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where it is used, not as a generic, but a specific name of the inhabi-
tants of that part of Thessaly called Hellas ; and, what is also re-
markable, the word Graecia was not legally recognised by the
Romans, who divided it into two provinces. The one called Ma-
cedonia, after the defeat of Perseus, the last king of Maeedon, by



92

Achaei and Danai, and sometimes Argivi. They
were also called Pelasgi, from an antient nation of
that name in Thessaly ; lones, Dores, and JEoles,
from the inhabitants of particular districts. Attica
was the original seat of the lonians, the Pelopon-
nese the principal seat of the Dorians, and Thessaly
the original country of the jEolians.

The lowest part of Greece (PI. XL), below the
Sinus Corinthiacus and Sinus Saronicus, was called
the Peloponnese, from ritAoTro? vjjw, the Island of
Pelops. It was most antiently called jEgialea,
from jEgialeus, Apia, from Apis, Pelasgia, from
Pelasgus, said to have been its more antient Kings ;
but took the name of Peloponnese, from Pelops,
the son of Tantalus, who reigned there. It was
very nearly an island, being connected with the
rest of Greece only by the narrow isthmus of Co-
rinth. The modern name of Peloponnese, is Morea,
from the mulberry-trees which grow there, having
been introduced for supplying silk-worms. The
first province on the Eastern side, under the Sinus
Saronicus, is Argolis; and below it is Laconia;



Paulus jEmilius, A.U.C. 586, B.C. 168.; and the other called
Achaia, after the defeat of the Achzeans, and the capture of Co-
rinth, by Mummius, A.U.C. 609, B.(X 145. The name of Grae-
cia, however, was sufficiently familiar among the Romans in writ-
ing and conversation.



93

on the Western side, opposite to Laconia, is Mes-
senia ; above it is Elis ; along the Sinus Corinthia-
cus is Achaia ; and in the middle is Arcadia.

Argolis derived its name from Argos, situated on the
river Inachus, above the Sinus Argolicus, and still called
Jlrgo. Its Acropolis was called Larissa. A little North-
east of Argos was Mycenae, now Krabata, the royal city
of Agamemnon ; Northwards of which was Nemea,
celebrated for the Nemean games, instituted in honour
of Archemorus, who was killed there by a serpent, and
for the victory of Hercules over the Nemean lion. East-
ward of Argos was Midea, the birth-place of Alcmena
the mother of Hercules ; and North-east of this was
Tiryns, or Tirynthus, a favourite residence of Hercules,
who is thence called Tirynthius. East of it is the Mons
Arachnaeus, on which was one of the beacons, or fire
telegraphs, of Agamemnon, by which he announced the
capture of Troy the same night that it was taken *. Still
East, on the coast of the Sinus Saronicus, is Epidaurus,
celebrated for its worship of JEsculapius ; and below it is
Tro3zen, or Troezene, now Damala, the birth-place of
Theseus, and scene of the Hippolytus of Euripides, off
the coast of which a little to the South-east is the island
Calauria, where Demosthenes poisoned himself. Near
the South point of Argolis is the city of Hermione, now
Castri, giving to the adjacent bay the name of Sinus
Hermionicus. At the top of the Sinus Argolicus was
Nauplia, now Napoli, the naval station of the Argives.
Southward, below Argos near the shore, was Lerna, cele-

* See ^Eschylus, Agam. V. Sir.



94

brated for the destruction of the Lernean Hydra by Her-
cules; and on the confines of Arcadia, was Cenchreae,
mentioned by ^Eschylus in his Prometheus Vinctus,
V. 577.

Below Argolis was Laconia, whose capital was Sparta,
or Lacedaemon, now Palseo-C astro, on the river Euro-
tas; near which is the more recent town of Misitra, at
the foot of Mount Taygetus. To the North was Sellasia,
a frontier town commanding the principal pass into La-
conia; and a little South of Sparta was Amy else, now
Sclavo-corio, built by Amyclas. Castor and Pollux were
born here, and Apollo was here worshipped with pecu-
liar solemnities. Amycla3 was called Tacita3 *, or the
Silent, either from the inhabitants being Pythagoreans,
or from their having made a law which forbad the men-
tion of an enemy's approach, they having been once de-
ceived by a false report. They were afterwards the vic-
tims of their absurd statute. Near Amy clae was Therapne.
The extreme South-eastern promontory of Laconia was
called Maleat, now Cape Malio, or St. Angela; and
the Gulf contained between it and the South-western
promontory of Tsenarus, or Cape Matapan, (one of the
fabled entrances into the infernal regions J,) was called
the Sinus Laconicus, or Gulf of Colokythia, from the
antient town of Gfy theum, now Colokythia, near the up-
per part of the bay.

