Samuel Butler.

The life and letters of Dr. Samuel Butler, head-master of Shrewsbury school 1798-1836, and afterwards bishop of Lichfield, in so far as they illustrate the scholastic religious, and social life of England, 1790-1840 (Volume 2) online

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Online LibrarySamuel ButlerThe life and letters of Dr. Samuel Butler, head-master of Shrewsbury school 1798-1836, and afterwards bishop of Lichfield, in so far as they illustrate the scholastic religious, and social life of England, 1790-1840 (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 40)
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EX LIBRIS
W. H. BEVERIDGE

Collegii
Magnae Aulae Unwersitads

Oxoniensis
Socii igo
Magistri



THE

LIFE AND LETTERS

OF

DR. SAMUEL BUTLER.

VOL. II.




ft .




DR. SAMUEL BUTLER,

HEAD-MASTER OF SHREWSBURY SCHOOL 17981836,
AND AFTERWARDS BISHOP OF LICHFIELD,

IN SO FAR AS THEY ILLUSTRATE

THE SCHOLASTIC, RELIGIOUS, AND SOCIAL
LIFE OF ENGLAND, 17901840.



BY HIS GRANDSON,

SAMUEL BUTLER,

AUTHOR OF " EREWHON," "THE TRAPANESE ORIGIN OF THE ODYSSEY," ETC.



VOL. II.
MARCH 7, 1831 DEC. 4, 1839.



LONDON :

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET.

1896.



Printed by Hazell, Watson, & Viney, Ld., London and Aylesbury.



CONTENTS OF VOL. II.



CHAPTER XXIII.

PAGE

CORRESPONDENCE, MARCH 7TH, 1831 OCTOBER

2IST, 1832 I

CHAPTER XXIV.
A ROYAL VISIT 2/

Visit of their Royal Highnesses the Duchess of Kent and the
Princess Victoria to Shrewsbury School. Correspondence, Nov-
ember 2nd, 1832 March I3th, 1833. Pamphlet on Church
Dignities. Correspondence, March 3Oth, 1833 April 29th, 1833.

CHAPTER XXV.

CORRESPONDENCE, APRIL 29TH, 1833 DECEM-
BER (?), 1833 .52

CHAPTER XXVI.

CORRESPONDENCE, APRIL 6TH, 1834 DECEMBER,

1834 (?)" 80

CHAPTER XXVII.

CORRESPONDENCE, FEBRUARY I7TH, 1835

NOVEMBER 28TH, 1835 . . . . . 1 03



2066942



VI CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XXVIII.

PAGE

INTENDED RESIGNATION 119

Intended Resignation, and Appointment of the Rev. B. H.
Kennedy to the Head-Mastership. Correspondence, December
ist, 1835 April 9th, 1836.

CHAPTER XXIX.

OFFER OF A BISHOPRIC AND FAREWELL SPEECH-
DAY ... ....... 141

Offer of a Bishopric. Correspondence, April 6th, 1836 June
6th, 1836. Dr. Butler's Farewell Speech-day, and Resignation
of the Head- Mastership.

CHAPTER XXX.
APPOINTMENT TO LICHFIELD AND COVENTRY . l66

Correspondence, June 6th, 1836 August 24th, 1836. An
Episcopal Judgement. Correspondence, August 3ist, 1836
October 4th, 1836. Presentation of a Service of Plate by Dr.
Butler's Former Pupils.

CHAPTER XXXI.

CORRESPONDENCE, OCTOBER /TH, 1836 DECEMBER

28TH, 1836 .188

CHAPTER XXXII.

CORRESPONDENCE, JANUARY IST, 1837 JUNE

30TH, 1837 . . . . , . . . .215

CHAPTER XXXIII.

CORRESPONDENCE, JULY 4TH, 1837 DECEMBER

24TH, 1837. ... . . 241

CHAPTER XXXIV.

CORRESPONDENCE, JANUARY (?), 1838 JUNE l6TH,

1838 . ... . 271



CONTENTS. vil



CHAPTER XXXV.

PAGE

CORRESPONDENCE, JULY 4TH (?), 1838 THE END

OF 1838 289

CHAPTER XXXVI.

