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brus, was Scapta-hyla, or, as Lucretius calls it, Scapte-
sula*, where Thucydides, who had some gold and silver
mines there in right of his wife, retired after his banish-
ment from Athens, to write his history of the Pelopon-
nesian War; it is still called Skepsilar. The river Me-
las runs into the small gulf called Melanis Sinus, at the
top of which was the city of Cardia, destroyed by Lysi-
machus when he founded the city of Lysimachia, a little
South of it; it was afterwards called Hexamilium, now
Hexamili, because the isthmus is six miles across. The
peninsula contained between the Melanis Sinus and the
Hellespontus was called the Chersonesus Thracius, of
which we have frequent mention in Demosthenes. The
Hellespontus, which was so called from Helle, the sister
of Phryxus, who was drowned there, is now called the
Straight of the Dardanelles. The town of Sestos was
on its Western or European shore, nearly opposite to
Abydos, on the Eastern or Asiatic: this was the place
where Xerxes built his famous bridge of boats, and where
Leander was drowned in swimming from Abydos in the
night to visit his mistress Hero, who was priestess of
Venus here. It is now called Zermunic, and is the first
place that was seized by the Turks in passing from Asia
to Europe. Above it is the fatal little stream of ^Egos
Potamos, where the Athenian fleet was totally defeated

* Quales expirat ScaptesuJa subtus odores.

Lucre t. VI. 810.




120

by Lysander, Dec. 13. B.C. 405, 01. 93, 4., which put
an end to the Peloponnesian war. Still North is Calli-
polis, now Gallipoli. At the North part of the Hel-
lespont the sea widens again, and was antiently called the
Propontis, because it was before the Pontus Euxinus, or
Black Sea; it is now called the White Sea, or Sea of
Marmora, from the little island of Proconnesus, now
Marmora, which it contains. At its North-western
angle was Bisanthe, or Rhoedestus, now Rodosto. About
one-third along the Northern coast was Perinthus, after-
wards Heraclea, now corrupted into Erekli, from which
a wall, called Macron Tichos, was built across to the
Euxine by the Emperor Anastasius. East of it was Se-
lymbria, now Selibria; and at its North-eastern extremi-
ty, called from its beauty Chrysoceras, or the Horn of
Gold, was the renowned city of Byzantium, fixed on by
Constantine the Great as the seat of the Roman Empire,
A.D. 330, and from him called Constantinople, a name
which it has always preserved, though, by a familiar cor-
ruption already noticed, it is called, by the Turks, Estam-
boul *. That part of the city which was the antient By-
zantium is now the seraglio. The Turkish sultan, Ma-
homet the Second, took Constantinople, May 28. A.D.
1453, and it has ever since been the seat of the Turkish
empire. On this occasion many of the captive Greek in-
habitants fled into Italy and the West; and this event,
with the invention of printing, which was nearly con-
temporary, may be considered as instrumental, under
Providence, to the restoration of learning and pure reli-
gion in the world. A very narrow strait, antiently called
the Thracian Bosphorus, now the Channel of Constan-



124

iinople, connects the Propontis with the Pontus Euxinus,
or Black Sea, which it enters near some well known
rocks, antiently called the Cyaneae, or Symplegades *,
which, from their appearing more or less open or con-
fined, according to the course of the vessel, were said by
the poets to open and shut upon the ships which entered,
and crush them to pieces; the Argo had a narrow escape,
as we are told by Apollonius Rhodius, with the loss of
her rudder. Proceeding along the North coast of the
Euxine we find Halmydessus or Salmydessus, a place
celebrated for its shipwrecks; it is still called Midjeh.
A little above it is Bizya, the residence of Tereus, the
husband of Procne. Above it is the promontory of
Thynias, whence came the Thyni, who settled afterwards
in Asia, and gave name to Bithynia. Above it was
Apollonia, afterwards Sozopolis, now Sizeboli : above it,
at the North-eastern extremity of Thrace, was Hsemi-
extrema, now Emineh-borun; and almost at the North-
western extremity was Philippolis, so called from Philip,
the father of Alexander, which preserves its name. In
the centre was Adrianopolis, or Adrianople, near the
confluence of the three rivers, the Hebrus, Tonsus, and
Ardiscus, by whose waters Orestes was purified from the
pollution of his mother's blood, whence the place was
formerly called Orestias.

