jum, still bears the name of Cassel, but their capital,
Mattium , is Marpurg. South of them, along the Rhine,
were the Mattiaci, a nation in firm alliance with the Ro-
man empire; and South of these was the original settle-
ment of the Marcomanni, who afterwards migrated into


Bohemia. South-east of these was Mons Abnoba, or
the Black Mountain, in which the Danube rises ; the
adjoining district was called the Decumates Agri, because
the inhabitants were subject to a tax of the tenth of their
produce. Here the Alemanni settled, from whom Ger-
many was called, in the middle ages, Jllmagne.

East of these, the Hermunduri, the first of the Her-
monic tribes, were a great and powerful nation, in the
Interior of Germany, attached to the Romans. East of
them, on the bank of the Danube, were the Narisci,
where is Regina, now Ratisbon: North-east of whom in
the centre of Germany, were the Boii, or Boiohemi, in
Bohemia, whose country was seized by the Marcomanni,
under their king Maroboduus, in the reign of Augustus.
South-east of the Boii, or Marnomanni, were the Quadi,
who occupied Moravia. North-east of the Marcomanni
and Quadi were the Gothini, Marsigni, Osi, Burii, and
Lygii, which last nation bordered on the Vistula.

The rest of the German tribes are Vandal or Suevic ;
the most noble of them were the Semnones, between the
Albis and Viadrus, or Oder. North of these, on the East
bank of the Albis, were the Langobardi, or Lombards ;
the Varini were supposed to have been in Mecklenburgh.
Towards the mouth of the Elbe and the Chersonesus
Cimbrica, in Holstein, were the Angli and Saxones, our
English progenitors. The Teutones and Cimbri had
their original settlements here. The whole coast of the
Baltic was occupied by various tribes of the Vendili, or
Vandals, and the name of the Rugii is still preserved in
Rugenwald; the Burgundiones, South-east of the Lan-


gobardi, afterwards migrated to France, and possessed
the province of Burgundy. On the North were the
Gothones, or Goths; and above them the Lemovii.
That part of the Baltic which washes the shores of Ger-
wiania was called Sinus Codanus ; and above it was Scan-
dinavia, comprising Sweden and Norway , but very im-
perfectly known to the antients *.

The remainder of Europe, East of Germania and
North of the immediate vicinity of the Danube, was
known by the generic name of Sarmatia, and the inhabi-
tants were called Sarmatae and Sauromatae. In like man-
ner, the North of Asia, beyond the Euxine and Caspian
Seas, was known by the generic name of Scythia.

We should not omit, in our account of Germany, to
notice the immense forest called the Hercynia Sylva,
the whole extent of which was unknown ; but it took
Caesar nine days to cross it, and it had been travelled
longitudinally sixty days' journey, without coming to
any boundary. It contained part of Switzerland and
Transylvania. An account of it is to be seen in the
sixth book of Caesar's Gallic Wars.

* They seem to have considered it as consisting of a number of
islands. Of the two nations mentioned by Tacitus, the Suiones
are thought to have been the inhabitants of Sweden, and the
Sitones of Norway*




A.G. Plates I. VI. IX.

THE remainder of Europe, not yet described, consist*
of countries South of the Danube, and East of the Adri-
atic: these, with the exception of Greece and its imme-
diately adjacent country, will form the subject of the fol-
lowing chapter.

Immediately below the Danube (PI. VI.), from its
sources on Mount Abnoba, was Vindelicia; and South of
it was Rhsetia, bounded on the West by the Helvetii or
Swiss, on the South by Cisalpine Gaul and the upper
part of Italy,-and on the East by Noricum. It more than
comprised the country of the Orisons. The Rhaeti were
a colony of the Tuscans, who degenerated into the bar-
barism of the surrounding Gallic and Germanic tribes,
and were subdued by Drusus, under the reign of Augus-
tus, B.C. 15, A.U.C. 739. His victory is celebrated in