* Tacitis regnavit Amyclis, Virg. JEn. X. 564.

| Malexque sequacibus undis. Virg. jEn. V. 193,

^ Taenarias etiam fauces, alta ostia Ditis
Ingressus. Virg. Georg. IV. 467.



95

West oi Laconia was Messenia, the capital of which
was Messene, which still retains its name, inland, above
the top of the Sinus Messeniacus, now the Gu/fofCoron.
The fortress of Ithome was near it, and served as its cita-
del South-east of it, at the mouth of the Pamisus, was
Stenyclarus, now Nisi. On the Western side was the
Messenian Methone, now Modon; and above it the Mes-
senian Pylos, now Navarin; off which was the Island of
Sphacteria, so memorable in Thucydides for the capture
of many of the noblest Lacedaemonians, 01. 88. 3. In
the North, on the confines of Elis, is the river Cyparis-
sus, having at its mouth the city of Cyparissae, giving
name to the adjacent Sinus Cyparissius ; and inland the
fortress of Ira, the last which held out against the Lace-
daemonians, who ejected the Messenians, 01. 27. 2., and
held the province from them for 300 years, till 01. 102. 3.

Above Messenia was Elis, divided into Triphylia, in
the South, Pisatis, in the middle, and Coele, in the North.
In Triphylia we meet with the Triphylian Pylos, which
disputes with the Messenian the honour of being the
country of Nestor; and a little above it, Scilluns, the re-
treat of Xenophon. Above it was the river Alpheus, or
Rofeo, on the Northern side of which was the plain of
Olympia, now called the plain of Jintilalo or JLntilalla,
terminated on the West by the little river Cladeus, and
the hill Chronios, or the hill of Saturn, so often mention-
ed by Pindar. Near this must have been the city of
Pisa, of which no vestiges are now discoverable. In this
plain, the Olympic games were held in honour of Jupiter
Olympius. They were of very antient foundation, and
revived B.C. 776, and serve as the epoch of Graecian



96

chronology. They were celebrated at the conclusion of
every fourth year, or rather of every forty-ninth month,
and were held for five successive days. The Roman
Lustrum was a period of Jive years. Elis itself, now
Palaeopoli, was situated on the Peneus, in the district of
Ccele; it was a little North-east of Gctstonni ; South-east
of this was a third Pylos, which has also strong claims to
being allowed as the country of Nestor. Near it was a
little stream called Geron, and a little village called Ge-
rena, whence Nestor appears to be so often styled in Ho-
mer the Gerenian. Pindar, however, calls him a King
of Messene. The port of the Eleans was Cyllene, now
Chiarenzctj a little North of the bay and promontory of
Chelonites, now Cape Tornese.

The rest of the coast of the Peloponnesus was occupied
by Achaia, lying along the Southern side of the Sinus
Corinthiacus, comprising also the districts of Sicyon and
Corinth, called Sicyonia and Corinthia. Before we enter
the straights of the Sinus Corinthiacus, or Gulf of Le-
panto, is Dyme, on the coast of the Ionian Sea ; and
above it is Patrse, now Patras, near the mouth of the
straights. At the entrance into the straights is Rhium,
and on the opposite coast Antirrhium. Proceeding East-
ward, along the shore, is JEgium, where the States of
Achaia used to meet; and South-west of it, within land,
is Tritsea, now Triti. East of ^Egium was ^Egira, which
had a port and dock-yard ; and South-east of it, within
land, was Pellene ; East of which is the district of Si-
cyonia. Near the coast was Sicyon, which, in the mo-
dern name of Basilico, still retains the memorial of hav-
ing been the, most antient kingdom of Greece. South of