* Compresses utinam Symplegades clisissent.

Ovid. Efiist. Her. Med. Jas. 119.

f Lamprid, in Elagab.






CHAPTER X.



GRECIAN ISLANDS.



A.G. Plates XII. XIII.



THESE we shall describe, beginning from the North of
the JEgean Sea, or Archipelago, along the coast of
Greece; and afterwards those on the coast of Asia Mi-
nor. South-west of the mouth of the Hebrus (PI. XII.)
was the island of Samothrace, or Samothraki, remark-
able for the sanctity of its asylum, and the mysterious
worship of four deities called the Cabiri. Its reputation
even continued to the time of Juvenal *. Below it was
Imbrus, or Imbro, where also the same deities were
worshipped. North-west of Samothrace, and a little
West of the mouth of the river Nestus, was Thasos, now

* Jures licet et Samothracum

Et nostrorum aras. Juv. Sat. III. 144.



126

Thapso, remarkable for its fertility, its wines, and its
marble quarries. South-west of Imbrus, and about mid-
way in the ^Egean sea, between the coast of Greece and
Asia Minor, was the island of Lemnos, fabled to have
received Vulcan when he fell from heaven, who is there-
fore called the Lemnian god. It is now called Stalimine^
according to a corruption which we have frequently no-
ticed. Lemnos was infamous for the massacre committed
by the Lemnian women on their husbands and all the
male inhabitants of the island, a full account of which is
given by Valerius Flaccus, in the second book of his
Argohautic expedition. Its principal town was Myrina,
now Palaeocastri, in whose forum was the famous statue
of the ox, made by Myron; the back of which, at the
winter solstice, was overshadowed by Mount Athos,
though 87 miles distant. South-west of Lemnos was the
small island of Peparethus, or Piperi; and South-west
of it Halonesus, or Dromo. Westward of which, off the
coast of Magnesia, were the islands of Scopelos and
Sciathos, which keep their names. South of these, be-
low the Maliacus Sinus, was the large island of Euboea,
lying along the coast of Locris, Boeotia, and Attica. Op-
posite to Aulis, in Boeotia, the channel between the conti-
nent and the island of Euboea is very narrow and re-
ceives the name of Euripus. Chalcis, one of the princi-
pal cities of Euboea, was opposite to Aulis; from a cor-
ruption of Euripus, it is now called Egripo; and then
corrupted by mariners into Negropont. The next prin-
cipal city in Euboea was Eretria, now Gravalinais, a
little below Chalcis. At the South extremity of Euboea
are two celebrated promontories; the Western, called
Carystus, now Caristo, remarkable for its fine marble
quarries; the other, on the Eastern, or JEgean side, cal-



127

led Caphareus*, memorable for the shipwreck of the
Grecian fleet on their return from Troy. At the North-
ern extremity of Euboea was Istisea, or Oreus, now Orio.
This part of the coast of Euboea was called the Artemi-
sium littus. East of this part of Euboea was the island
Scyros, or Skyro, where Achilles was brought up in the
court of Lycomedes, disguised as a female, to avoid be-
ing sent to the Trojan war. Below Euboea, inclining to-
wards the East, we find a cluster of islands, called the
Cyclades. The island nearest to Euboea is Andros, or
JLndro; and below it Tenos, or Tine, which is separated
from it only by a narrow channel. A little to the West,
lying as it were between Andros and Tenos, is the little
island Gyarust, or Jour a, where the Roman exiles were
sent; and a little South-west of Tenos is Syros, or Syr a.
West of Tenos, off the coast of Attica and promontory
of Sunium, is Ceos, or Zia; a little South-east of which
is Cythnus, now Thermia; and a little below it is Seri-
phus, now Serpho. South-east of Seriphus is Siphnus,
or Siphanto; and South-west of Siphnus is Cimolus, now
Jlr geniier & > and Melos, or Milo. East of Melos are the
inconsiderable islands of Pholegandros, Sicinos, and los,
now PolecandrOy Sikino, and Nio. Below los is Thera,
or Santorin, whose inhabitants colonized Gyrene, in Af-
rica; East of which is Anaphe, or Namphio; and North-
east of it Astypalsea , or Stampalia. North-west of

Scit triste Minervsc

Sidus, et Euboicae cautes, ultorque Caphareus.