CORRESPONDENCE, JANUARY 22ND, 1839 JUNE

8TH, 1839 . . , 317

CHAPTER XXXVII.
CORRESPONDENCE, JUNE I2TH, 1839 NOVEMBER

I9TH, 1839. . 339

CHAPTER XXXVIII.
DEATH, AND FUNERAL SERMONS . . . -351

Dr. Butler's Death and Funeral. Epitaph. Sermons by Arch-
deacon Bather and the Rev. H. Moore. Sale of Antiquities,
Library, and MSS. Letter from the Rev. R. W. Evans to Dr.
Butler's Son.

CHAPTER XXXIX.
CONCLUSION . . 366

APPENDIX.

THE HONOUR BOARDS OF SHREWSBURY SCHOOL . 377
INDEX . .... 397



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

VOL. II.

SHREWSBURY SCHOOL IN 1833 Frontispiece

DR. BUTLER'S HANDWRITING IN 1833 To f ace * eg



THE LIFE AND LETTERS

OF

DR. SAMUEL BUTLER.



CHAPTER XXIII.

CORRESPONDENCE, MARCH /TH, 1831 OCTOBER 2iST,

1832.

FROM THE REV. W. HILDYARD.

" WIVERSTEAD, March ^th, 1831.

" T^vEAR SIR, Whilst I express my thanks to you for your

\__J kind congratulations on James's success, I must not forget

to acknowledge my obligation to you, through whose able

instruction my son has attained this highly distinguished honour.

I remember to have heard it said, on the election of one of your

pupils to an University Scholarship at Oxford, that he was longe

primus ; no one, I think, will deny the just title of longe longeque

primus to the individual who has produced the three first men

at an examination of upwards of fifty candidates for an University

Scholarship, a circumstance unparalleled in either University."

*****

FROM THE REV. B. P. SYMONS.

" WADHAM COLLEGE, April Sfh, 1831.
*****

" Your account of the effect which the result of the election at
Corpus has had on the school I have read with deep concern.
It is too painful to dwell upon, and hopeless thoroughly to explain.
All I will say upon it is that I am inclined to attribute very much
of it to a faulty but long-established mode of examination, and
to an erroneous judgement, rather than to any intentional want of
principles. I am, however, much gratified that you allowed my

VOL. II. I



CORRESPONDENCE. [Cn. XXIII.



wishes to have any weight in determining you to forbear making
the case public, and I beg to offer you my best acknowledgements."

FROM JAMES HILDYARD, ESQ.

"CHRIST'S COLLEGE, Monday, June \$th, 1831.
" MY DEAR SIR, You will, I am sure, have no hesitation in
believing me when I say that the pleasure I feel in announcing
my own success in this letter is considerably enhanced by the
share I have in what you also will feel in reading it. All the
Browne's medals are this year adjudged to me; the Person to
G. Kennedy, which I am also sincerely glad of.

*****

" Believe me, with the most heartfelt gratitude to the person who
is the cause of my enjoying my present happiness, yours ever
obliged, "JAMES HILDYARD."

FROM W. WORDSWORTH, ESQ.
(Original in possession of Mrs. G. L. Bridges and Miss Butler.)

" RYDAL MOUNT, August yd, 1831 [?].

" MY DEAR SIR, Mr. Harrison having requested of me a line
of introduction, I willingly comply with his wish, both on his and
his son's account, as it furnishes me with an occasion of being
brought to your recollection.

" Mr. H. is, in a still greater degree than parents ordinarily
are, anxious for the well-doing of his son, and is much pleased
with the report which, from time to time having examined his
son during the last two years, I have been able to make of his
progress. He is, however, in point of accuracy and strict attention
far from what one would wish to find in a boy of his years ; and
this I take the liberty of mentioning in order that you may not be
disappointed in him. I trust, however, with the benefit of your
care that he will in the end do his duty to his teachers, his parents,
and himself. Mr. Tillbrook's pretty place remains unoccupied,
nor do we hear either of himself or any of his friends coming to it
during the remainder of the summer.

