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montory of Carambis, now Cape Karampi, which we
have noticed as opposite to Criu Metopon in the Tauric
Chersonese; and just as the shore has bent downwards is
Sinope, a celebrated Grecian colony, founded by the
Milesians, and the birth-place of the philosopher Dio-
genes; it was the capital of Pontus in the reign of the
great Mithridates, and is still called Sinub.

Under the Eastern part of Bithynia, and Paphlagonia,
is Galatia. A colony detached from the great Gaulish
emigration, under Brennus, B.C. 270, crossed the Hel-
lespont, and settled themselves in the North of Phrygia
and Cappadocia, where, mingling with some Grecian
colonies, they caused the country to obtain the name of
Gallo-Grsecia, or Galatia; and, what is singular, they
continued to speak the Celtic language even in the days
of St. Jerome, 600 years after their emigration. On the
confines of Phrygia and Bithynia was the city of Pessi-
nus, originally Phrygian, and Mount Dindymus, remark-
able for the worship of Cybele, hence called Dindy-
menet, whose image was brought from this place to
Rome, with a remarkable miracle attending it J, in the

* Amastri Pontica et Cytore buxifer. Catull. IV. 13.

f Non Dindymene, non adytis quatit
Mentem sacerdotum incola Pythius,
Non Liber zeque Hor. Od. 1. 16. 5.

\ Claudia, a vestal, had been accused of incontinence, and the
goddess was prevailed upon by her prayers to vouchsafe her tes-
timony to her innocence, by enabling her to remove by her girdle
the ship which had grounded in the Tiber. Ovid. Fast. IV, 315,






140

second Punic war. A little East of Pessinus was Gor-
dium, also originally in Phrygia, where Alexander cut
to pieces the Gordian knot, respecting which there was
an antient tradition, that the person who could untie it
should possess the Empire of Asia. Still East was An-
cyra, now Jlngora, from whence the celebrated shawls
and hosiery made of goats' hair were originally brought.
Near this place Bajazet was conquered and made pri-
soner by Timour the Great, A.D. 1402. North-east of
this, on the confines of Paphlagonia, Gangra, now Kan-
kiari, was the residence of Cicero's friend, Deiotarus,
one of the tetrarchs or princes of 'Galatia, in whose favour
we have an oration of Cicero to the senate. This city,
however, was also sometimes considered as one of the
principal in Paphlagonia. It is not necessary to enter
into the detail of the other cities in Galatia; but we may
observe in proof of the Gaulish origin of the people, that
the Northern part of them were called the Tectosages.

East of Paphlagonia and Galatia is Pontus, extending
along the coast of the Euxine, from the mouth of the
Halys to the Ophis. It was originally part of Cappa-
docia, and was formed first into a Satrapy, and then into
an independent kingdom, about B. C. 300. Leaving
the mouth of the Halys, the first important city we shall
notice is Amisus, now Samsun, a Greek colony, aggran-
dised by Mithridates. The sea here forms a gulf called
Amisenus Sinus, into which the river Iris flows, called
now Jekil-Ermarkj or the green river. Upon its banks,
considerably inland, was Amasea, now rfmasie/i, the
most considerable of the cities of Pontus, and the birth-
place of the great Mithridates and Strabo the geographer.
North of it was Magnopolis, built by Pompey the Great;



141

and below it, in a direction nearly South, was Zele ?
where Caesar overcame Pharnaces, son of the great Mi-
thridates, with such rapidity, that he wrote his account
of his victory to the senate in those three famous words,
"Veni, vidi, vici." North-east of Zele was Comana,
now perhaps JUmons, or Tocat, called Pontica, to dis-
tinguish it from another of the same name in Cappadocia:
both were celebrated for their temples, and college of
priests, consecrated to Bellona, who was however wor-
shipped by those oriental nations rather as the Goddess
of Love than of War. North of it is Neo-Csesarea, now
Niksar. Advancing towards the sea we find the river
Thermodon, or Terme, which runs through the plains of
Themiscyra, the antient residence of those warlike fe-
males the Amazons*. East of this was Polemonium,
now Fatija, built by Polemon, who was established in
the kingdom by Marc Antony, and East of it was Cera-
sus, now Keresoun, from which Lucullus introduced the
first cherries into Italy in the Mithridatic war. Con-
siderably East of it, almost on the confines of Colchis,
was Trapezus, or Trebisond, so famous antiently as the
first Greek colony which received the 10,000 Greeks in
their immortal retreat under Xenophon, and subsequent-
ly as the seat of Grecian Emperors, so well known in
romance, and so little read of in history. South-east of
Trapezus, above the banks of the river Ophis, (PI.
XVII.) was Teches, or Tesqua, now Tekeh, the moun-
tain from which the troops of Xenophen had their first
view of the sea, the account of which is so finely de-