Virg. JEn. XI. 260,
f jEstuat infelix angusto limite mimdi
. Ut Gyarze clausus scopulis parvaque Seripho.

Juvenal, Sat. X. 169,
Cinctaque piscosis Astypalrca vadis, Ov. Art* 11.82.



128

Astypalaea is Amorgus, now Jlmorgo ; North-west of
which is Naxos*, now Naxia, celebrated for its worship
of Bacchus; and adjoining it to the West was Paros, and
the smaller island of Olearos, or Antiparos, which retain
the names of Paro and *ftntiparo: this was the celebra-
ted region of the finest white marble t. Above Paros
was the small but celebrated island of Delos, the birth-
place of Apollo and Diana; it was held so sacred, that
all sick persons were transported to the neighbouring
island of Rhena, lest it should be polluted by their death.
On the opposite or North-eastern side, was the island of
Myconus, or Myconi. Thus we may see that the Cy-
clades were spread in a semicircular form round Delos,
as the centre, whence they derive their name.

The antient names of Delos were Asteria and Ortygia,
the latter being derived from the number of quails which
frequented the island. The antients believed the island
to have been moveable formerly, and carried about by
the waves, but that when Apollo was born there it be-
came fixed J.

* Bacchatamque jugis Naxon, viridemque Donusam,
Olearon niveamque Paron, sparsasque per sequor
Cycladas, et crebris legimus freta consita terris.

Virg. &n. III. 125.

f Splendentis Pario marmore purius, Hor. Od. I. 19. 6.

:f: Sacra mari colitur medio grattissima tellus,
Nereidum matri et Neptuno ^Egseo;
Quam plus Arcitenens oras et littora circum
Errantem, Mycone celsa Gyaroque revinxit,
Immotamque coli dedit, et contemnere ventos.

Virg. &n. III. 75.



129

Below the Cyclacles was the great island of Crete,
now Candid) renowned among the antients as having
been the birth-place of Jupiter. The Western extremity
of Crete was a promontory called Criu Metopon, or the
ram's forehead, now Crio; its Eastern was called Samo-
nium, now SaZmone; its Northern was called Cimarus,
now Spada. About the centre of Crete was the cele-
brated Mount Ida *, where Jupiter was nursed, whence
came the worship of Cybele, and the priests called the
Curetes, or Idsei Dactyli. On the Northern coast,
towards the Western end of the island, was Cydonia,
now Canea. The Cretans were celebrated archers, and
the Cydonianst, were the best, or most esteemed among
them. Towards the Eastern part, where the shore bends
to the South, was the city of Gnossus, the kingdom of
Minos, so celebrated for his justice as to have been made
one of the judges in the infernal regions: with this place
we shall, of course, associate the names of Ariadne,
Theseus, Daedalus, the labyrinth, and Minotaur. South
of it was Lyctos, now Lassite. Dicte$ was a mountain
at the Eastern extremity of the island, sometimes giving
name to the whole island. In a cave of this mountain



* Crcta maris magni medio jacet insula ponto,
Mons Idxus ubi, et gentis cunabula nostrx.

* * # *

Hinc mater cultrix Cybele, Corybantiaque rcra,

Idxumquc nemus. Virg. Mn* IIL 104.

f Primusve Teucer tcla Cydonio
Dircxit arcu. Hor. Od. IV. 9. 17,

Dictoca negat tibi Jupiter arvn,

Virg. JEn< III 171,

17



130

Jupiter is said to have been fed by the bees with honey*
Along the South shore, at the narrowest part of the
island, Hiera pytna, is now Gira petra; West of which
is Gortyna, near to which are said to be some ruins re-
sembling a subterraneous labyrinth. Off the North shore
of Crete is the little island of Dia, now Standia; and
below the South shore is Gaulos, now Gozo of Candia,
to distinguish it from the Gozo of Malta. North-west
of Crete, and off the promontory of Malea, we find the
island of Cythera, now Cerigo, sacred to Venus, who
was supposed to have risen from the sea in its neighbour-
hood, and is hence called Cytherea.

