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Bi lijr T L E



H U D I B R A S,

BY

SAMUEL BUTLEE;



WITH VARIORUM NOTES, SELECTED PRINCIPALLY
FROM GREY AND NASH.

EDITEU BY

HENRY G. BOHN.
VOL. I.

WITH SIXTY TWO ADDITIONAL PORTRAITS.




LONDON :
HENRY G. BOIIX, YORK STRKET, COVENT GARDEN.

1859.



JOHN I nil US ANIi SON, riilNTERf!.



URL

- Fk
5333

PREFACE. ^''



The edition of Hudibras now submitted to the pub-
jlic is intended to be more complete, though in a smaller
1 compass, than any of its numerous predecessors. The
text is that of Nash, usually accepted as the best ; but
in many instances — as in the very first line — the au-
thor's original readings have been preferred. In all
cases the variations are shown in the foot notes, so that
the reader may take his choice.

The main feature, however, of the present edition is
its notes ; these have been selected with considerable
diligence and attention from every known source, and
it is believed that no part of the text is left vinexplained
which was ever explained before. Gn't/ has been the
great storehouse of information, and next in degree
iV?/.s7/, but both have required careful sifting. Other
editions, numerous as they are, — including Aikin^s, the
Aldine, and Gilfillan's, — have yielded nothing. Mr
Bell's, which is by far the best, is edited on the same
principle as the present, and had that gentleman re-
tained the numbering of the lines, and given an Index,
there would have been little left for any successor to
improve.

A few of the notes in the present selection are, to a
certain extent, original, arising from some historical and
bibliographical knowledge of the times, or derived



VI PREFACE.

from a manuscript key, annexed to a copy of the first
edition, and attributed to Butler himself.

The Biographical Sketch of our poet is a mere rifaci-
mento of old materials, for nothing new is now to be dis-
covered about him. Diligent researches have been
made in the parish where he lived and died — Covent
Garden — without eliciting any new fact, excepting that
the monument erected to his memory has been de-
stroyed.

This volume has been more than two years at pr- j
having dribbled through the editor's hands, not dui
his leisure hours or intervals of business, for he ne j
had any, but by forced snatches from his legitiraa
pursuits. An old affection for Hudibras, acquired nearl_
half a century ago, at a time when its piquant couple^
were still familiarly quoted, had long impressed hii
with the desire to publish a realh^ popular edition ;

Et Ton revient toujours
A ses premieres amours ;

the public therefore now have the result.

It has happened, from the want of consecutive at
tention, that two or three notes are all but duplicate
such as that on Wicked Bihlesi at pages 326 and -371
Mum and Mummery, 385 and 406 ; and, He that Jighft
and runs away, at pages 403 and 106. But the pub-
lisher hopes that his readers will not quarrel with him
for giving too much rather than too little.



Henry G. Bohn.



York Sfrerf, Coi^rnf Garden,
April 2Sf/i, 1859.



LIST OF THE WOOD CUTS

IN BUTLER'S HUDIBRAS.



DESIGNED BY THURSTON.

VIGNETTE ON FEINTED TITLE, CDgraved by Sughes.

Then did Sir Knight abandon dwelling,
And out he rode a colonelling. —
A Squire he had, whose name was Ralph,
That in th' adventure went his half. 1. 13, 14, 4o7-f^.

ENaR.A^VED TITLE. HEAD OF nUDiBEAS. Thompson.

Thus was he gifted and accouter'd, — ■
His tawny beard was th' equal grace
Both of his wisdom and his face ;
In cut and dye so like a tile,
A sudden view it would beguile. 1. 237 — 244.

HEAD PIECE, PAET I. CANTO I. White.

When Gospel-Trumpeter, surrounded
With long-ear' d rout, to battle sounded,
And pulpit, drum ccclesiastick,
Was beat with fist, instead of a stick. 1. 9 — 12.

T.VIL PIECE, PAET I. CANTO I.

he always chose

To carry vittle in his hose.

That often tempted rats and mice

The ammunition to surprise. 1. 318 — 321.

HEAD PIECE, PAET I. CANTO II. Thompson.