* ' Cum flumina Thermodontis

Pulsant, ct pictis bcllantur Amazones armis.

Virg. /w. XI. 659.






142

scribed by him in the latter part of the fourth book of
the Anabasis. The South-eastern part of Pontus was oc-
cupied by the tribes of Chalybes, or, as Strabo calls
them, the Chaldasi.

Returning to the coast of the ^Ggean, (PI. XIII.) the
first province is Mysia, bounded by Bithynia on the
East, the Propontis on the North, the JEgean on the
West, and Lydia on the South. The Rhyndacus, often
mistaken by modern travellers for the Granicus, separates
it from Bithynia. Proceeding from thence Westward,
along the shore of Propontis, we come to the island of
Cyzicus, now a peninsula, which preserves its name; it
was antiently a very flourishing city. A little West of
it is the river Granicus, the famous scene of the first
great battle between Alexander and the armies of Darius,
May 22., B.C. 334., 01. 111. 3., where 30,000 Mace-
donians are said to have defeated 600,000 Persians; it is
now a torrent called Ousvola. The city of Lampsacus,
now Lamsaki, is on the Hellespont. It was famous for
the worship of Priapus, hence called the Hellespontian ,
or Lampsacan God*. Alexander resolved to destroy
this city on account of the vices of its inhabitants, but it
was saved by the philosopher Anaximenes, who know-
ing that Alexander had sworn to deny his request,
begged him to destroy it. A little below is Percote,
which was given by Artaxerxes to Themistocles, to
maintain his wardrobe. Below it is Abydos, which we
have already mentioned as nearly opposite to Sestos, but
a little more to the South. South of it, towards the

* Hellespontiaci servet tutela Priapi.

Vtrg. Georg. IV. 111.









143

mouth of the Hellespont, is the sacred plain of Troy,
immortalized by the first and greatest of poets. The
coast of Mysia, between the Hellespont and the Promon-
tory of Lectum, has received the names of Troas, from
Troy, and, in its Northern part, Dardania, from the city
of Dardanus, at the entrance of the Hellespont, which,
though now destroyed, still gives to the Hellespont the
name of the Dardanelles. Modern travellers very much
differ in their accounts of this celebrated plain, and in
the position they assign to the antient city of Troja, or
Ilium. Sir W. Gell, in his accurate and interesting sur-
vey of the Troad, accompanied with many beautiful and
faithful coloured engravings, thinks he has discovered
some vestiges of this most famous city near the village of
Bounarbachi ; but the fact probably is, that though some
great and strong outlines, such as Ida, and the promon-
tory of Rhcetaeum and Sigaeum, may remain, the lapse of
3000 years may have caused so great a change in the
general face of the country, as to have obliterated every
vestige of the antient city, and even several of those
minor features, which may be said to have outlived even
nature herself in the immortal poem of Homer. Troy
was more than once rebuilt under the names of Troja
and Ilium, generally in a situation nearer the sea than
the antient city is supposed to have occupied. It stood
between two rivers, the Scamander, or Xanthus, and the
Simois, which formed a junction before they entered the
Hellespont. The Simois rose in Mount Ida, a very
lofty range of mountains East of Troy. The sources of
the Scamander were hot and cold springs near Troy.
The summit of Ida was called Gargarus. The Northern
promontory of the shore, at the entrance of the Helles-
pont, was called the promontory of Rhoetxum, and the