Off the coast of Elis, on the Western side of Greece
(PL XL), is Zacynthus, now Zante; South of which are
the islands of the Strophadest, now Strivali, so called
because Calias and Zethus here turned back from pursu-
ing the harpies. Above Zacynthus, almost opposite the
Sinus Corinthiacus, is Cephallenia, now Cefalonia; on
the Eastern coast of which the city of Same still retains
its name. The island of Ithaca (PI. X.), lies to the
North-east of it, and is now called Theaki. Above
these, off the coast of Thesprotia, lies the island of Cor-
cyra, now Corfu. It was originally colonized by the
Corinthians, and is memorable for having given occasion
to the Peloponnesian wars, and for a dreadful sedition

* ' ' ' Pro qua mercede, canoros
Curetum sonitus Corybantiaque sera secutae,
Dictao regem superum pavere sub antro.

Virg. Georg. IV. 150.

| i. Strophades Graio stant nomine dictse

Insulae lonio in magno: quas dira Celano,
Harpyiseque colunt alise. Virg, &n. III. 211:



131

which' prevailed there during part of that war, which is
finely described by Thucydides, in his third book. This
island was called Phseacia by Homer, who describes the
gardens and orchards of its king Alcinous.

We shall now proceed to describe the Grecian Islands
adjoining the coast of Asia *. A little below the Helles-
pont (PL XII.), off the coast of Troas, is a small island
which keeps its name, Tenedost, the fatal station to
which the Grecian fleet retired for concealment while
awaiting the result of their stratagem for the capture of
Troy. Below it, off the coast of Mysia, is Lesbos, now
called Mitylin, from Mitylene, its ancient capital, on its
Eastern coast. It was the birth-place of Sappho, and
Alcaeus. Above Mitylene, in the North-eastern extre-
mity of Lesbos, was Methymna, now Porto Petera.
Below Lesbos, off the coast of Ionia, was Chios, or
Scio, one of the reputed birth-places of Homer, where
his school is still shown J: the Chian and Lesbian

Asia itself has not yet been described, but it is thought more
convenient to enumerate these islands in this place; and the sec-
tion itself may be reserved, at the option of the teacher, for the
conclusion of the chapter, in Asia Minor.

f Est in conspectu Tenedos notissima fama

Insula, dives opum Priami dum regna manebant,
Nunc tantum sinus, et statio malefida carinis.
Hue sc diversi, secreto in littore condunt,
Nos abiisse rati, et vento petiisse Mycenas.

Virg. JEn. II. 21.

\ The places which contended for the birth-place of Homer
are enumerated in those well known lines
Septem urbes certant de stirpe insignis Homeri,
Smyrna, Rhodes, Colophon, Salamis, Chios, Argos, Athenae.
Of these Chios and Smyrna have the best claim. I am not one of



132

wines* were antiently, and still are, in high repute.
West of it is Psyra, now Ipsara. Below Chios, off the
Southern extremity of Ionia, is Samos, which keeps its
name. Junot was worshipped here with peculiar hon-
ours. A little West of Samos was Icaria, now Nicaria.
Below these, off the coast qf Caria, are a number of
scattered isles, called from that circumstance the Spo-
rades. Below Icaria is Patmos, to which St. John was
banished. Below it is Leros, which also keeps its name,
and Calymna, now Calmina. Below this was Cos, a
larger island, off the coast of Doris, now Stan Co* the
birth-place of Apelles and Hippocrates. Below it, Ni-
syrus and Telos, are now Nisiri and Procopia; and un-
der Doris, where the shore of Asia Minor turns to the
East, is the celebrated island of Rhodus, or Rhodes, so
well known in the history of the Grecians, Persians,
Romans, and Mahometans. Its principal city was
Rhodes, where was the celebrated Colossus of the Sun,
the legs of which are commonly but falsely supposed to
have stood on each side of the harbour, and admitted be-
tween them ships in full sail. It was the work of Chares,
the pupil of Lysippus, erected about 300 B.C., and



those who doubt his existence. The uniformity of plan and dic-
tion convinces me that the Iliad, with possibly a small exception,
is the work of one man. The Odyssey is fierhaps attributable to
a different hand, and to a somewhat later but very early age.

