Samuel Butler.

Hudibras : in three parts, written in the time of the late wars: (Volume 1) online

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Jjarlington M.emorial Library



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in 2009 with funding from

University of Pittsburgh Library System

Samuel B y t le REfcf



Written in the Time of


Corrected and Amended.





Dl-nob ^kh'T^ — >

Adprn'd with a new Set of Cuts.
t " " . ■ ■ ■

. V O L. I. '


Printed by A. Reilly, on Cork-Hill i

For Robert Owen in SJdnner-row, and William
Brien in Dame-Jireet, Boglifellers.




THOUGH fomewhat has ali'eady been faid
in the way of Preface, by the writer of Mr^
Builer*s Life ; yet it may not be armfs, to give the
p.eader a fhort account of the purport and defign of
thefe Notes.

They are chiefly Hiflorical, and Explanatory, with
a fmall mixture of Critical ones by my Friends. The
Jafl: are defign'd to illuftrate fome few of the Poetical
JSeauties of Hudibras, and to prove, that it is at leaft
equal to the moft celebrated Poems in the EngUJh
Language: and it's conformity, in fome refpedls, to
Efic Poetry will be evinc'd, and comparisons here
and there drawn from Horner^ Virgil^ and Milton.

But thefe are fo few, that it is much to be lamented,
that the Poet has not yet met with an Addijon^ a Pri-
or, a Fo'pe^ or a Swift ^ to do him juftice in this re-

The Hiftorical and Explanatory Notes are intend-
ed to clear up the Hiftorical Parts of the Poem ;
which have in a great meafure been pafs'd over in the
former Annotations.

And the Reader 'tis hop'd, will better apprehend,
and relifli the Satire couch' d in this Poem, when he
is acquainted with the Perfons and Tranfa<5lions, at
which it is leveird«k

Though Hiidihras has pafs'd many Editions, the
Real Perfons, fhadow'd under borrow'd and fidlitious
Names, have never yet been difcover'd in any of
them : This has engaged the generality of Readers,
to think, that thofe Renown' d Champions, Crowdero
OrfiHy I'algol^ Magnano, Cerdon, Colon, and the Brave
A 2 Heroine



Heroine Trulla^ were only Imaginary Perfons •, from
whei|te many have concluded thefe Adventures to be
Romantic and Fabulous^ inftead of True Hiftory :
But in the courfe of thefe Notes, I fhall endeavour
to obviate that Error ; and hope to prove that the
grearefl part of the Poem contains a Series of Adven-
tures that did really happen : all the real Perfons fha-
dow'd under fiftitious Charaflers will be brought to
view from Sir Roger U Eft range ^ who being perfo-
naily acquainted with the Poet^ undoubtedly received
the Secret frorr^him.

Under the Perfon, whom he calls Hudibras, whom
he makes the Plero of this Poem, the Author gives
us the true Chara6ler of a Prejbyterian Committee-man
and Jtiftice of the Peace^ who notwithftanding they
themfelves were guilty of all forts of Wickednefs, yet
pretended to be io fcrupulous, that they could not in
Confcience permit the Country People to ufe the Di-
verfions they were fometimesaccuftom'd to, of Dance-
ing round a May-pole, Bear-baitings, Riding the Skim-
mington, and the like.

The Charadler therefore of the Knight might fuit
many of thofe bufy, meddling, pragmatical Fellows,
who were put into Committees then fet up in every
County, and the Ccmmijfwns of the Peace, that they
might opprefs all fuch as were believed to be Friends
to the King, and the Ancient Government in Church
and State -, and who a6ted like fomany pettyTyrants in
all Parts of the Nation: However, we can hardly doubt,
but the Author had one particular Perfon in view,
whofe Adventures he gives us under the Name of
Hudibras, who aftually endeavour' d to fupprefs a
Bear-baiting, and fet a Fidler in the Stocks, and was
on that cccafion vilified, and abus'd by the Mob. It
has been fuggefted by a reverend and learned Perfon,
to whom I fhall acknowledge my obligations, before
I finifh this Preface ; That notwithftanding Sir Sa-
muel Luke of Wood- End in the Pariili of Cople, in
Bedfordjhire, has generally been reputed the Hero of



