Samuel Butler.

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which was the subject of one of the lost tragedies of
JEschylus.* South-west of Thebes above the Sinus

Potniades mails membra absumpsere quadrigae.

Virg. Georg. III. 267.


Corinthiacus, was Thespiae, at the foot of Mount Helicon,
the celebrated abode of Apollo and the Muses, where
was the fountain Aganippe, and the river Permessus.
This was the Southern extremity of the Parnassian ridge,
which is a chain of considerable length running North-
west through Phocis also, as we shall see hereafter.
About twenty stadia higher, was the verse-inspiring
fountain of Hippocrene, said to have been made by the
hoof of Pegasus. A part of this mountain was called
Libethrus, a little North-west of Ascra, the birth-place
of Hesiod, which is at the foot of Helicon. Hence the
Muses are called Libethrides. * The last place that we
shall notice in Boeotia is Lebedaea, now Livadia, where
was the celebrated cave of Trophonius, into which they
who entered were never seen to smile afterwards. From
this city Boeotia has acquired the modern name ofLivadia;
a little North-west is the pass of Daulis, where Laius was
killed by CEdipus.

West of Boeotia is Phocis, bounded by the Sinus
Corinthiacus on the South. At the first bend of this
gulf to the North was the peninsula of Anticyra, celebra-
ted for its hellebore, the great remedy for madness among
the antients. The second bend is called the Sinus
Crissaeus, from the city of Crissa at its top. A little
North of which is the renowned city of Delphi, and
above it Mons Parnassus, sacred to Apollo and the
Muses, at the foot of which was Fons Castalius, whence
the Muses are called Castalides. Delphi was also called
Pytho, from the serpent of that name, which was killed

* Nymphs, noster amor, Libethrides. Virg. Eel. VII. 21.


by Apollo, in honour of whom the Pythian games were
celebrated every fifth year. Parnassus had two summits,
the one consecrated to Apollo, the other to Bacchus:
whoever slept on Parnassus either became an inspired
poet or mad.* Delphi is now called Castri, and the
summit of Parnassus is called Lakura, from the antient
name of Lycorea; it is so high as to be seen from tl\e
Acropolis of Corinth, eighty miles distant. North-east
of Delphi was the Corycian cave, also sacred to the
Muses, and, still North-east, the city of Elatea, now
Turco-corio, or rather Eleuta, at the junction of Mounts
Cnemis and GEta, the largest city in Phocis, the unex-
pected surprise of which by Philip produced a shock at
Athens, so finely described by Demosthenes in his fa-
mous oration De Corona. Nearly due North of Delphi,
on the other side of Parnassus, was Tithorea, now

North-east and South-west of Phocis are the Locri,
divided into the Locri Ozolas, to the South-west, the
Locri Opuntii and Locri Epicnemidii, to the North-east.
The Locri Ozolse were said to be so called from the
poisoned arrows of Hercules having been buried in their
district by Philoctetes, from which a mephitic vapour
arose. They occupy a narrow slip of land, broadest at
the Eastern end near Phocis, and extending along the
Sinus Corinthiacus to its narrowest point. Their prin-
cipal city was Amphissa, now called Salona, whence also
the Sinus Crissaeus is now called the Gulf of Salona.

* Hence Persius
Nee in bicipiti somniasse Parnasso
Memini ut repente sic poeta prodirem- Pers; Prof. V. 2.