* Capaciores affer hue, puer, scyphos,
Et Chia vina aut Lesbia. Hor. Efiod. IX. 33.

I Quam Juno fertur terris magis omnibus imam

Posthabita coluissc Samo,
says Virgil, speaking of Carthage Mn, I. 15.



133

thrown down by an earthquake about 120 years after;
in which state it continued till it was sold by the Sara-
cens, after their conquest of Rhodes, A. D. 672, to a Jew,
who broke it up, and loaded 900 camels with the brass.
About midway between Rhodes and Crete, the island of
Carpathus, now Scarpanto, gave name to the Carpathian
Sea. In the Eastern part of the Mediterranean, off the
coast of Cilicia (PL XIII.), was the island of Cyprus,
sacred to Venus. Its principal city was Salamis, towards
the East, founded by Teucer*, when banished by Tela-
mon from the island of Salamis in the Sinus Saronicus,
it was overwhelmed by the sea, afterwards rebuilt in the
fourth century, under the name of Constantia, and is still
called Constanza. A little below it is the present capi-
tal of Cyprus, called Famagosta, from the antient pro-
montory of Ammochostos, or the sand hill. South-west
of this was Citium, now Cito, the birth-place of the great
Stoic philosopher Zeno. South-west of which was
Amathus; whence Venus, who was worshipped there,
was called Amathusia. West of this was Curium, now
Fiscopia; and in the Western extremity was the much
famed city of Venus, Paphos, now Limmeson tftntica.
On the Northern coast, Soli is now Solia, Lapethus

* Teucer Salamina patremque

Cum fugeret, tamen uda Lyxo
Tempora populea fertur vinxisse corona,

Sic tristes affatus amicos :
Quo nos cunque feret melior fortuna parente,

Ibimus, O socii comitesquc,
Nil desperandum, Teucro duce ct auspice Teucro,

Certus enim promisit Apollo,
Ambiguam tellure nova Salamina futuram.

Hot, Od. I. 7, 2i:



134

Lapeto, and Chytrus Cytria; Idalium* is thought to
have been about the centre of the Eastern part of the
island

The Grecian Seas (PI. XII.) were distinguished by
various names: the Southern part of the Hadriatic,
washing the Western coast of Greece, was called Mare
Ionium t; the sea between Crete and Africa was called
LibycumJ Pelagus; above Crete, Mare Creticum; be-
tween Crete and Rhodes, Carpathium Pelagus || ; near the
island of Icaria, Icarium Mare If; between Attica and the
Cyclades, Myrtoum Mare**; all the rest of the Archi-
pelago was called by the general name of the Mare
^gaeum. The modern term of Archipelago is rather
of doubtful and somewhat curious derivation. It is
doubted whether Egio Pelago or Agio Pelago be the
original modern term, the former a corruption of the
word JEgaeum, and the latter derived from the sanctity

* Est Paphos Idaliumque tibi, sunt alta Cythera.

Virg. JEn. X. 86.

| Nosse quot lonii veniant ad littora fluctus,

Virg. Georg. II. 108.

% Delphinum similes qui per maria humida nando

Carpathium Libycumque secant. Virg. Mn* V. 595,

Tradam protervis in mare Creticum

Portare ventis, Hor. Od. I. 26. 2.

\\ Quicunque Bithina lacessit

Carpathium pelagus carina, //or. Od. I. 35.7 .

Tf Luctantem Icariis fiuctibus Africum

Mercator metuens. ffor. Od. 1. 1. 15.

** Ut trabe Cypria

Myrtoum pavidus nauta seoet mare, Hor* Od. I. 1, 13. *



135

of the monasteries on Mount Athos and in the islands
From one or the other of these, mariners are thought to
have adopted the corruption of Archipelago, which
having itself a manifest similarity to another Greek root,
has been generally supposed to be derived from it.
Even the most illustrious of geographers, D'Anville, to
whom I owe so many obligations, falls into the vulgar
error.



136



CHAPTER XI



ASIA MINOR,



Plate XIII.