And wing'd with speed and fury, flew
To rescue Knight from black and blue.
Which ere he could achieve, his sconce
The leg encounter' d twice and once ;
And now 'twas rais'd, to smite agen,
When Ralpho thrust himself between. 1. 941—946



Vlll



EMBELLISHMENTS,

engraved by Sranston.



TAIL PIECE, PART I. CANTO II.

Crowdero making doleful face,
Like hermit poor in pensive place,
To dungeon they the wretch commit,
And the survivor of his feet.

HEAD PIECE, PAET I. CANTO III.

When setting ope the postern gate,
To take the field and sally at,
The foe appear' d, drawn up and drill'd,
Eeady to charge them in the field.



TAIL PIECE, PART I.



CANTO III.

-in a cool shade.



Which eglantine and roses made ;
Close by a softly murm'ring stream.
Where lovers us'd to loll and dream :
There leaving him to his repose.



HEAD PIECE, PART II.



CANTO I.

she went



To find the Knight in limbo pent.
And 'twas not long before she found
Him, and his stout Squire, in the pjund.

TAIL PIECE, PART II. CANTO I.

a tall long-sided dame, —

But wond'rous light — yclcped Fume, —

Upon her shoulders wings she wears

Like hanging sleeves, lin'd thro' w^th cars.

HEAD PIECE, PART II. CANTO IT.

With that he seiz'd upon his i lads ;
And Ralpho too, as quick and bold,
Upon his basket-hilt laid hold.



1. 1167—1170.



Sranston.



1. 443—446.



1. 159—163.
Tiiompsoti .

1. 99—102.
Branston.

1. 4.5—50.
Branston.

1. 563 -562.
Thompson.



TAIL PIECE, PART IT. CANTO IT.

quitting both their swords and reins.

They grasp'd with all tlieir strength the manes ;

And, to avoid the foe's pursuit,

With spurring put their cattle to't. 1. 839



-842.



EMBELLISHMENTS.



UEAD PIECE, PAET II. CANTO III., engraved by Brans/on.

Hudibras, to all appearing,

Believ'd him to be dead as herring.
He held it now no longer safe
To tarry the return of llalph,
But rather leave him in the lurch.



TAIL PIECE, PART II. CANTO III.

This Sidrophel by chance espy'd,
And with amazement staring wide :
Bless us, quoth he, what dreadful wonder
Is that appears in heaven yonder .'

HEAD PIECE TO THE EPISTLE TO SIDROPHEL.

Sidrophel perusing Iludibras' Epistle.

TAIL PIECE TO THE EPISTLE TO SIDEOPHEL.

Gimcracks, whims, and jiggumbobs.

HEAD PIECE, PART III. CANTO I.

He wonder'd how she came to know
What he had done, and meant to do ;
Held up his affidavit hand,
As if he 'ad been to be arraign'd.



1. 1147—1151.
White.



1. 423—426.



Byfield.



ByJiM.



Tliompson.



1. 483—486.



TAIL PIECE, PART III. CANTO I. Branston.

H' attack' d the window, storm'd the glass,

And in a moment gain'd the pass;

Thro' which he dragg'd the worsted soldier's

Four -quarters out by th' head and shoulders. 1. 1577 — 1580.

HEAD PIECE, PAET III. CANTO II. TJwmpson.

Knights, citizens, and burgesses —
Held forth by rumps — of pigs and geese. — •
Each bonfire is a funeral pile,
In which they roast, and scorch, and broil. 1. 1515 — 1520.

TAIL PIECE, PART III. CANTO II. Thompsun.

crowded on with so much haste.

Until they 'd block'd the passage fast,

And barricado'd it with haunches

Of outward men, and bulks and paunches. 1. 1669 — 1672



EMBELLISUMEXTS.



HEAD PIECE, PART III. CANTO III., engravfd by Hughes.

To this brave man the Knight repairs

For counsel in his law-affairs, —

To whom the Knight, with comely grace.

Put off his hat to put his case. 1. 621—628.

TAIL PIECE, PART III. CANTO III, Bxjfield.