this Poem i yet from the Circumftances of his being com-
pared to Sir Samuel Luke, Part i . Canto i . line. 906, "^r.
it is fcarce probable, that he was intended, it beif^ an
uncommon thing to compare a Perfon to himfelf : that
tlie Scene of Action was in Wefiern Clime ; whereas
Bedfor^Jhire is North of London ; and that he was cre-
dibly inform'd by a Bencher of Grays-Inn, who had
it from an Acquaintance of Mr. Butler''s, that the
Perfon intended, was Sir Henry Rofewell of Ford- Ab-
bey in Devonjloire. Thefe indeed would be probable
Reafons, to deprive Bedforjhire of its Hero, did not
Mr. Butler m his Memoirs of 1649. give the fame De-
fcription of Samuel Luke ; and in his Dunjiable Downs
exprefly ftyle Sir Samuel Luke, Sir Hudibras. And
from the fliam Second Part, publifli'd 1663. it ap-
pears, that the Bear-baiting was at Brentford, which
is IVeJi of London, and this might induce him to fay.
Part I. Canto i. v. 6yy.

In Weftern Clime there is a Town, &c.
The defign of the Author in writing this Poem,
was to expofe the Hypocrify and Wickednefs of thofe,
who began and carried on the Rebellion, under a Pre-
tence of promoting Religion and Godhnefs; at the
fame time that they ad^ed againft all the precepts of
Religion. But in order to underftand the feveral
Difputes between the Knight and Squire, it may be
proper to give an abftrad of their Forms of Church
Government and Worfliip, which may be a Clue to
guide us through feveral parts of the Poem, which to
the generahty of Readers may be thought not a little
intricate. And firft, to give fome account of the
Preft/yterian Scheme of Church Government, as they
endeavoured to have it fet up here : and likewife of
the Independent Scheme, (whom the Anabaptijls alio,
fuch as Ralph was, agreed with in this Point, though
they differ'd about Infant Baptifm, who were alfo
for a fort of Church Government, but very different .
from That of the Prejhyterians.) I think This the
more neceffary, becaufe little of it is to be found in
our Hiftoriejs of thofe Times: and without Ibmc
A 3 knowledge


knowledge of their feveral Schemes, many things^,
parti^larly the Rubs the Squire gives the Knight in
this roem, and the Difputes between them, are not
to be underflood.

According to the Prejbyterian Scheme, every Pa-
rifh was to have a F aft or or Minifter^ and* Two
Ruling Elders, who were Lay-Men, to be chofen by
the Parifhioners, and one or more Deacons to be chofen
in the fame manner, who were to receive the Alms
coUefted at the Church Doors, and to diftribute them
ais directed by the Minifter, and Ruling Elders : and
they had a Scribe to regifter what they did. It was
a {landing Maxim, That in all cafes, there fhould be
Two Ruling Elders to One Minifter, and thefe go-
verned by the whole Parifh in Matters relating to
Church Difcipline. And if the Parifh was frhall, as
fome Country Parifhes are, and had not Two Perfons
in it fit to be Ruling Elders, it was immediately to
be under the Government of the Claffis. The Claffis
confil^'ed of a Number of Parifhes to be united for
that purpofe; the Minifters and Elders fo united,
being the Ecclefiaftical Governours of all within that
Precindl, having the fame Power thus met in a Claffis,
over all Perfons within that Precinft, that each Mi-
Tiifter, and his Elders, had over the feveral Parifhes :
Then there was a Provincial Synod, or an AfTembly
of all the Clajfes in a whole Country ; to which Synod
each Claffis fent Two Minifters, and Four Ruling
Elders : and above thefe, there was to be a National
Synod, to which the Provincial Synods were to fend
their Deputies •, amongft which there were always to
be Two Ruling Elders to One Minifter : but what
number every Province was to fend to this National
Synod is not fetdownin any Ordinance, I have yet fecn.
The Congregational, or Parochial Elderftjip or Aft-
femhly, were to meet once a Week, or oftner, and
were empower'd by an Ordinance of the Two Houfes,
dated Die Luna lo 05iober, 1645. ^° examine any
Perfon complain'd of, for any Matter of Scandal re-
cited in that Ordinance^ fuch as Adultery^ Fornication,