144

Southern that of Sigaeum; between these the Grecian
camp and ships were stationed. South of the island of
Tenedos was Chrysa or Sminthium, where was the
temple of the Sminthian Apollo, and the residence of
his priest Chryses, the father of Chryseis. Below it is
the promontory of Lectum, now called Cape JBaba.
South-east of it is Assus, now <ftsso; South-east of which
was Antandrus, now Jlntandro. Inland, about the mid-
dle of the Troad, was Scepsis, memorable as being the
place where the original writings and library of Aristotle
were discovered, as we are told by Strabo, much injured
by having been buried carelessly in a damp place by the
descendants of Neleus, the scholar of Theophrastus, to
whom Aristotle had left them, in order to preserve them
from being seized by Eumenes, king of Pegamus, for
his library: they were at length dug up and sold to
Apellicon of Teios, for a large sum. North-east of
Scepsis was the city of Zeleia, mentioned in Homer, and
South-west of it the Hypoplacian Thebes, the birth-place
of Andromache, which was occupied by a Cilician colo-
ny in the time of the Trojan war : a little below, the
shore begins' to turn to the South. The remainder of
the coast of Mysia, and part of Lydia, to the river Her-
mus*, whose sands were mingled with gold, was called
JEolia, or JEolis, being occupied, after the fall of Troy,
by JEolian Greeks. Here is Adramyttium, or Jldra-
mitti, an Athenian colony, mentioned in the Acts, ch.
xxvii. 2. Inland, South-east of Adramyttium, was Perga-
mus, now Bergamo, the capital of a kingdom which the
Romans considerably enlarged in favour of Eumenes, af-
ter they had defeated Antiochus, king of Syria, and

* Auro turbidus Hermus. Virg* Georg* II, 137.



145

which was left to the Roman people by Attalus, the last
king, B.C. 133, A.U.C. 621. Here was the famous li-
brary founded by Eumenes, in opposition to that of
Ptolemy at Alexandria, who, from motives of jealousy,
forbad the exportation of Egyptian papyrus, in conse-
quence of which Eumenes invented vellum, called hence
Pergamena. This library, having contained 200,000
volumes, was transported to Alexandria by Antony and
Cleopatra. Pergamus is one of the churches mentioned
in the Revelation of St. John, ch. ii. 11. Here also the
great physician Galen was born. It stood on the banks
of the Caicus, and its port Elsea is now lalea. Between
Adramyttium and Elasa were the cities of Lyrnessus, the
original country of Briseis, Atarneus, and Pitane, the
first of which is inland, the two others are on the coast;
and a little bolow Elsea was the promontory of Cana, or
Coloniy near which were the little islands called Arginu-
SD3, where the Lacedemonian fleet was completely de-
feated by the Athenians, B.C. 406, 01. 93. 3., who after-
wards ungratefully put their victorious generals to death.

\

Below the river Caicus was Lydia, called antiently
Mseonia, having Mysia on the North, Phrygia on the
East, Caria on the South, and the ^Egean on the West.
The coast of Lydia, nearly to the Hermus, or Sarabat,
was called JEolis, and below the Hermus, having been
occupied by Grecian colonies about B.C. 900, obtained
the name of Ionia, the cities of which we shall first de-
scribe, before we give an account of the interior, or Per-
sian part of it. Below the Caicus was Cyme, or Cuma3,
the most powerful of the JEolian colonies, now affording
but a few vestiges at a place called Nemourt ; a colony
from hence founded the city of Cumae, on the coast of
19



146

Campania, in Italy, the residence of the Cumsean Sibyl,
Below it is Phocaea*, now Fochia, an Ionian colony,
whose inhabitants deserted it, to avoid being subject to
the power of Cyrus, and having sworn never to return
till a mass of iron, which they sank, should rise to the
surface, founded the city of Marseilles, in Gaul, about
540 B.C. Below Phocsea was the celebrated city of
Smyrna, now called Ismur, one of the reputed birth-
places of Homer, and a flourishing city of Anatolia. The
little river Meles, which flows by Smyrna, has given to
Homer the name of Melesigenes, he having been said to
have been born on its banks; he is also called Mseoniust,
from having been born in Lydia. Smyrna stands at the
Eastern extremity of a Gulf called the Smyrnseus Sinus,
which forms a peninsula, near the entrance of which is
Clazomenae, now Vourla^ the birth-place of the philoso-
pher Anaxagoras and other great men; North-west of it
is Erythrse, the residence of one of the Sibyls, opposite
to the Island of Chios. At the Southern entrance of this
peninsula was Teos, the birth-place of Anacreon, hence
called the Teian bard, and below it Lebedus, which was
ruined by Lysimachus, and continued so in the days of
Horace;]:. Below it was Colophon, another of the cities