THE country which we call Asia Minor (a term
not in use among the Antients, who called it sim-
ply Asia,) is now called Anatolia, or rather Jlna-
doli, from y*ToA^ the East. It comprises the pro-
vinces between the Euxine and Mediterranean
Seas. Along the shore of the Pontus Euxinus,
adjoining the Propontis, is Bithynia; next to
which is Paphlagonia; and East of it Pontus,
reaching to the river Ophis, where the shore of
the Pontus Euxinus begins to turn to the North.
Below the Eastern part of Bythynia and Paphlago-
nia is Galatia. South of the Propontis is Mysia,
below it Lydia, and below Lydia is Caria. These
three provinces lie along the Eastern shores of the
./Egean, but their coasts are chiefly occupied by



137

Grecian colonies. Below the Hellespont, the coast
of Mysia is called Troas, the celebrated scene of
the Iliad of Homer. The South coast of Mysia
and a little of the North of Lydia is called ^Eolis^
or jEolia. The remaining coast of Lydia is called
Ionia. There were also some Ionian cities on the
coast of Caria ; and the South-west coast of Caria
was called Doris. East of Caria was Lycia ; and
East of Lycia, Pamphylia ; with Pisidia to the
North, and to the North-east Isauria and Lycaonia.
East of Pamphylia was Cilicia. In the centre^
East of Lydia, was the large province of Phrygia ;
and East of Phrygia was Cappadocia.

Bithynia was originally called Bebrycia: two Thra-
cian nations, the Thyni and Bithyni, who settled there,
gave it the name of Bithynia. It is separated from My-
sia by the Rhyndacus on the West, and from Paphla-
gonia by the Parthenius on the East; on the North it is
bounded by the Pontus Euxinus, and on the South by
Phrygia and Galatia. On the Western frontier, the
great mountain of Olympus gave the name of Olympena
to the surrounding territory. At the foot of Olympus
was the city Prusa, or Bursa, which gave the title of
Prusias to the kings of Bithynia. One of this name was
the betrayer of Hannibal to the Romans, who poisoned
himself to escape falling into their hands, B.C. 183,
A.U.C. 571. The next city we shall mention is Nicaea.
now Isnik, on the banks of the lake Ascanius, North-
cast of Prusa. Here was the famous General Council
held under Constantine the Great, when the Nicene
18

>jSr



138

Creed was drawn up, A.D. 325, North of Nicaea is
Nicomedia, now called Isnickmid; and West of it, to-
wards the Bosporus, is Libyssa, now Gebise, which de-
rived its name from containing the tomb of the great
African general, Hannibal. At the point where the Pro-
pontis begins to contract was Chalcedon, called the city
of the blind, in derision for its founders having over-
looked the more delightful and advantageous situation of
Byzantium : it is now Kadikeui. Opposite to Byzanti-
um, or Constantinople, was Chrysopolis, now Scutari.
On the Bosporus was a celebrated temple of Jupiter Uri-
us, the dispenser of favourable winds: it is now called
loron. The Thyni, a Thracian nation, were settled on
this part of the shore of the Euxine, extending from the
Bosporus to the river Sangarius, or Sagaris, now the Sa-
karia. On the East of the Sangarius were the Ma-rian-
dyni, in the North-eastern part of whose district was the
powerful city of Heraclea Pontica, now Erekli ; a small
peninsular promontory to the North-west is called Ache-
rusia, and it is said that Hercules dragged Cerberus from
hell through a cavern in this promontory. North-east
of the Mariandyni are the Caucones, adjoining Paphla-
gonia.

Paphlagonia extends from the river Parthenius, or
Partheni, to the great river Halys, now called Kizil-
Ermak, or the red river *. In the North were the He-
neti, who are said to have passed over into Italy after
the Trojan war, where they established themselves under

* The river Halys was the boundary of the dominions of Crce-
sus King of Lydia, to whom the celebrated oracle was given,
KpoiffofAtvvfictCs jiaya'xwv ccp%*v x*Taxwm, a line which might well have
been applied to the late Emperor of France when he crossed the
Vistula.



139

the name of Veneti. The principal cities were on the
coast of the Euxine: Amastris*, now JZmastreh, and
Cytorus, now Kitros; North-east of which was the Pro-


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