Near the narrowest point or entrance of the Sinus
Corinthiacus was Naupactus, a celebrated naval station,
the possession of which was often contested between the
Locrians and their more powerful neighbours, the JEto-
lians, who ultimately gained it. It is now called Enebect
or Lepanto, giving its name to the Corinthian Gulf; a
little West of which, at the very narrowest point of the
Gulf, where it is not above three quarters of a mile wide,
was Antirrhium, opposite to Rhium in Achaia. These
two promontories, being fortified with castles, have been
called the Dardanelles of Lepanto. North-east of Phocis
were the Locri Opuntii,so called from their principal town
Opus, situated near the Northern extremity of Boeotia,
on the Sinus Opuntius: and nearly North of them were
the Locri Epicnemidii, also a small tribe, so called from
their vicinity to Mount Cnemis. Their principal town
was Thronium, probably now Bodonitza, and in their
extreme Northern point is the famous pass of Thermo-
pylae, on the Sinus Maliacus having impassable moun-
tains on the West, with the sea and morasses to the
East. It was only twenty-five feet broad in its narrowest
part. Here was the memorable stand made by Leonidas
and his three hundred Spartans, who all perished but
two, against Xerxes and the Persian host, amounting,
according to those who take the utmost number, to five
millions. This battle began Aug. B.C. 480, 01. 75. 1.
and lasted three days, and was only lost at last by the
treachery of the Thessalians*, who betrayed the passes
over Mount (Eta.

* A traveller through Wales can hardly fail to remark the great
similarity between Penmaenmawr and Thermopylae, and between
Snowden, with its forked head and sacred spring (Ffynnon-Oer),


On the North-western side of Phocis is a little district
called Doris, in which springs the river Cephisus. It had
but four inconsiderable cities, Lilsea, Erineum, Citi-
neum, Boium, whence it is called Tetrapolis; but" it was
the mother of many Grecian states and colonies, as we
have already observed.

West of Locris, Phocis, and Doris, was jEtolia, now
called Vlakia, from the Valaques*, settled there by the
Greek Emperors, having the Sinus Corinthiacus for its
Southern, the river Achelous for its Western, and Thes-
saly for its Northern boundary. The alliance formed
between the Romans and JEtolians, B.C. 214, A.U.C.
540, and their subsequent desertion of the Romans for
Antiochus, King of Syria, was the cause of the subjuga-
tion of Greece. On the river Evenus, now the Federi,
a little above the Sinus Corinthiacus t, West of the
straits of Rhium, was Calydon, the country of Meleager,
and the scene of the Calydon boar-hunt, described by
Ovid. Met. VIII. 260, &c. and a little North-west of
it, towards the river Achelous, was Mount Aracynthus.
The chief city of JStolia was in the interior, called
Thermus. The river Achelous now called Jlspro Potamo
or the White River, is celebrated for a contest between
the river god, in the shape of a bull, and Hercules, who
tore off one of his horns, which he gave to the Goddess
of Plenty for a cornu copiae, a fable, the application of
which is obvious to the draining of the neighbouring

* The name still remains in Walachiai Valach, in the Illyrian
tongue, signifies a herdsman.

f The Sinus Corinthiacus commenced from the mouth of the
river Achelous.


land and one branch of the river. At its mouth are a
number of small islands, formed by depositions of earth
and sand, called the Echinades.

West of JEtolia is Acarnania, still called Carnia. Near
to the mouth of the Achelous, is the city of (Eniadae,
and considerably North-west of it are the islands called
the Teleboides, and the island of Leucadia, or St. Maure,
formerly a peninsula called Neritos. * The extreme
South-western promontory of Leucadia was called Leu-
cate, where was a temple of Apollo, and the celebrated
rock from which disappointed lovers sought either death
or a cure by leaping into the sea. The poetess Sappho
was one of the most celebrated adventurers of the lover's
leap, on account of her fruitless passion for Phaon.
North of Leucadia was Anactorium, at the entrance of
the Ambracian Gulf, and within the Gulf, which, at
its entrance, somewhat resembles the passage called the
Sleeve, at the entrance of the Baltic, was the memorable
city of Actium, the scene of the great battle between
Antony and Augustus, which decided the fate of the
Roman world, Sept. 2. B.C. 31, A.U.C. 723. Actium
is still called .flzio. The North-eastern part of Acar-
nania was called Amphilochia, from Amphilochus, the
son of Amphiaraus and Eriphylet, who having slain his
mother, in revenge for having betrayed his father to the
fatal Theban war, retired from his native country Argos,
and built here a city of the same name, called for dis-

* Neritos ardua saxis. Virg. JEn. III. 271-

t Mcestamque Eriphylen

Crudelis nati monstrantem vitlnera cernit.