the fine and well-known Ode of Horace, book IV. 4 *.
The Vindelici and Rhaeti, thus subdued, formed one pro-
vince, whose subsequent divisions we need not enter
into. It is hardly necessary in a treatise like the present,
which is a mere Compendium of Classical Geography y
to enumerate the names of all the barbarous tribes which
formed these nations. We may content ourselves with
observing, that in the Southern angle of the Rhaeti, near
the lake Larius, were the Vennones, in the Valtdint ;
and South-east of them, above the lake Benacus, was
Tridentum, or Trent, so well known to modern theolo-
gians, from the last Christian Council having been held
there, A.D. 1545. In the South-west part of Vindelicia,
the Lacus Brigantinus was so called from the nation of
the Brigantii, but is now called the Lake of Constance,
perhaps from their neighbours the Consuanetes. North
and North-east of this lake are the two nations of Brenni
and Genauni, mentioned by Horace in the Ode already
alluded to. In the angle of two rivers, Vindo and Licus
(the Wartach and Lech), whence the name of the nation,
was Augusta Vindelicorum, or Augsburg.

East of Vindelicia was Noricum, in part of Bavaria.
It was separated from the Vindelici by the great river
(Enus, or Inn. At the junction of the Inn and Danube,
was Boiodurum, or Passau; and the East of it was Lau-
riacum, the station of a Roman fleet on the Danube,
where is now a small village called Lorch. Inland is
Juvavum, or Saltzbourg, South-west of Boiodurum.

* Videre Rhzeti bella sub Alpibus
Drusum gerentem et Vindelici. /for, Oc/. IV. 4.


East of Noricum, lying along the Danube, to the mouth
of the river Savus, or Saave, was Pannonia, first reduced
to a Roman province by Tiberius, and subsequently di-
vided into Superior and Inferior, the former occupying
part of Hungary, the latter Sclavonia. In Pannonia
Superior was Vindobona, now Vienna; but the chief
city in Pannonia was Carnuntum, Allenbourg, a little to
the East. Still East, after the first bend of the Danube,
Southwards, is Aquincum, or Acincum, now Buda; and
on the opposite shore*, of the Danube, Contra Acincum,
or Pest. In Pannonia Inferior, on the river Savus or
Saave, is the city of Sirmium, so celebrated in the latter
ages of the Roman Empire, and the district is still called

South of Pannonia, bounded on the West by the Adria-
tic, on the East by Moesia, are the Illyricae Gentes, or
Illyricum, the two principal divisions of which are Li-
burnia and Dalmatia; the former is now part of Croatia,
the latter retains its name. The light Liburnian gallies
constituted great part of the fleet of Augustus at the bat-
tle of Actium *. In Dalmatia was Salona, the retreat of
the Emperor Dioclesian, near Spalatro. Considerably
South-east of it was Epidaurus, or Old Ragusa; and
near it the island Melite, by some thought to have been
the scene of St. Paul's shipwreck, though there are stron-
ger reasons for fixing upon Malta. Below Epidaurus
are Scodra and Lissus, the former now called Scutari,
the latter Jlkssio.

* Ibis Liburnis inter alta navium,
Amice, propugnacula. Hor, JEfiod. I. 1.


McEsia (PL IX.) is bounded on the West by Pannonia
and Illyricum, on the South by Macedonia and Thrace,
on the East by the Euxine, and on the North by the
Danube, occupying the present provinces of Servia
and Bulgaria. The North was occupied by the Scor-
disci, a Celtic nation ; the South was called Dardania ; in
the centre were the Triballi, and on the shores of the
Euxine were the Scythas. But under the reigns of Au-
gustus and Tiberius it was reduced to a Roman province,
under the names of Moesia Superior, nearer to Pannonia,
and Inferior, nearer to Thrace. The centre of Moesia
was called Dacia Cis-Danubiana, or Dacia Aureliani, by
the Emperor Aurelian, when he abandoned the province
beyond the Danube called Dacia Trajani. In Moesia Su-
perior, Singidunum, at the mouth of the Save, is now
Belgrade. East of it, Viminiacum was anotherjmpor-
tant city. Somewhat East of this was Taliatis; after
which began the province of Dacia Cis-Danubiana. Near
this place also was a ridge of rocks, forming a cataract in
the Danube, remarkable as thought to be the spot where
the Danube changes its name, the Eastern part of it be-
ing called the Ister by the antients, as the Western was
the Danubius. A little East of this place was the famous
Pons Trajani, or bridge built by the Emperor Trajan
across the Danube, to pass into his province of Dacia,
Its ruins still remain. It was 3325 English feet in
length *. Below it is Ratiaria, the antient metropolis of