* Sed juremus in hsec; simul imis saxa renarint

Vadis levata, ne redire sit nefas:
Nulla sit hac potior sententia, Phocxorum

Velut profugit execrata civitas. Hor.Rp.od. XVI. 25.

I have reversed the order of the lines in Horace, for the conve-
nience of shortening the quotation.

| Non si priores Mceonius tenet

Secies Homerns. Hor. Od. IV. 9. 5,

|. Scis Lebedus quid sit, Gabiis desertior atque

Fidcnis virus Hor Efiist, I, 11. 6,



147

which contended for the birth of Homer: it was the
native city of Mimnermus and Nicander. The Colo-
phonian cavalry generally turned the scale on the side
on which they fought: hence Colophonem addere be-
came a proverb for putting an end or finish to a business,
and in the early periods in the art of printing, the account
which the printer gave of the place and date of the edi-
tion, being the last thing printed at the end of the book,
was called the Colophon. Below Colophon, on the
banks of the Cayster, was the renowned city of Ephesus,
celebrated for its temple of Diana, one of the wonders of
the antient world. It is now a mass of ruins, under the
name of Jliosoluc, a corruption of Agio-Tzeologus, the
modern Greek epithet for St. John the founder of the
church here. It is almost unnecessary to add, that this
city is memorable in the writings and travels of St. Paul,
and is the first of the churches mentioned by St. John in
the Revelation, ch. ii. 1. The Cayster flowed through
a marsh called the Asian marsh, much frequented by
water fowl*, and mentioned by Homer and Virgil; this
river is now called the Kit 'chik- Minder , or little Maean-
der. Below Ephesus, inland, was Magnesia on the
Meander, to be distinguished from another city of the
same name near Mount Sipylus, in the inland parts of
Lydia. Here Themistocles died, B.C. 449, 01. 83. 4.,
West of it, and opposite the island of Samos, is Mount
Mycale, so celebrated for the defeat and destruction of
the Persian fleet by the Grecians, Sept. 22, B.C. 479,
01. 75. 2., on the very same day that their land army,

* Jam varias pelagi volucres, et quas Asia circum
Dulcibus in stagnis rimantur prata Caystri.

Virg. Gtorg. I. 383.



148

under Mardonius, was defeated at Plataeas. At the foot
of this mountain was Priene, the birth-place of Bias,
one of the seven contemporary sages of Greece. The
river Maeander, so celebrated for its windings, is the
boundary of Lydia and Caria. We shall now quit the
Ionian coast of Lydia, and take a short view of the inte-
rior, or Persian part. Beginning at the North, nearly
East of Cumse, is Thyatira, one of the churches men-
tioned in the Revelation of St. John, eh. ii. 18, now
Jlk-hisar; South of which is Magnesia, or Magnisa,
where the Romans gave a signal defeat to Antiochus
King of Syria, A.U.C. 564. B.C. 190. This Magnesia
is called Magnesia Sipyli, or Magnesia at the foot of
Mount Sipylus, to distinguish it from the other Magne-
sia ad Maeandrum, now Guzel Hissar. Mount Sipylus
was the residence of Niobe, hence called Sipyleian*; it
is on the Southern side of the Hermus. Nearly East of
it was Sardis, the capital of Lydia, and royal residence
of Cro2sust, the last and proverbially rich King of
Lydia, who was taken by Cyrus, B.C. 548, Ol. 58. 1.
Sardis was at the foot of Mount Tmolus, now Bour-
dag, or the cold mountain, and watered by the river
Pactolus, whose sands, like those of the Hermus, were
mingled with gold. It is one of the churches mentioned
in the Revelation of St. John, ch. iii. 1, and is now a
small village, called Sart. South of Sardis, near the

* Nee tantum Niobe bis sex ad busta superba
Solicito lachrymas depluit e Sipylo.