With books and money plac'd for show,

Like nest-eggs to make clients lay. 1. 624, 625.

HEAD PIECE TO THE EPISTLE TO THE LADY. Byfield.

having pump'd up all his wit,

And humm'd upon it, thus he writ. 1. 787. 788.

TAIL PIECE TO THE EPISTLE TO THE LADY. Byfield.

What tender sigh, and trickling tear.
Longs for a thousand pounds a year ;
And languishing transports are fond
Of statute, mortgage, bill, and bond. 1. 85—88.

HEAD PIECE TO THE LADii's ANSWER. Thompson.

She cpen'd it, and read it out,

With many a smile and leering flout. 1. 357, 358.

TAIL PIECE TO THE LADl's ANSWER. Bran^ton.

We make the man of war strike sail.

And to our braver conduct veil,

And, when he 's chas'd his enemies,

Submit to us upon his knees. 1. 311 — 314.

ViaNETTE AT PAGE XXIV. Thompson.

The dogs beat you at Brentford Fair ;

Where sturdy butchers broke your noddle, Part IL c. iii.

And handled you like a fop-doodle. 1. 996—998.

VIGNETTB AT PAGE 473.

-the foe beat up his quarters,



And storm'd the outworks of his fortress ; —

Soon as they had him at their mercy. Part III. c. i.

They put him to the cudgel fiercely. 1. 1135-36. 1147-48.



ADDITIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS

TO BUTLER'S HUDIBKAS.



PORTRAITS OF CELEBRATED CHARACTERS, IMPOSTORS,
AND ENTHUSIASTS.



1 Samuel Butler










To face


Tille


2 Butler's Tenement


Toy


ace Life,


p. i


3 Portrait of Charles the Second






p. vi


4 Butler's Monument in Westminster Abbey


P


. xiv


PART


CANTO


LINE


PAGR


5 Montaigne .... I.


I.


38


5


G Tycho Brake






I.


I.


120


s


7 Oliver Cromwell






III.


II.


216


19


8 Cornelius Agrippa






II.


III.


635


25


9 Robert Fludd .






I.


I.


541


26


10 George Withers






I.


I.


646


30


11 Richard Cromwell






III.


II.


231


40


12 Alexander Ross






I.


II.


2


42


13 Vincent le Blanc






I.


II.


282


53


14 Mall Cutpurse .






I.


II.


368


56


15 Sir William Davena


ST




I.


II.


395


58


16 Sir William Waller






1.


11.


499


62


17 Thomas Case






I.


II.


581


65


18 Adoniram Byfield






III.


II.


640


66


19 William Prynne






I.


I.


646


91


20 Henry Burton .






. I.


III.


1122


122


21 Pope Joan .






I.


III.


1250


128


22 Bishop Warburton






I.


III.


1358


132


23 Albertus Magnus






II.


I.


438


152


24 Roger Bacon






II.


III.


224


155


25 Charles the First






II.


II.


160


160


26 Sir Kenelm Digby






I.


II.


227


162


27 Thomas White .






II.


II.


14


172


28 Baptist Van Helmont




II.


II.


14


172


29 Robert, Earl of Essex




II.


II.


166


179


30 Bishop Bonner .






II.


II.


510


193



ADDITIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS.



31 Dr Thomas Goodwin

32 The Witch-Finder Hopkin

33 IVL-VRTIN LtJTHER

34 Dr John Dee .

35 Edward Kelly .

36 Paracelsus.

37 St Dunstan

38 Jacob Behmen .

39 Nicholas Copernicus

40 Jerome Cardan .

41 scaliger

42 John Booker

43 Napier of Merchistox

44 William Lilly .

45 NiccoLO Machiayelli

46 John of Leyden

47 General Fleetwood .

48 General Desborough

49 General Lambert

50 Earl op Shaftesbury

51 John Lilburn .

52 Ignatius Loyola

53 Edmund Calamy

54 Dr John Owen .

55 William Lenthall

56 Sir Thomas Lunsford

57 Sir Thomas Fairfax .

58 Alexander Henderson'

59 Colonel Hewson

60 Christopher Love

61 John Cooke

62 Athanasius Kircher

63 Joan of Arc



PART


CANTO


LINE


PAGK


11.