Virg. &n, VI, 445,


tinction Amphilochium Argos; the country is still called

The remainder of Greece, above the countries
already described, was divided into two great
portions, Thessalia on the East, and Epirus on the
West ; though Epirus, especially towards the North,
was hardly recognised as a genuine Grecian State.
Thessaly, in fact, extended all over the countries
below, except the North-west part of Acarnania,
and was bounded on the South by the chain of
Mount (Eta, on the West by that of Pindus, on
the North by that of Olympus and the Cambunii
Montes, and on the East by the Sea. It contained
several tribes or districts. On the confines of
^Etolia and Phocis, above Doris, are the ^Enianes ;
Eastward, towards the coast, was Phthiotis, still
North-east, along the coast, Magnesia, and North
of that, Pelasgiotis ; in the North was Perrhsebia ;
in the North-western angle, the -^Ethices ; below
these, along the Western side were Estiaeotis, Ape-
rantio, and Dolopia ; in the centre, Thessaliotis.

The Sinus Maliacus, so called from the little city of
Malia, is now the Gulf of Zeiton, so called from the
town of Zeiton, anciently perhaps Trachis, or Trachinia,
called also Trachinia Heraclea, the scene of one of the
tragedies of Sophocles on the death of Hercules, who
burnt himself on a funeral pile raised on the neighbour-


ing Mount (Eta. Above this, the river Sperchius flows
into the Maliac Gulf : the beauty of its banks is cele-
brated by Virgil *. On this river was the city Hypata,
or Neopatra, celebrated for the skill of its inhabitants in
magic t, in which the Thessalians ^rere proverbially
thought t excel. Near the mouth W the Sperchius is
another Anticyra, equally famous for its hellebore, and
above it Lamia, on the river Achelous, where Antipater
was besieged by the Athenians after the death of Alex-
ander, B.C. 323, 01. 114. 2., but at last escaped, and
compelled the Athenians to beg a peace, and give up
Demosthenes, who poisoned himself to avoid falling into
his hands. At the entrance into the Sinus Pagasius, or
Pelasgicus, now the Gulf of f^olo, we find Aphetae, now
Fetio, from which the ship Argo is said to have taken her
departure for Colchis. Proceeding along the coast a little
inland is the Phthiotic Thebes, and above it is the river
Amphrysus, on whose banks Apollo is said to have fed
the herds of Admetus king of PheraeJ. North-west-
ward, but considerably inland, is a city called Thauma-
cia from the beauty of its situation, now Thaumaco.
The river Ohchestus, which rises a little beyond the
lake Bsebis, flows into the Northern extremity of this

* ____ o ubi campi

Sperchiusque et virginibus bacchata Lacsenis
Taygeta, Virg. Georg. II. 486.

| Quse saga, quis te solvere Thessalis
Magus venenis, quis poterit Deus, ffor. Od. I. 27.

$. Cynthius Admeti vaccas pavisse Pheraeas
Fertur et in parva delituisse casa. Ov. Art. Am, II. 238.
Te quoque, magna Pales, et te memorande canemus
Pastor ab Amphryso. Virg, Georg. Ill, 1.



gulf, and at the top of the gulf was the city of Pagasse
giving name to it, and Demetrias, or Volo, built by
Demetrius Poliorcetes. Here were also two promon-
tories, preserving the memory of the great Thessalian
Deluge, in the names of Pyrrha and Deucalion. Near
the junction of ttffe Onchestus and a little stream called
the Anaurus, was Pherae or Pheres, and near the mouth
of the Onchestus was lolcos, the country of Jason, in the
district of Magnesia, whence the Argo is called Magne-
sian by Ovid *. And on the ^gean side of the Cherso-
se, formed by the gulf and the ^Egean, is the city of
iagnesia, above which was the promontory of Sepias,
sow Cape St. George, where the fleet of Xerxes suffered
greatly from shipwreck. From this promontory all
along the coast to the North of Thessaly stretch the
ranges of mountains, Pelion, Ossa, and Olympus t. Be-

* Cur unquam Colchi Magnetida vidimus Argo.