nefs. Cuffing,, Swearings Gaming on the Lord's Day,
or travelling on that Day without juft occafion ; with
a multitude of other Matters, filling up one page of
a book clofe printed in 4". " This Elderjhip (hys the
" Ordinance) fhall examine upon Oath fuch WitnelTes,
*' as Ihall be produced before them, either for acquit-
" ting or condemning the Party fo accufed, of any
" of the Scandalous Crimes aforefaid, not Capital,
" upon the Teftimony of two credible Witnefles at
" leaft: and if they are prov'd Guilty of the Crimes
" they are charged with, then is the Elderjhip to
" fufpend them from the Lord's Supper, and Satif-
*' fadion fhall be given to the Elderjhip of every
" Congregation by a fufficient Manifeftation of the
" Offender's Repentance, before a Perfon lawfully
*' convi<9:ed of fuch Matters of Scandal, as aforefaid,
" and thereupon fufpended from the Sacrament of
" the Lord's Supper, be admitted thereto. If any
*' Man fufpended from the Lord's Supper Ihall find
" himfelf griev'd by the Elderfhip of any Congre-
" gation, he Ihall have liberty to appeal to the Claf-
" Jical Elderjhip, and from thence to the Provincial
*' Ajjembly, from thence to the National^ and from
" thence to the Parliament. The Clajfical Elderjhip
*' was appointed to meet once a Month, x\\t Provincial
" AJJemhly twice in a Year, and the National AJ-
" Jemhly, when the Parliament pleafed to call them.
*' Thus the Parliament kept the Prejhyterians here,
" under their own Rule ; but in Scotland, the Nati-
" onal AJJemhly would acknowledge no Superior, in
" what they thought fit to call 6'^/nVz/^/j."

The Independents were fo called, becaufe they main-
tain'd, that every Congregation was a compleat
Church within itfelf, and ought to have no Depen-
dency as to Matters relating to Religion, or any other
Affembly, Clajfical, Provincial, or National, nor on
any Civil Magiftrate. They chofe their own Mi-
nifler, and That choice gave him" fufRcient Authority
to preach without any Ordination : whereas, the Prej-


hyterians required, that every Minifter fhould be Or-
dain'd by laying on the Hands of the Presbytery,
The Independents alfo allow' d any Gifted Brother,
that is, any one who thought himfelf qualified, to
preach and pray in their AfTemblies himfelf : and
though Independent Teachers got Parifli Churches, and
Good Livings as well as the Presbyterians^ preached in
them, and receiv'd the Profits of them j yetall their Pa-
rifhioners were not properly their Congregation: they
were their Hearers indeed, that is, fuch as might hear
them preach, but not fuch unto whom they would ad-
minifter Sacraments : They had a fele6t Company for
that purpofe out of feveral Parifhes, who enter'da Co-
venant with Him they chofe for their Minifter, and
with one another, to walk by fuch Rules as they
thought proper to agree upon, and to appoint El-
ders, who together with their Minijiers were to have
a fort of Rule over the Congregation : I fay, a Sort
of Rule, becaufe I think, there lay an Appeal to
the whole Congregation. In this Covenant the
Rulers promifed in the prefence of Chrift, to rule
faithfully, dihgently, and couragioufly in the Faith,
and in the Fear of God, ^c. and the Ruled promifed
to obey their Rulers, and fubmit to them according
to the Word of God. Thefe Covenants have dif-
ferent Terms in diffetent Congregations, for, as they
are all Independent one from an other, no Congregati-
on can impofe a Form upon an other. There is a
long Covenant of this kind which was entered
into by the Congregation of Mr. Richard Davis
of Rothwell in Northamptonjhire, printed in the"
year 1700. And Mr. Daniel Williams, a famous
independent Minifter (who as the News Paper
faid, died worth Fifty Thoufand Pounds) in a Letter
which he wrote to a rich Widow who had left his
Congregation, puts her in mind oi the Covenant
fhe entered into, faying, " Did not you before God
*' and his Angels, renew your Baptifmal Covenant
" and accept Me as your Pafior-, and folemnly en-