" Poor Margaret suffered much in her long, wasting illness.
You will be pleased to hear that, through the exertion of this
family, she was induced to make a will by which her small property
was better disposed of than in strict course of law it would have
been. Mr. Carter, my clerk, was so kind as to undertake the office
of executor. I am, dear Sir, sincerely yours,

" W. WORDSWORTH."



1831.] CORRESPONDENCE.



To M. H. J. KLAPROTH.

[About August izth, 1831.]

" CHER M. KLAPROTH, Je viens a ce moment de recevoir
de M. Cornanusaz [?] votre tres obligeante reponse a ma lettre
envoyee par lui, et les echantillons de Caucase [?], les interessans
fragmens Buddiques, et le tres joli album typographique.

" Je suis tres fache, cher M. Klaproth, d'entendre les tristes
nouvelles que vous venez de m'annoncer au sujet de votre perte
litteraire. C'est un vrai malheur pour la science qu'un homme
de si grand merite et d'une connaissance si profonde soit la
victime des evenemens, glorieux pour la nation quoique funestes
dans leur suite pour lui-meme.

" J'ai mis, mon cher M. Klaproth, la somme de 1,000 francs
a votre disposition chez M. N. Carlisle. Daignez, mon cher ami,
accepter ce petit legs d'amitie de notre cher Baron : vous ne
sauriez pas creer un plus tendre souvenir d'un homme egalement
cher k nous deux, qu'en me permettant de lui succeder dans les
devoirs amicals.

" Quant a votre ouvrage inedit, soyez bien sur que j'y prends
grand interet et que je ferai mon possible pour vous servir.
J'espere meme y reussir, mais il faut du temps. A present je
suis oblige de rester ici jusqu'a Noel ; alors je serai a Londres, ou
jepourrai faire plus qu'en province. Neanmoins je ne tarderai
pas a ecrire a mes amis litteraires et distingues sur ce sujet.
Tout le monde a present ne s'occupe que d'un seul sujet, la
nouvelle loi aux elections au Parlement, mais apres quelques
semaines j'espere avoir le plaisir de vous annoncer au moins le
commencement de mes efforts.

" En attendant voulez-vous avoir la bonte de m'envoyer une
courte annonce ..."

[The rest of the draft was not found.]

FROM THE REV. S. TILLBROOK.

" FRECKENHAM, November 6th, 1831.

"Mv DEAR ARCHDEACON, Hughes has not yet delivered
himself of his commission, so I can only say ' thank you ' for
the charge, which I shall read when I get it.

" I have not heard from poor old Holme. I wish he had
chosen his asylum here, till the storm abated ; he should have
had a hearty welcome ! My wife and I were struck with your
account of the tramps who cross you in your walks. The same
thing occurs here. Yesterday two of these shocks of fellows
came to our Parsonage and openly said they were ' members
of the Birmingham Union out of employ.' I am inclined to
believe that there is a plot of some sort brewing, and the more
so as 1 learn from my nephew (who is in the office of the



4 CORRESPONDENCE. [Cn. XXIII

Quartermaster-General) that the clerks are at work day and
night in arranging routes, etc., for the troops in case of need.
The intended meeting at White Conduit Hill is only one of the
links of this disloyal Union. What scenes at Bristol ! Bishoprics
are at a discount now !

" Touching Peter Spencer, B.A., of Peterhouse College. He
was a pupil of mine, and a right funny dog was he. His father is
a droll fellow enough, a dealer in feather-beds and bolsters, and,
what is better, in choice wines. The son is a great reader,
and I believe, indeed I know, that he is an author also. His
father told me his book was beautiful, but I never read it.
Young Peter is a rhymer and a doggerel wit ; on his dog's collar
was a distich to this effect :

' My name is Pet, to Pet. Coll. I came.
I'm an honest dog : I hope you're the same ? '

He was plucked, I believe once : whether his family bought the
goose's feathers I cannot say.