* The longest bridge now existing in Europe is the Pont de
Saint Esprit, built in the twelfth century, across the Rhone, on 30
acres, between Montelimar and Orange, which is said to be 319F
English feet in length: that of Prague is 1812, Tours 1422, West-
minster 1279.


Dacia ; and East is Nicopolis, built by Trajan to celebrate
his victories over the Dacians, and memorable also for
the defeat of the Christian army and flower of French
nobility, by Bajazet, A.D. 1393. In the interior is Nais-
sus, now Nissa, the birth-place of Constantino the Greatj
and South-east is Sardica, the metropolis of Dacia, and
celebrated for a Christian council. In Moesia Inferior was
Marcianopolis, the capital, so called from Marciana, the
sister of the Emperor Trajan. Under the mouths of the
Danube was the city of Tomi, now Tomeswar, or JBaba,
to which Ovid was banished. On the North bank of the
Danube was the vast province of Dacia, comprehending
part of Hungary, Transylvania, Wallachia, and Mol-
davia. The chief city in which was Sarmizegethusa,
called by Trajan after his conquest, Ulpia Trajani. It is
now called Gradisca. The lazyges, a Sarmatian tribe,
separated them from Pannonia. The Daci and and Getae
were two nations associated in language and territory,
and the Getae were of Scythian origin. It is not necessa-
ry to enter into a particular account of them, or of many
places which might have been enumerated in this chapter,
but which, having a special reference only to the lower
ages of the Eastern Empire, are purposely omitted in a
treatise which professes only to give a sketch of classical

The remainder of Europe, North of the Danube, we
have already seen was called Sarmatia. (PL I.) It is
unnecessary to enter into much detail on the subject of
these barbarous and almost unknown tribes. On the
shores of the Baltic were the Venedi, perhaps in part of
Livonia; above the Daci were the Bastarnse and Peucinij


on the shores of the Palas Maeotis were the lazyges, and
above them the Roxolani ; North are the Geloni, Budini,
and Agathyrsi. The Borysthenes of the antients, which
flows into the Pontus Euxinus, is the Dnieper; the Hy-
panis, called also Bogus, is the Bog ; the Tanais is cor-
rupted into the Don; and the Eh a is the Volga, which
flows into the Caspian Sea. The borders of the Euxine,
from the Ister to the Borysthenes, were called by the
antients Parva Scythia, and by the moderns Little Tar-
tary. Beyond the Borysthenes was the Chersonesus
Taurica, (which preserves its name still in the city of
Cherso?i,)$o called from the Tauri, a Scythian nation, who
conquered it from its antient possessors, the Cimmerii.
This was the scene of the Iphigenia in Tauris of Euripi-
des. The narrow straight which joins the Palus Mcetis,
or Sea of Jlzoph, to the Pontus Euxinus, was called the
Cimmerian Bosphorus. The principal city here was
Panticapaeum, a Greek colony, called also Bosphorus,
now Kerche. The extreme Southern point of the Cher-
sonesus Taurica was called Criu Metopon, or the Ram's
Forehead, nearly opposite to Sinope, in Asia Minor,




Plates IX. X. XL

THE most general name for Greece among the
natives themselves was Hellas, and the people
were called Hellenes ; but even this term did not
comprise the inhabitants of Macedonia and Epirus.
The poets, however, used, by synecdoche, to put
the names of several small tribes for the whole body
of the nation. The most usual term in Homer * is

* The word Hellenes occurs only once in Homer, Iliad II. 648, ;

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