" gage to walk in Subjc6tion to Chrift's Appoint-
" ment ? If you have forgotten it, yet know it is
*' recorded on High, and not forgotten by God.
" And how often have you witneffed it at the Table
'■• of the Lord ! Does not Chrifi who appointed a fpecial
" Relation between People and their Pafiors^ ac-
*' count you to be related to me as your Paftor ;
" and does he not therefore command you to obey
*' me, as having the Rule over you •, and to fubmit
" your felf to me according to His Word?" There
is a great deal more to the fame purpofe. This Let-
ter with Remarks upon it by M.r. Dorrington, was
printed for Henry Clements, 1710. Thus the Inde-
pendent Minifters, though they plead flrenuoufly for
Liberty of Confcience, yet take care to hamper the
Confciences of all that joyn with them, by impofing
upon them a Covenant of Their own contriving.
And that fuch a Covenant was ufed by the Indepcyi-
dents when they firft began to Ihew themfelves, in
the Times of which Mr. Butler writes, we learn
from a fmall Pamphlet printed in the year 164.7.
the Title of which is, JVhat the Independents would
have: written hy John Cooke oi Gray'' s Inn, Barrijier,
which I take to have been John Cooke, who was 2^-
terwzrd the Regicide. There he fays, p. 4. concerning an
Independent, " He thinks no Man will be Godly,
" unlefs he promifes to be fo, therefore wonders,
'* that any Chrifiian fhould fpeak againft a Church
" Covenant, which is no more, than to promife to
*^ do that by God's Affiftance, which the^Gofpel re-
" quires of Him.** This is a full Proof that the
Independents at that time, ufed what they called, A
Church Covenant, as well as they have done it fince,
and I fuppofe continue to do fo ftill. They admit
all Perfons to be their Hearers, but account none to be
properly of their Church or Congregation, how con-
ftantly foever they attend their Prayers or Sermons,
and contribute to the Maintenance of their Minifters,
except they alfo fign that Covenant.



The Presbyterians difliked this way of Covenant-
ing, ufed by the Independents, and their calling every
Congregation a Church, without dependency upon
any other? and alfothat theyalJow'd men to perform
all Spiritual Funftions, upon the Choice of the Peo-
ple only, without Impofition of the Hands of the
Presbytery: forgetting that the Founders of their own
Religion, Calvin, Beza, and others, had no other Or-
dination than what the Independent Minijlers had.
Thefe Differences continued between them, and they
treated each other as Schifmaticks, not only during
the Rebellion, (fee Note upon Part 3. Canto 2. v.
771, 772.) but alfo after the Reftoration of King
Charles the Second, and during the Reign of King
James the Second, even till a year after the Revolution,
and then they united together. Of which Union,
Mr. ^ick, a Presbyterian Minijler, in his Synodicon
in Gallia Reformat a ; vol. 2. pag. 467. gives the
following account,

'*^ After a moft lamentable Schifm of above forty
** years continuance, it pleafed God at laft to touch
^* the Hearts of the Godly Minijlers of the Presbyte-
" rian, and Independent Perfuafion, with a deep
" Senfe of this Great Evil, in feparating fo long the
*' one from the other. Whereupon feveral Pious
" and Learned Pafiors in the City of London, of
*' Both "Ways, met together diverfe times, and con-
" ferred each v/ith other, about healing this Breach; and
" having frequent Confultations about it, and poured
«' out many mighty and ferventPrayers unto the God of
" Grace and Peace to affift them in it ; upon Friday
" the Sixth day oi March, 1690, according to our
" Computation, moft of the Dijfenting Nonconfor-
" mift Minijlers in the City, and many others from
" the adjacent Parts of it, met together, and there
*' was read to them the Heads of Agreement prepared
" by the Committee : and which had been feen and
" perufcd by many of them before : and their Af-
" ientunto them being demanded, it was readily ac-

*' corded.