Ov. Med. Jas. V. 9.

f Here we may remark the excess of critical refinement in those
commentators who compare Homer's ladder of the giants with
Virgil's, and give the preference to the more judicious arrange-
ment of the former. For, say they, Homer places Olympus at
the bottom, Ossa on Olympus, and Pelion on Ossa; Virgil uses
the contrary order

Ter sunt conati imponere Pelio Ossam

Scilicet, atque Ossze frondosum involvere Olympum ;

Georg. I. 281,

'vhich makes a pyramid resting on its point, Pelion being the
least, and Olympus the greatest of these mountains. The fact is,
Homer enumerates them in their direction from the North, or
highest, to the South, or lowest point ; Virgil, an Italian, who
lived South of them, and would naturally visit the Southern point
first in his journey thither from Athens, enumerates them in the
order in which they would present themselves to his view.



tween the two last flows the Peneus, or Salampria,
through the celebrated vale of Tempe, the beauty of
which was proverbial among the antients. It is about
five miles long, but in general very narrow, in many
places not above an acre and a half in breadth. See
JElian, Var. Hist. III. 1. West of Tempe, the Titare-
sius flows into the Peneus, without mingling with it, a
fact noticed by Homer and other writers ; and still West,
but on the river Peneus, is Larissa, the principal city of
Thessaly, which retains its name. In the North of
Thessaly was Azorus, now Sorvitz, and North-west of
it, Oxynia. South of this is Gomphi, and below it Tric-
ca, now Trikala. To the East, about the middle of
Thessalia, on the river Enipeus, is the plain and city of
Pharsalia, the memorable scene of the decisive battle
between Caesar and Pompey, May 12, B.C. 48, A.U.C.
706, in which Caesar obtained the empire of the Roman
world. Below it is Hellas, preserving the name which
was afterwards common to all Greece.

West of Thessalia was Epirus, now part of Al-
bania, comprising, in the South, Molossia, above
which, on the Western shore, is Thesprotia, and
above it Chaonia, and, still North/ Orestis.

On the Sinus Ambracius, or Gulf of Jlrta, was Am-
bracia, the royal city of Pyrrhus and his descendants.
Opposite the promontory of Actium, on this gulf, was
Nicopolis, a city built by Augustus on the site of his
camp, in honour of his decisive victory. North-west, in
Thesprotia, was the lake called Palus Acherusia, into
which two rivers flowed, the Cocytus and Acheron, and


still North-west the river Thyamis, where Cicero's
friend, Atticus, had a country seat called Amaltheum.
North-west of this was Buthrotum, now Butrinto, and
above it Panormus, now Panormo ; above which is Ori-
cum and the Acro-Ceraunian Mountains*, so called from
their abrupt summits being often struck by lightning.
They were remarkable for attracting storms, and dreaded
by mariners on this account. In the interior of Epirus
was the celebrated grove and oracular or vocal oaks of
Dodona, sacred to Jupiter. It was on Mons Tomarus,
on the confines of Thesprotia and Molossia.

Extending over Thessaly and Epirus, from the
-flEgean to the Ionian Sea, was Macedonia, (PL
IX.), in its utmost limits as a Roman province;
but the Western part of Macedonia, above Chao-
nia, was, more strictly speaking, part of Illyri-
cum, now Albania. The pure Greeks aifected to
disclaim the Macedonians and part of the Epirots ;
and Demosthenes always discriminates, in very
pointed terms, between the Macedonian upstart
Philip and the Greeks, especially the Athenians,
who claimed their descent from remotest antiquity,
and wore golden grasshoppers in their hair, to
mark their aboriginal extraction. The splendid
victories of Philip and Alexander subdued some-

* Hie flagrant!

Aut Atho, aut Rhodopen, aut alta Ceraunia telo
Disjicit. Virg. Georg* I. 331.

Infames scopulos Acro-Ceraunia. Hor. Od. I. 3.


what of this haughty spirit among their Southern
neighbours. Macedon was bounded on the South
by Thessalia, on the East by Thracia, on the North
by Moesia and Dardania, and on the West by Illy-
ricum. It was possessed by several tribes, whose
situations are not very correctly known.