IL


669


199


II.


III.


140


215


IL


III.


155


216


II.


III.


235


220


II.


IIL


237


227


II.


III.


299


224


II.


III.


618


236


I.


I.


542


238


II.


III.


882


249


II.


III.


895


250


II.


III.


881


250


IL


III.


173


257


III.


II.


409


258


IL


III.


1093


282


III.


I.


1313


314


III.


II.


246


336


III.


II.


270


337


III.


IL


270


338


III.


IL


270


338


III.


IL


351


342


III.


II.


421


344


III.


II.


1564


351


III.


II.


636


353


III.


II.


638


354


III.


II.


909


364


III.


II.


1112


372


III.


II.


1200


375


IIL


IL


1239


377


III.


II.


1250


377


III.


II.


1263


378


. IIL


II.


1550


387


III.


IL


1585


388


Lady's Answer.


285


448




LRoss deJinT-G.P.'Waiirwrxgln sciilpr






THE LIFE



SAMUEL BUTLER



The life of a retired scholar can furnish but little matter to
the biographer : such was the character of Mr Samuel But-
ler, author of Hudibi'as. His father, whose name was like-
wise Samuel, had an estate of his own of about ten pounds
yearly, which still goes by the name of Butler's tenement ;
he likewise rented lands at three hundred pounds a year
under Sir AVilliam Eussel, lord of the manor of Strensham,
in Worcestershire. He was a respectable farmer, wrote a
clerk-like hand, kept the register, and managed all the busi-
ness of the parish. From his landlord, near whose house he
lived, the poet imbibed principles of loyalty, as Sir William
was a most zealous royalist, and spent great part of his for-
tune in the cause, being the only person exempted from the
benefit of the treaty, when Worcester surrendered to the
parliament in the year 1G4G. Our poet's father was elected
churchwarden of the parish the year before his son Samuel
was born, and has entered his baptism, dated February 8th,
1612, with his own hand, in the parish register. He had four
sons and three daughters, born at Strensham ; the three
daughters and one son older than our poet, and two sons
younger : none of his descendants, however, remain in the pa-
rish, though some are said to be in the neighboui'ing villages.
Oiu- author received his first rudiments of learning at
home ; but was afterwards sent to the college school at
A\''orcester, then taught by Mr Henry Bright,* prebendary

* Jlr Bri^rht is buried in the cathedral church of Worcester, near tlio
north pillar, at the foot of the steps which lead to the choir. lie was born

b



U LIFE OF SAMUEL BTJTLER,

of that cathedral, a celebrated scholar, and many years mas-
ter of the King's school there ; one who made his profession
liis delight, and, though in very easy circumstances, con-
tinued to teach for the sake of doing good.

How long Mr Butler continued under his care is not
known, but, probably, till he was fourteen years old. There
can be little doubt that his progress was rapid, for Aubrey
tells us that " when but a boy he would make observations
and reflections on everything one said or did, and censure it
to be either well or ill ; " and we are also informed in the
Biography of 1710 (the basis of all information about him),
that he " became an excellent scholar." Amongst his school-
fellows was Thomas Hall, well known as a controversial
writer on the Pm-itan side, and master of the free-school at
King's Norton, where he died ; John Toy, afterwards an
author, and master of the school at Worcester ; AVilliam
Rowland, who turned Romanist, and, having some talent for
rhyming satire, wrote lamj)oons at Paris, under the title of
Eolandus Falingenius ; and Warmestry, afterwards Dean of
Worcester.

1562, appointed schoolmaster 1586, made prebendary 1619, died 1626.
The inscription in capitals, on a mural stone, now placed in what is called
the Bishop's Chapel, is as follows :

Mane hospes et lege,

Magister HENEICUS BRIGHT,

Celeberrimus gymnasiarcha,

Qui scholse regioe istic fundatix; per totos 40 annos

summa cum laude prstfuit.