" corded, and afterwards hear a hundred gave in
" their Names unto this Union. This Example
" was taking, and leading to all the Nonconforming
" Minifters of England^ who, in many of their re-
" fpeftive Counties, had their Meetings to compofe
" this Difference, and by the Bleffing of God upon
" thofe theirEndeavours, it was alfo upon the fight and
" confideration of the printed Heads of Agreement,
" among the United Miniilers of London, effefted :
*' whereof notice was fent up to the Brethren here
" in London. When the London Minifters firlt fign-
" ed this Union, they unanimoufly agreed to bury
" in the Grave of Oblivion, the Two Names of
" Diftinftion, Presbyterian and Independent, and to
" communicate thefe Articles of Union, unto all
" Members in Communion with them, in their par
" ticular Churches the Lord's Day com.e fevennight
" after ; and that they would at the next Meeting
" acquaint the United Brethren, what entertain-
" mcnt and acceptance the reading of it had in their
" Aflemblies-, which was done accordingly, and to
" general Satisfaction." After this he gives the
Heads of their Agreement, which thofe that arc
curious to know may confult the Book. It was
faid then, and I think it appears from the Heads of
their Agreement, that the Presbyterians yielded to
the Independents in almoft every Point, about which
they had fo long contended with them. So that
thefe United Brethren, as after this Union they ftyled
themfelves, might all properly enough be called In-
dependents. However the Names are now promif-
cuoufly ufed by others, and they are called indiffe-
rently by either of thofe names. For though many
of them are now ordain' d after the Presbyterian way,
by impofition of the Plands of the Presbytery ; yet if
they are not fo ordain'd, but only chofen, and ap-
pointed to officiate by their Congregation, they are
by this Agreem.ent fufficiently qualified to officiate
AS Minifters in their Congregations : the Independents



having always efteemed fuch Ordinations indifferent;
which they might ufe, or let alone as they pleafed.

As to their Worfhip, contain 'd in the * Dire^ory,
while the Presbyterians had the Afcendent in the Par-

' This Dire6tory contains no Form of Pray'er, or oi Adminiflra-
tion of Sacraments : but only gives feme general Rules for the Di-
re<;:Hon of Minijlen, and People, how to behave in Church. As,
That the People fhall be grave and ferious, attentive to the Duty
they are about : That the Minifter Ihall begin with prayer. That
then he fhall read a Pfalm, or a Chapter or two out of the Old or
Ne'-M Tcftament, and may expound them if he pleafes : Then a
Pjalm is to be fung, after which the Minifter is to pray again, then
to preach a Sermon, and to conclude with another Prayer. Baptifm
in Private Places is forbiuden, and ordered to be done only in the
Place of Pubiick Worlhip. There are Dircftions for Minifters to
jnflrudl the Congregation in the Nature and Defign of Baptifm, and
to pray on the Occafion, but in what Words or Form he pleafes.
Then he is to demand the Name of the Child, and to baptize it in
the Form of Words prefcribed in the Gofpel. When the Sacrament
of the Lord's Supper is to be adminiftred, the Minifter when his
Sermon is ended, fhall make a fhort Exhortation : The Table is to
be placed, v/here the Communicants may moft conveniently fit about
it, and is to be decently cover'd. The Minifter is to begin the Ac-
tion with laniSlifying and bleffing the Elements of Bread and Wine,
fe:: before him. Then the Words of Inftitution are to be read out
of the Evavgelifts, or PauPs Firft Epiftle to the Corinthians : Then
the Minifter is to take the Bread into his Hand, and to fay thus,
or fomething like it; I take this Bread and break it, and gin) e it
unto'ou Take ye. Eat ^s, this is the Bod^ of Chrijl : do this in re-
membrance of Him. In like manner he is to take the Cup, and to
fay theff, or the like words ; Acording to the Inftitution of our Lord
jtfus Chrijl, I take this Cup, and give it unto you ; This Cup is the
Ne'-M Teflament in the Blood of Chriji, 'which is Jl^ed for the Remijpon
of the Si?/s of many ; Drink ye all of it. He is alfo order'd to com-
ini.micate himfeif; but it is not faid, before he gives it to them, or
after. He is ordered to fay thefe words to the Communicants in
general. Take ye. Eat ye : fo he fays them but once, and gives the
Bread, and alfo the Cup afterwards to him that is next him ; and
fo they are handed round the Table from one to another. Then he
is to put them in mind of the Grace of God in the Sacrament, and
to conclude with a Thankfgiving.