In the North-eastern part was Pseonia, in the North-
western Pelagonia ; along the central part was Sintica,
bordering on Thrace, South-west of this, Mygdonia and
JEmathia, and West the Lyncesta3 and Eordani ; along
the Southern boundary, to the East, was Edonis, border-
ing on Thrace, South-west of it Chalcidice, lying be-
tween the Sinus Strymonicus and Thermaicus. Within
the Sinus Thermaicus, on the South-east, was Pieria,
bordering on Thessaly, and to the South-west Elymiotis.
Immediately above Thessalia, on the Sinus Thermaicus,
now the Gulf of Saloniki, was Dium, now Stan-dia,
according to a corruption already noticed ; above it was
the river Haliacmon, and above it Pydna, now Kitra, so
frequently mentioned in Demosthenes, and memorable
also as being the place where Olympias, the mother of
Alexander, was besieged and put to death by Cassander,
and where the decisive battle was fought between the
Romans, under the conduct of Paulus jiEmilius, and
Perseus, the last King of Macedon, June 22. B.C. 168,
A.U.C. 586, which ended in the overthrow of Perseus,
and the reduction of Macedonia to the form of a Roman
province. Above Pydna was Methone, now Leutero-
chori, also memorable in the eontentions between Philip
and the Athenians, and the scene of his first victory over


them, B.C. 360, 01. 105, 1. A little North-west of the
top of the Sinus Thermaicus (PL X.) is Pella*, the royal
city of Macedon ; its ruins are still called Palatiza, or
the Little Palace. It was situated on a lake communica-
ting by a smaller stream with the Axius, or Vardari,
the greatest of the Macedonian rivers, which falls into the
Sinus Thermaicus. Somewhat South-west of Pella was
Bercea, now Cara Verio,, a city which has merited the
eulogium of St. Paul for the docility and ingenious dis-
position of its inhabitants (see Acts xvii. 10., &c.); and
North of it was -^Ege, or Edessa, the antient royal city,
now called Vodina. At the North-eastern extremity of
the Sinus Thermaicus, was the city of Therma, which
gave name to it, afterwards called Thessalonica, and now
Saloniki, a city well known from the preaching and
epistles of St. Paul. The district between the Sinus
Thermaicus and Strymonicus we have already said was
called Chalcidice. The lower part of it formed three
peninsulas. The first, contained between the Sinus Ther-
maicus and a smaller gulf called the Sinus Toronaeus,
now the Gulf of Cassandria, was called Phlegra, or
Pallene. At its entrance was the city of Potidaea, so ce-
lebrated in the orations of Demosthenes; it was founded
by the Corinthians, taken by the Athenians, and taken
from them by Philip, and by him given to the Olynthi-
ans. It was afterwards called Cassandria, from Cassan-
der, which name it still bears. At the top of the Sinus
Toronaeus, a little North-east of Potidaea, was Olynthus,
the scene of so many contests between Philip and the

* Hence Alexander is called the Pell<ean youth:

Unus Pellaeo juveni non sufficit orbis. Juv. Sat. X. 168.
And as Pella was in ^Emathia, and jEmathia the most distinguish-
ed province of Macedonia, it is often put for the whole country.


Athenians : the cause of its inhabitants was pleaded in the
Olynthian orations of Demosthenes. A little North-east
of Olynthus is Chalcis, giving name to the district. The
next gulf was called the Sinus Singiticus, or Gulf of
Monte Santo, and the peninsula contained between it
and the Sinus Toronseus, was called Sithonia. On the
Western side of this peninsula was Torone, or Toron,
which gave name to the Sinus Toronaeus; and on the
Eastern was Singus, giving name to the Sinus Singiticus.
In the third and last peninsula, called Acta, between the
Sinus Singiticus and Strymonicus, or Gulf of Contessa,
was the celebrated mountain Athos, now called Monte
Santo, from the number of religious houses there. The
Southern promontory of Athos was called Nymphaeum,
the Eastern Acro-Athos. A narrow tongue of land which
connects the North-west of Athos with the continent,
near the cities of Acanthus, on the East, and Sana, on
the West, was the spot so memorable for having been
dug through by Xerxes, to afford a passage for his fleet,
and save it from doubling the dangerous promontory of
Acro-Athos. Above this on the Sinus Strymonicus, is
Stagyra, now Stauros, the birth-place of Aristotle, who
is hence called the Stagyrite, near to which was the tomb
of Euripides. The river Strymon flows into the North-
ern extremity of the Sinus Strymonicus, separating Ma-
cedonia from Thrace. At its mouth was the city of
Amphipolis, another of the causes of contention between
Philip and the Athenians, as also between the Athenians
and Spartans, for it was an Athenian colony. It was also
called Ennea Hodoi, or the nine ways, because Phyllis,
who had been deserted by Demophoon, made nine jour-
neys here to watch for his return ; and it was predicted
that the Athenians should suffer here as many defeats.