Profierf. II. 20. 7.

f Quid tibi visa Chios, Bullati, notaque Lesbos,
Quid concinna Samos ? quid Crcesi regia Sardis ?
Smyrna quid et Colophon ? majora minoranc fama ?

Hor. Efiist. I. 11 1.



149

confines of Caria, a little North-east of the Mseandrian
Magnesia, was Tralles, antiently a strong city but now
only a small place called Sultan-hisar. South-east of
Sardis, towards Phrygia, was Philadelphia, now Allah
Shehr, another of the Seven Churches, Rev. iii. 7,
which, together with Sardis and ten more of the princi-
pal cities of Asia, was overwhelmed by an earthquake,
in the reign of the Emperor Tiberius, A.D. 17. A
great tract of this and the adjoining country of Phrygia
was called Catakekaumene, or the burnt country, in con-
sequence of these frequent earthquakes and subterranean
fires.



Caria is separated from Lydia by the Mseander, and is
bounded on the West by the ^Egean, on the South by
the Mediterranean, and on the East by Phrygia and
Lycia. The inhabitants of Caria were proverbially con-
sidered as barbarous and despicable among the Greeks,
and the name of Carian was synonymous to that of
slave. The name of Ionia was continued to the North-
ern part of the coast of Caria, and here we find the city
of Miletus, once a great and flourishing state, which sent
out many colonies, and had a leading influence in the
Ionian affairs, but its actual site is now unknown, except
that it must be somewhat inland, the sands brought
down by the river Latmus having choked up its har-
bour. Thales, one of the wisest of the seven con-
temporary Grecian sages, was a native of this place,
as were also Anaximenes, Hecatseus, Timotheus, the
celebrated musician, and several other great men. This
was the last of the Ionian cities, but Grecian colo-
nies still occupied the Western coast. Below Miletus
was lassus, now Jlssam Kalasi, and in a peninsula.



150

formed by the lassian and Ceramic gulfs, was Myndus,
now Myndes, and opposite to it, on the Ceramic gulf,
was the celebrated city of Halicarnassus, now Sodron,
a Grecian colony, once the residence of the Kings of Ca-
ria. Here was the splendid tomb, built by Artemisia,
Queen of Caria, for her husband Mausolus, which was
one of the wonders of the antient world, and has given
to all magnificent sepulchres the name of mausoleums.
It was the birth-place of Herodotus the father of history,
of Dionysius Halicarnassenis, of Heraclitus, and many
other great men, and is memorable also for the long siege
it maintained against Alexander, under the skilful com-
mand of Memnon, the general of Darius. The penin-
sula between the Sinus Ceramicus (so called from the
city of Ceramus, or Keramo,) and Sinus Doridis, was
called Doris, being peopled by Dorian colonies. Here
was the city of Cnidos, sacred to Venus*, near a pro-
montory called Triopium, now Cape Crio. In the inte-
rior of Caria, Alabanda was a principal city, situated
near the Mseander. Towards the Southern coast was
Stratonicea, or Eski Shehr, so called from Stratonica,
the wife of Antiochus Soter; and on the confines of
Phrygia was Aphrodisias, now Gheira.

Lycia was bounded by Caria on the West, by Phrygia
on the North, by Pisidia and Pamphylia on the East,
and by the Mediterranean on the South, and indeed, in
great measure, on the West and East. At the head of
the Western gulf was Telmissus, now Maori, the inha-

* Qux Cnidon
Fulgentcsque tenet Cycladas et Paphon
Junctis visit oloribus. Nor. Od. III. 28. 13.