When Perfons are to be married, the Minifter is firft to pray,
then todeckre the Inftitution, Ufe, and Ends of Matrimony, with
the Conjugal Duties. Then the Man is to take the Woman by the
Eight-hand, faying, /. A", take thee N. to be my 7tiar}ied Wife, and
di in theprejence of God, and before this Congregation, promife, and



liament-Houfes, the Lords and Commons made an
Ordinance^ dated Die Veneris 3 .Januarii^ 1 644. Fcr
the taking away the Book of Common- Prayer^ for e-
ftablifljing^ and putting in Execution of the Dire^ory
for the Puhlick JVorfhip of God.

The Dire Story was drawn up by the Affemhly of
Divines^ which was called by the Parliament, to aflift
and ad vile them in the Reformation of Religion in
the year 1643. and continued to fit fo long as the
Presbyterians Power ^YtY2i\Vd. TKis j^Jfembly of Di-
vines, as it was called, con filled of ^ Ten Peers,

covenant to be a loving and Faithful Husband unto thee, until God
Jballfeparate us by Death. Then the Woman takes the Man by the
Right hand, and lays, /. N. take thee N. to be my married Husband,
and I do in the prefence of God, and before this Congregation, promife,
and co'venant to be a lo'ving, faithful, and obedient i^ife unto ihest
until God /hall feparate us by Death. Then, without any further
Ceremony, the Minifter pronounces them to be Man and Wife, and
concludes with a Prayer. When he vifits the Sick, he is to advife,
diredl and pray with him ; The Dead fliall be decently attended
from the Houfe to the Place appointed for Publick Burial, and
then immediately interr'd, without any Ceremony ; praying, read-
ing and finging both in going to and at the Grave Ihall be laid
-afide. In all thefe Diredions for Prayer, the Minifter is to make
his own Prayers ; there is no Form appointed : That would be to
ftint the Spirit.

The Lord's Prayer is once j aft mentioned, and 'tis acknowledged
That it may lawfully be ufed as a Prayer, as well as a Pattern of
Prayer, but there is no Order for the ufe of it on any Occafion ; it
is barely recommended to be ufed if the Minifter thinks fit. and juil:
when hepleafes. My Lord C//a;-(?«i^o« tells us, vol. i. folio edit.
That it was mov'd, that the Creed, and Ten Commandments fliould
be mentioned in this DireBory ; but being put to the Vote, they
were rejected. It was juftly obferved long ago, that this Direflory
is a Rule without Reftraint ; an InjunBion leaving an IndifFerency,
to aPoftibility of Licentioufnefs; an Office without dirediing to any
external Aft of Worlhip, not prefcribing fo much as Kneeling oc
Stafiding, which but once names Ee-verence, but enjoyns it in no
Particular; an Office that complys with no Precedent of Scripture,
nor of any Ancient Church. This DifcBory, not being coromonly
to be met with, this large account is given of it, that the Reader
may fee, what the PrcsbytcridJis would hare impoled, in the room
of the CovunQn Prayer.



Twenty Members of the Houfe of Commons,
about Twenty Epifcopal Divines, and an Hun-
dred Perfons more, moft of which were Frejby-
terians^ a few Independents \ and fome to rcpre-
fent die Kirk of Scotland who were very zealous
Prejbyterians : Few of the Epifcopal Party, tho' fum-
mon'd with the reft, ever fate with them, and thofe
few that did, foon left them. My Lord Clarendon,
(Y. I. pag. 530.) fays. That except thefe few Epif-
copal Divines, " the reft were all declared Enemies
" to the Doftrine and Difcipline of the Church of

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