97

Sicyon, in the interior, was the city of Phlius, which still
preserves its name in Staphlica. Proceeding towards
the end of the Sinus Corinthiacus, we come into the dis-
trict of Corinth, where we meet with that far-famed city,
which was destroyed by Mummius the Roman General,
B.C. 145, A.U.C. 609, and rebuilt by Csesar. It is still
called Corito. It was itself a little inland, but had two
ports, Lechaeum, on the Sinus Corinthiacus, and Cench-
reae, on the Sinus Saronicus *, and a citadel, on a lofty
hill called Acrocorinthus. The pass between the Pelo-
ponnese and the rest of Greece was called the Isthmus of
Corinth, now Hexamili, from its being only six modern
Greek, or perhaps not five British miles in breadth. Here
the Isthmian games were celebrated in honour of Nep-
tune. The Emperor Nero in vain attempted to cut
through the Isthmus and join the Saronic and Corinthian
Gulfs.

The province of Arcadia occupied the centre of the
Peloponnesus, being surrounded by the five provinces
already enumerated. This was the celebrated pastoral
country of the poets t. Near the North of Argolis was
the river, lake, and town Stymphalus, now Zaraka, the
fabled residence of those Harpies which were destroyed
by Hercules. South-east was Orchomenus, now Kal-
paki, bearing the same name with a town in Boeotiaj and

* Hence Horace

Bimarisve Corinthi

Mcenia. Od. I. 7.

f Pan etiam, Arcadia mecum si judice certet,
Pan etiam, Arcadia dicat se judice victum. Virg. Ed. IV. 58.

13





98

Southwards the celebrated city of Mantinea, near Tripo-
litza, where the great Epaminondas, the Theban Gene-
ral, lost his life, in the memorable victory he obtained
over the Lacedaemonians there, B.C. 363, 01. 104. 2.
South-west of Mantinea is Mount Msenalus, from his resi-
dence on which Pan was called Maenalius. South-east
of Maenalus was the city of Tegea, now called Piali,
whence also Pan is called Tegeaeus*. The celebrated
Atalanta was a native of this place. In the South of Ar-
cadia was Melgalopolis, near a place now called Leon-
dari, or rather Sinano. It was built by Epaminondas
to check the inroads of the Lacedaemonians. It was the
birth-place of Polybius the historian. Towards Mes-
senia was the celebrated mountain Lycaeust, another
favourite residence of Pan and the Sylvan Deities. Near
it was the city of Lycosura, now probably *Agios Geor-
gios, esteemed by the Greeks the most antient city in the
world. It was near the river Neda. A little West of
which is Phigalea, where was a splendid temple of Apol-
lo, the marbles of which are now in the British Museum.
The inhabitants of this part of Arcadia were called Parr-
hasii, from Parrhasius, a son of Jupiter, who built a city
here, and the name is sometimes put generically for that
of the whole nation J. Northward, on the river Alpheus,

* Ipse nemus linquens patrium saltusque Lycsei,
Pan, ovium custos, tua si tibi Msenala curse,
Adsis O Tegexe favens, Virg, Georg. I. 16.

f Velox amoenum ssepe Lucretilem
Mutat Lycxo Faunus. Hor. Od. I. 17.

\ Arcadia derived its name from Areas (the son of Jupiter) and
the nymph Calisto. Juno transformed Calisto into a bear, whom,
with her son Areas, Jupiter removed into heaven, and changed



99

was Heraea ; and still Northward, Psophis ; and North-
east, on the confines of Achaia, Cynethge, whose inhabi-
tants were remarkable for the barbarous rusticity of their
manners, so as to be despised, or almost excluded from
associating with the other Greeks, who attributed their
ferocity to a neglect of the study of music, so much cul-
tivated among the Greeks in general. Yet it is remarka-
ble, that in their neighbourhood, a little to the East, was
the mountain Cyllene, celebrated as the birth-place of
Mercury, the inventor of the lyre, of eloquence, and the
gymnastic exercise *, who is so constantly distinguished
among the poets by the name of Cyllenius. At the foot
of Mount Cyllene was the city Pheneos, now Phonia ;
and in the North-western angle between Arcadia and
Achaia was Mons Erymanthus.