151

bitants of which were reputed skilful magicians; the
gulf has taken, both in antient and modern times, the
name of the city, but was also called Glaucus, from the
celebrated Lycian hero of that name in Homer. Mount
Cragus*, sacred to Diana, runs along this gulf: the
fabulous monster Chimera, said to have been subdued
by Bellerophon, was a volcano iu this ridge, which he
cultivated. South of it was the river and city of Xan-
thus, now Eksenide^, and a little below it Patara, now
Patera, remarkable for having been thought the resi-
dence of Apollo during one half the year J. East of Pa-
tara is Myra, now Cacamo, the ruins of which are mag-
nificent; East of which was the Lycian mountain and
city of Olympus, near the Promontorium Sacrum, and
the Chelidonia3 Insulae, now Cape Kelidoni; this is con-
sidered as the commencement of the great ridge of
Mount Taurus. Above it is Phaselis, now Fionda,
where is a passage along the sea, so contracted by a

* Vos Lxtam fluviis, et nemorum coma,
Quzecunque aut gelido prominet Algido,
Nigris aut Erymanthi
Sylvis aut viridis Cragi. Hor. Od. 12. 1. 5.

f Xanthus is memorable for the obstinacy of the defence which
its inhabitants made against Brutus, having set their city on fire,
and rushed into the flames with such resolution, that although he
offered a reward for every Xanthian that was brought to him alive,
he could save only 150, and those much against their will.

^ Hence Horace

Phoebe, qui Xantho lavis amne crines.

Hor. Od. IV. 6. 26.

Delius et Patareus Apollo. Hor. Od. III. 4. 64.

Qualis ubi hybernam Lyciam Xanthique mienta
Deserit, ac Delon maternam invisit Apollo.

Virg. JEn. IV. 143,






152

sleep ridge of Mount Taurus, called Climax, that the
army of Alexander, which passed it in the winter, were
in the utmost danger, being compelled to wade a whole
day up to their middles in water.

East of Lycia are Pamphylia and Pisidia, two coun-
tries whose respective limits we cannot ascertain, farther
than by observing that Pamphylia lay on the coast, and
Pisidia more inland. The first place of importance in
Pamphylia is Perga, its antient metropolis, now Kara-
hisar, or the black castle, a little inland, on the river
Oestrus. South-east of it was Aspendus, on the river
Eurymedon; South of Aspendus is Side, on the river
Melas, and still South-east is Coracesium, where Pompey
destroyed the formidable Isaurian and Cilician pirates,
B.C. 67. A.U.C. 687. Advancing inland, in the North-
western angle, which meets the confines of Lycia and
Phrygia, are the Solymi, against whom we are told in
Homer, Bellerophon was sent, with the hope of his be-
ing killed in a combat. Their city was Terniessus, in
the intermediate frontier of Pamphylia and Pisidia.
North-east of it, in the interior of Pisidia, was Cremna,
a strong Roman colony, now called Kebrinaz ; and
South-east of it was Selga, the greatest city of Pisidia,
of Lacedaemonian origin, and still called Isparte.

North-east of Pisidia was Isauria : the inhabitants were
a fierce and rapacious people, conquered by Publius Ser-
vilius, the Roman general, in the time of the Mithridatic
war, who thence obtained the surname of Isauricus.
Their capital was Isaura, on a lake, now called JBei-
sheheri. Below it, in the Eastern angle of Isauria, are
two cities, mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles, ch.



153

xiv., Lystra and Derbe, the latter derives its name from
the word Darb, a gate, and was perhaps one of the passes
of Mount Taurus, now called Jllahdag, or the pass of
the high mountains.

Cilicia is bounded by Pamphylia and Pisidia on the
West, by Cappadocia on the North, by Syria on the
East, and by the Mediterranean on the South. It was
divided into two parts: the Western, adjoining Pamphy-
lia and Pisidia, was extremely mountainous and rugged,
hence called Cilicia, Trachea, or the rugged Cilicia,
which was subsequently considered as a continuation of
Isauria; and Cilicia Campestris, or the level Cilicia. In
Cilicia Trachea, the first place East of Pamphylia, on the
coast, is Selimus, now Selena, where the Emperor Tra-
jan died, A.D. 117. South-east of it Anemurium, on a
promontory opposite Cyprus, is still called */2nemur, or
ftnemurieh. North-east of it is Seleucia (called Tra-


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