It is now called lamboli. It is unnecessary to mention
many of the obscure and inconsiderable towns in the
interior and North of Macedonia. In the central parts
(PI. IX.) were Heraclea, North-west of Pella, and North-
wards of this, Stobi; and to the South-west of this was
Lychnidus, now Jlkrida, in the district of the Lyncestae.
The Western coast of Macedonia, above Epirus, we
hare already said, was properly Illyricum. Immediately
above Epirus was Apollonia, now Polina, on the river
Aous, or Lao; and North of it Epidamnus, afterwards
called Dyrrachium, which was greatly frequented by the
Romans, as being nearly opposite to Brundusium, in
Italy. We may call the latter the Dover, and the former
the Calais, of antiquity. The rest of the Eastern shore
of the Adriatic was occupied by the Illyricae gentes, or
Illyricum, already described.

East of Macedonia was Thracia, now, together
with the upper part of Macedon, called Roumelia,
which, though a barbarous country in the interior,
had many Greek colonies on the coast. But the
geography of Thrace, as well as Macedonia, is by
no means accurately ascertained. It was separated
from Macedonia by the Strymon and the ridge of
Mount PangsBus and Mount Rhodope* on the
West, from Mcesia by Mount Hs&mus on the

Flerunt Rhodopeise arces,

Altaque Pangxa, et Rhfcsi Mavortia tellus,
Atque Getse, atque Hebrus, et Actias Orithyia.

Georg. IV. 461,


North ; on the East was the Euxine, and on the
South was the jEgean Sea.

The principal nations of Thrace were the Bessi, a very
savage people, in the North West, and the Maedi below
them, in the South-west, at the top of the ^Egean; their
maritime parts were inhabited by the small tribes of the
Bristones and Ciconii. In the centre were the Odrysae,
in the South-east the Paeti, and in the North-east the
Astae. We have considered the Strymon as the Eastern
boundary of Macedonia, but in its utmost extent it reach-
ed as far as Mons Pangaeus and the river Nessus, or
Mestus, now Mesto, which flows into the ^Egean a little
East of the island of Thasus; the Strymon, however, is
the more antient and natural boundary.

East of Amphipolis was Philippi, the celebrated scene
of the defeat of Brutus and Cassius by Antony and Au-
gustus, B.C. 42, A.U.C. 712. The poet Horace was a
tribune in the vanquished army *, but afterwards found a
more congenial and more profitable employment in the
service of the muses and his patron Mecaenas. This city
is also well known in the travels and epistles of St. Paul.
At the mouth of the river Nessus was Abdera, the birth-

* Quod mihi pareret legio Romana tribune.

HOT. Sat. I. 6. 58.

Unde simul primum me dimisere Philippi

Decisis humilem pennis, inopemque paterni

Et laris et fundi, paupertas impulit audax

Ut versus facerem. Hor. JS/iist. II. 2, 49.

Philippos et celerem fugam

Sensi, relicta non bene parmula. Hor, Od. II. 7, 9.


place of the philosopher Democritus. Eastward are
Maronea, Mesembria, Sarrum, or Serrhium, and .^Enos,
now, respectively, Marogna, Miseira, Saros, and JEno,
JEtnos is at the Eastern mouth of the river Hebrus, now
the Maritza. Inland, on the Western side of the He-

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