We shall now describe the remainder of Greece,
or Greece properly so called, lying above the Isth-
mus. The first province, lying almost within the
Isthmus, is the small district of Megara, which



into constellations called Ursa Major and Ursa Minor, Ov. Met.
VIII. 315. Hence the constellatio^ Ursa is called by Ovid
Parrhasis Arctos ; and, as Calisto was daughter of Lycaon, it is
called by Virgil

Claramque Lycaonis Arcton. Georg. I. 138.

* Mercuri facunde, nepos Atlantis,
Qui feros cultus hominum recentum
Voce formasti catus, et decorse

More palsestrse:

Te canam, magni Jovis et Deorum
Nuncium, curveque lyr parentem. Hor. Od, I. 10.



100

affected to be independent of the potent territory
of Attica. To the East was Attica; and to the
North-west of these Bceotia; North-east of Bceotia
and Attica (PI. X.) was the long narrow island of
Euboea, separated by the narrow sea of Euripus.
West of Bceotia was Phocis ; South- west of Phocis,
lying along the Sinus Corinthiacus, were the Locri
OzolsB ; and North-east of Phocis, lying along the
Opuntius Sinus, were the Locri Epi-Cnemidii, or
Locri of Mount Cnemis, and the Locri Opuntii
below them. North of Phocis was Doris, a small
tract, but which divided with the lonians the
characteristic features of the language and tribes
of Greece. Generally speaking, the Dorian colo-
nies were settled in the Peloponnese, the Ionian in
Asia Minor : the great Dorian state was Lacedse-
mon, the great Ionian state Athens. There was a
marked distinction in their language and manners ;
the former being more broad and rustic, the latter
more smooth and refined. West of Phocis was
.^Etolia ; and West of jEtolia was Acarnania.
North of Phocis w#s Thessaly : North of Acar-
nania was Epirus :

In Megaris (PI. XL) the capital was Megara, which
preserves its name, and is a little inland. Its port was
Nysaea. East of Megara, on the coast, in Attica, was
Eleusis, now Lcssina, so celebrated for the Eleusinian
mysteries in honour of Ceres and Proserpine, which it






101

was death to. reveal*. They lasted 1800 years, and
were abolished by the Emperor Theodosius. The sta-
tue of the Eleusinian Ceres, the work of Phidias, was
removed from Eleusis by Dr. Clarke, A.D. 1801, and is
now in the vestibule of the public library at Cambridge,
and the temple itself has since been cleared by Sir
W. Gell. Opposite Eleusis, and separated by a very
narrow sea, is the island of Salamis, the birth-place of
Ajax and Teucer, and ever-memorable scene of the de-
feat of the Persian fleet by the Athenians under the com-
mand of Themistocles, B.C. 480, Ol. 75, 1; and below
Salamis is .^Egina or Engia, giving name to the Gulf of
Engici) antiently the Sinus Saronicus. South-east of
Eleusis is the illustrious city of Athens, the eye of Greece
and of the civilized world. It is now called Jltini^ or
Setines, by a corruption we have already noticed. This
renowned city (PL XXI.) is situated rather inland, be-
tween two rivers, the Ilissus below, and the Cephissus
(bearing the same name with a larger Boeotian river)
above. It had three ports, the Piraeus, or principal port,
now Porto Leone, which was connected with the city by
means of two walls called the ^**{* T/#JJ, or long walls;
East of the Piraeus was the second port called Munichia;
and still East of it the Phalerus, the least frequented of
the three. The long wall, which connected the Piraeus
with the city, was sixty stadia (or rather more than six
and a half English miles) in length, and forty cubits (or
rather more than sixty feet) high, and broad enough for



Vetabo qui Cereris sacrum

Vulgarit arcanae, sub isdem

Sit trabibus, fragilemque mecum
Solvat phaselum. Hor. Od. Ill, 2.