Quo non alter niagis sedulus fuit, scitusve, ac dexter,

in Latin is Gra;cis Ilebraicis litteris,

fcliciter cdoccudis :

Teste utraque academia quam instruxit afFatim

numcrosa plcbe litcraria :

Scd et totidem annis eoquc amplius theologiam professus,

Et liiijus ecclesia; per se])tennium canonicus major,

Su;pissime hie et alibi sacrum Dei pra;conem

magno cum zclo et t'ructu egit.

Yir pius, doctus, integer, frugi, de republica

deque ccclesia optime mcritus.

A laboribus per diu noctuque

ad 1626 strenuc usque cxantlatis

4° Martii suaviter requievit

in Domino.

See this epitaph, written hv Dr Joseph Hall, dean of Worcester, in

Fuller's Worthies, p. 177.



AUTHOU OF IIUDIBRAS. Ill

Whether he was ever entered at any university is uncer-
tain. His early bioi^rapher says he went to Cambridije, but
was never matricuhitod : Wood, on the authority of Butler's
brother, says, the poet spent six or seven years there ; but
there is gi'eat reason to doubt the truth of this. Some ex-
pressions in his works look as if he were acquainted with
the customs of Oxford, and among them coursing, which
was a term ])eculiar to that university (see Part iii. c. ii. v.
124 i) ; but this kind of knowledge might have been easily
acquired without going to Oxford ; and as the speculation is
entirely unsupported by circumstantial proofs, it may be
safely rejected. Upon the whole, the probability is tliat
Butler never went to either of the Universities. His father
was not rich enough to defray the expenses of a collegiate
course, and could not have effected it by any other means,
there being at that time no exhibitions at the Worcester
School.

Some time after Butler had completed his education, he
obtained, through the interest of the Kussels, the situation
of clerk to Thomas Jefferies, of Earl's Croombe, Esq., an
active justice of the peace, and a leading man in the busi-
ness of the province. This was no mean office, but one that
required a knowledge of law and the British constitution,
and a proper deportment to men of every rank and occupa-
tion ; besides, in those times, when lar2:e mansions were ge-
nerally in retired situations, eveiy large family was a com-
munity within itself: the upper servants, or retainers, being
often the younger sons of gentlemen, were treated as friends,
and the whole household dined in one common hall, and had
a lecturer or clerk, Avho, during meal-times, read to them
some useful or entertaining book.

Mr Jefferies' family was of this sort, situated in a retired
part of the counti'y, surrounded by bad roads, tlie master of
it residing constantly in AV^orcestershire. Here Mr Butler,
having leisure to indulge his inclination for learning, pro
bably improved himself very much, not only in the ab-
struser branches of it, but in the polite arts : and here he
studied painting. " Our Hogarth of Poetry," says Walpole,
" was a painter too ; " and, according to Aubrey, his love ol
the pencil introduced him to the friendship of that prince of
painters, Samuel Cooper. But his proficiency seems to have

b2



iv XirE OF SAMUEL CUTLEH,

been but moderate, for Mr J^asli tells us that he recollects
" seeing at Earl's Croombe, some portraits said to be painted
by him, which did him no great honour as an artist, and
were consequently used to stop up windows." * He heard
also of a portrait of Oliver Cromwell, said to be painted by
him.

After continuing some time at Earl's Croombe, how long
is not exactly known, he quitted it for a more agreeable
situation in the household of Elizabeth Countess of Kent,
who lived at Wrest, in Bedfordshii-e. He seems to have
been attached to her service,t as one of her gentlemen, to
whom she is said to have paid £20 a year each. The time
when he entered upon this situation, which Aubrey says he
held for several years, may be determined with some degree
of accuracy by the fact that he found Selden there, and was
frequently engaged by him in writing letters and making-
translations. It was in June, 1628, after the prorogation of
the third parliament of Charles I., that Selden, who sat in
the House of Commons for Lancaster, retired to AVrest for
the purpose of completing, Avith the advantages of quiet and
an extensive library, his labours on the Marmora ArundeU
liana ; and we may presume that it was during the interval
of the parliamentary recess, while Selden was thus occupied,
that Butler, then in his seventeenth year, entered her service.
Here he enjoyed a literary retreat during great part of the
civil wars, and here probably laid the groundwork of his Hu-
dibras, as, besides the society of that living library, Selden,
he had the benefit of a siood collection of books. He lived