102

two waggons to pass. This wall was built by Themis-
tocles, and finished by Cimon and Pericles. Another
somewhat shorter wall, towards the East, united the har-
bour of Phalerum with the walls of the city. Entering
by the gate of the Piraeus, a straight line led to, 2. the
Propylsea, or vestibules of, 1. the Acropolis, or citadel.
On the summit of the citadel, an oblong hill, was the
famous temple of Minerva, called the Parthenon. At
the bottom of this hill, on the South-side, was, 3. the
theatre of Bacchus, where the tragedians exhibited their
compositions ; and East of it was, 4. the Odeum, or thea-
tre for musical competition. Proceeding round the hill
of the Acropolis, on the. North, was, 5. the Prytaneum,
or place where those citizens who had rendered essential
service to their country were entertained at public ex-
pense. Opposite the North-west side of the Acropolis,
was, 6. the ever-memorable hill of Mars, on which was
established the court of the Areopagus ; and opposite the
Propylsea, or Western end of the Acropolis, was, 7. the
Pnyx, or place of public assemblies. Opposite to which,
on the South, was, 8. the hill of the Museum, having the
road from the Piraeus to the Propylsea between it and the
Pnyx. From the hill of the Areopagus, continuing in a
North-west direction, we come to, 9. the Forum, which
was in a place called the Ceramicus, or pottery ground.
The Forum had at its Southern entrance an enclosure,
containing the palace of the Senate and temple of the
Mother of the Gods. On the South-western side of the
square were the statues of the Eponymi, or ten heroes who
gave name to the tribes of Attica 5 and at the Eastern
gate were two vestibules, the Western called that of the
Hermae, in which were three statues of Mercury, bear-
ing the names of those soldiers who had distinguished



103

themselves in the battles against the Persians, and, 10.
the Eastern called the Poecile, which was ornamented
with the works of the first artists in painting and statu-
ary. In the Forum was also the court of the chief Ar-
chon, near the statues of the Eponymi, and the camp of
the Scythians employed by the government in the police
of the city. The quarter to the East of the Forum was
called Melita. At the North-east of the city, without
the walls, was Cynosarges, the school of ^the Cynic
philosophers, at the foot of Mount Anchesmus, a branch
of Mount Pentelicus, so celebrated for its marble quar-
ries; and below it was the Lycaeum, the school of Aris-
totle, and the Peripatetics, separated by the river Ilissus
from Mount Hymettus. A little South-west of the Ly-
ceum, between the Acropolis and the Ilissus, was, 12.
the Olympieum, or temple of Jupiter Olympius, original-
ly projected by Pisistratus, but completed, or perhaps
rebuilt, by the Emperor Hadrian, who exceedingly em-
bellished and half rebuilt the city. A little East of this,
across the Ilissus, was, 13. the Stadium. On the North-
west was the Ceramicus without the walls, through which
a road led to the celebrated gardens of the Academia,
watered by the Cephisus on the North-west, and having
the house of Plato to the East, and to the North the
Hill Colonos, the scene of the beautiful tragedy of Sopho-
cles called the (Edipus Coloneus. The road to Thebes
passed over this hill. South-east of the Parthenon (PL
XI.) was Mount Hymettus, celebrated for its bees*;
and North-east of it Mount Pentelicus, celebrated for its
quarries of marble ; a Northern branch of which is Mons

* _ Nisi Hymettia mella Falerno

Ne biberis diluta . Hor. Sat. II. 2.



104

Brilessus ; North is Mount Parnes, North-west and
West, Mount JEgaleus and Corydalus. The extreme
Southern promontory of Attica was called Sunium,
where there was a temple of Minerva, some columns of
which still remain, whence the cape is now called Cabo
Colonni. A long island lies opposite to it called He-
lena, or Macris, which still preserves the name of Ma-
cronisi. Near Sunium was Laurium, celebrated for its
silver mines. Proceeding upwards, along the North-
eastern shore of Attica, we come to Brauron, near Mons
Pentelicus. Here was a celebrated temple of Diana,
hence called Brauronia: and the statue of Diana, brought
by Orestes from Tauris, was preserved here till it was
carried off by Xerxes. North of Brauron is the glorious
plain of Marathon, still preserving its immortal name,
where the Athenians, under the conduct of Miltiades,
defeated the Persian army, Sept. 28, B. C. 490, Ol. 72, 3.
Above it is Rhamnus, celebrated for a temple of the
goddess Nemesis, thence called Rhamnusia. It was
built of the marble brought into the field by the Persi-
ans, in order to erect the trophy of their anticipated vic-
tory. Quitting the coast, somewhat South-west of
Rhamnus, is Decelia, so celebrated for having been gar-
risoned by the Lacedaemonians in the Peloponncsian
war, 01. 91. 3. B.C. 414. See Thucyd. VII. 19. Be-
tween this and Athens was Acharnae, a borough of At-
tica, which has given name to a play of Aristophanes.
North of Eleusis is Thria, giving the name of Thriasius
Campus to the great plain extending towards Boeotia, to
the North of which was Phyle, the fort possessed by
Thrasybulus and the Athenian exiles, who expelled the
thirty tyrants from Athens after the Pelopormesian war,
B.C. 401. Ol. 94, 4.



105

Next to Attica is Boeotia (P. X.) in which, above Me-
garis, and the Sinus Corinthiacus, we may observe Mount
Cithaeron, about midway between Thebes and Corinth,
the celebrated scene of exposure of the infant (Edipus.
A little North-west of Mount Cithaeron is Plataeae, the
ever-memorable scene of the defeat of the Persians, under
the command of Mardonius, by the Lacedaemonians, com-
manded by Pausanias, Sept. 22. B.C. 479, 01. 75. 2, and
of the siege and cruel destruction of its inhabitants by the
Lacedaemonians, in the Peloponnesian war, B.C. 427,
01. 88. 2, so interesting an account of which is given by
Thucydides in his third book. A little West of Plataeae
is Leuctra, so memorable for the signal defeat of the La-
cedaemonians by the Thebans, under the conduct of Epa-
minondas, July 8. B.C. 371, 01. 102. 2. Proceeding
Eastward, along the Athenian frontier, we find Eleutherae,
and following the course of the river Asopus, we come
to Tanagra and Oropus, now Oropo, at its mouth. The
Athenians and Thebans had many disputes for the pos-
session of Oropus, till at last it was adjudged to the
Athenians by Philip of Macedon. The plain along the
Asopus was called Parasopias. North-east of Tanagra
was Delium, where the Athenians were defeated by the
Boeotians, in the Peloponnesian war, B.C. 421, 01. 89.
4. ; an account of which may be seen in the fourth book
of Thucydides. Northwards, at the narrowest point of
the Euripus, opposite to Chalchis, in Euboea, was Aulis,
the memorable scene of the detention of the Grecian fleet
in their expedition to Troy, till Agamemnon had appeas-
ed Diana by the sacrifice of his own daughter Iphigenia.
Still Northwards is Anthedon; West of which is the lake
Copais, now called Livadia Limne, into which flows the
14



106

Boeotian Cephisus, celebrated by Pindar, and larger than
the Athenian river of the same name. On the North of
this lake stood the small town of Copse, whence it de-
rived its name. Near its Western extremity was Orcho-
menus, antiently called Minyeia, a town celebrated for
its wealth, and for a temple of the Graces, mentioned by
Pindar. Somewhat South-west was the town of Chsero-
nea, memorable for the defeat of the Athenians by the
Boeotians, B.C. 447, 01. 33. 2.; and much more for their
irretrievable defeat by Philip, Aug. 2. B.C. 338, 01. 110.
3, which put an end to the liberties of Greece: it was al-
so the birth-place of Plutarch. South-east of this, is Co-
ronea, celebrated also for a defeat of the Athenians, and
their allies, by Agesilaus, King of Sparta, B.C. 394, 01.
96. 3. ; Eastward of this, near the lake Copais, is Haliar-
tus, which was destroyed by the Romans in the first Ma-
cedonian war. South-east was Onchestus, sacred to Nep-
tune, and South-east of it, almost in the centre of Boeotia,
on the little river Ismenug, was Thebes, founded by Cad-
mus, and hence called Cadmsean, the scene of the suffer-
ings of (Edipus, and the birth-place of Pindar, whose
house and descendants were spared when Thebes was ut-
terly destroyed by Alexander, 01. 111. 2., B.C. 335. It
was rebuilt by Cassander more than twenty years after.
South-west of it was Potnise, the residence of Glaucus,
the son of Sisyphus, who was torn in pieces by his mares,


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