* In \\\s IIS. common-place book is the following observation :
" It is more difficult, and re(iuircs a greater mastery of art in painting, to
foreshorten a figure exactly, than to draw three at their just length ; so it
is, in writing, to express anything naturally and briefly, than to enlarge
and dilate :

And therefore a judicious author's blots

Are more ingenious than his first free thoughts."

t The Countess is described by the early biographer of Butler as "a
great encourager of learning." After the death of the Earl of Kent in
1639 Selden is said to have been domesticated with her at Wrest, and in
her town house in White Friars. Aubrey affirms that he was married to
her, but that he never acknowledged the marriage till after her dcatli, on
account of some law ulfairs. The Countess died in 1051, and appointed
Seldtu her cxeculur, leaving him her house in Wliite Friar.^.



AUTHOR OF UUDIBHAS. y

subsequently in the service of Sir Samuel Luke, of Cople
Hoo farm, or Wood End, in that county, and liis biographers
are generally of opinion that from him he drew the charac-
ter of Hudibras : * but there is no actual evidence of this,
and such a prototype was not rare in those times. Sir
Samuel Luke lived at Wood End, or Cople Hoo farm. Cople
is three miles south of Bedford, and in its church are still to
be seen many monuments of the Luke family, who flourished
in that part of the country as early as the reign of Henry
VIII. He was knighted in 1624, was a rigid Presbyterian,
high in the favour of Cromwell : a colonel in the army of
the parliament, a justice of the peace for Bedford and Sur-
rey, scoutmaster-general for Bedfordshire, which he repre-
sented in the Long Parliament, and governor of Newport
Pagnell. He possessed ample estates in Bedfordsliire and
Northamptonshire, and devoted his fortune to the promotion
of the popular cause. His house was the open resort of the
Puritans, whose frequent meetings for the purposes of coun-
sel, prayer, and preparation for the field, afiorded Butler an op-
portunity of observing, under all their phases of inspiration
and action, the characters of the men whose influence Avas
working a revolution in the country. But Sir Samuel did not
approve of the king's trial and execution, and therefore, with
other Presbyterians, both he and his father, Sir Oliver, were
nmong the secluded members. It has been generally supposed
tliat the scenes Butler witnessed on these occasions sug-
gested to him the subject of his great poem. That it was at
this period he threw into shape some of the striking points
of Hudihi'as, is extremel}^ probable. He kept a common-
place book, in which he was in the habit of noting down
particular thoughts and fugitive criticisms ; and Mr Thyer,
the editor of his Remains, who had this boolc in his posses-
sion, says that it was full of shrewd remarks, paradoxes, and
witty sarcasms.

The first part of Hudibras came out at the end of the
year 1662, and its popularity was so great, that it was pirated
almost as soon as it appeared. t In the Mercurius AuUcus,

* Sec notes at page 4.

t Tlie first part was ready November 11th, 1662, -when tlie author ob-
tained an imprimatur, signed J. Bcrkenhead ; but the date of the title ls
1G63, and Sir Roger L' Estrange granted an imprimatur for the second
part, dated November 6th, 1663.



Vi LIFE or SAMUEL ELTLEE,

a ministerial newspaper, from January 1st to January 8th,
1662 (1663 jV.S.), quarto, is an advertisement saying, that
" there is stolen abroad a most false and imperfect copy of a
poem called Hudibras, without name either of printer or
bookseller ; the true and perfect edition, printed by the
author's original, is sold by Richard Marriot, near St Dun-
stau's Church, in Fleet-street ; that other nameless impres-
sion is a cheat, and will but abuse the buyer, as well as the
author, whose poem deserves to have fallen into better
hands." After several other editions had followed, the first
and second parts, u-ith notes to hoth parts, were printed for
J. Martin and H. Herringham, octavo, 1674. The last edi-
tion of the third part, before the author's death, was published


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