"Though you do not visit Cambridge at Christmas I hope
you will come to us, and if I can get to town with you I will.
We were all sickening when we left you, and fell ill when we got
home. I never was so decidedly ill in my life, and if I had not
insisted upon losing blood should have gone raving mad. Wife
is well now so is your jolly godson so is your faithful friend,
Old Till. Kind regards to all ! "

I looked out Peter Spencer in the Museum Catalogue,
and was referred to " Minimus." The book referred to by
Mr. Tillbrook does not seem to have been published till
1863. It is entitled Parvula, or a few little rhymes, about
a few little flowers, a few little birds, and a few little girls,
to which are added a few little songs and a few other little
things by Minimus (London : Trubner & Co., 1863).

The unobtrusiveness of this may perhaps be a trifle
obtrusive, but the book, so far as I dare pronounce an
opinion, is greatly above the average. Dr. Butler has said
nothing about Peter Spencer, but Mr. Tillbrook, who knew
him well, evidently liked him.

FROM ROBERT SCOTT, ESQ.

"OXFORD, November 28tft, 1831.

" DEAR DR. BUTLER, Allow me to thank you for your
kindness in remembering me in the case of your prizes, and



1831, 1832.] CORRESPONDENCE.



your doing me the justice to suppose that I should be anxious
to see anything of so much importance to Shrewsbury. The
Verses themselves of course gratified me very highly, and you
may suppose how perfect it seemed to me when I complain
of a little inattention in printing and accenting the Greek ! ! !
By the bye, ought not ytvotr av in the last line to have been
eyei/er' av? I take the liberty of surmising that it is not to
Bateson that we are indebted for the erudition displayed in the
notes to his Latin Verses.

" Payne has got through his examination at last ; and you
will, I believe, be inclined to think that something is rotten in
the state of Denmark, when you know that even his talents and
reading ran a risk from the strange bias which the Examiners
have taken to Metaphysics : in fact so discursive are their
examinations on other points, and so constant in that, that
it is literally the only thing which a man can take up with an
assurance of advantage. He may take up History, and not be
examined in it ; the Tragedians, and get nothing but the old
questions about <W, o<pa, and ws. But these moral Metaphysics
alone are certain. And this is ' Litterae humaniores.' "



TO DR. J. JOHNSTONE.

"January 2nd, 1832.

" You know my loathing of meanness and humbug. If I were
in Parliament I most assuredly would support the Bill, and the
whole Bill ; that is, I would decidedly vote with the administration.
Not that I think the whole Bill is the best of all possible Bills
in all its points, but because I know that in such a mighty
measure as this it is impossible to have a Bill that is un-
objectionable, and I would rather acquiesce in such imperfections
as I may think it has, than endanger its efficacy by frittering
away parts of it in detail. So much for that matter.

" Now for another. I am, and have been for some time, pro-
moting a scheme for reform in the Church, which I think ought
to originate with ourselves rather than with the laity. I wish
to sweep away the whole present body of ecclesiastical laws
(I have not touched that part of the reform yet), and to have
a more enlarged and at the same time a more simplified code
better suited to" the enlarged views of mankind in the present age.
There is hardly any part of our ecclesiastical law which is not
the offspring of the dark ages or of the ancient Roman laws.
The house is too ruinous for repair ; we ought to pull it down
and build a new one. I would sweep away all Bishops' and
Archdeacons' Courts and remodel the whole, leaving the common
law to take care of the laity, and the ecclesiastical to be wholly



CORRESPONDENCE. [Cn. XXIII.



concerned with the government of the clergy and inferior officers.
Spiritual courts are a monstrous evil."

I have already said that I found no trace of the scheme
above referred to among Dr. Butler's papers. It is pro-
bable that he gave all papers connected with it to the
friend whom he thought most likely to interest himself in
the matter.

FROM THE REV. THOMAS HILL.

" VICARAGE, CHESTERFIELD, January 6t/i, 1832.

" REVEREND AND DEAR SIR, It is not without much appre-
hension of the appearance of officiousness that I venture to
trouble you with this letter, my only apology for which is the
desire I feel to do something for our beloved Church in the hour
of her peril.

" The confidence with which you honoured me in mentioning
to me the admirable scheme you had devised for the augmentation
of small livings emboldens me to ask whether it would not be
desirable for you, without further delay, to take the sense of
your Clergy on that subject, and (if I may presume to suggest
such an addition) on the expediency of testifying their willingness
to submit to any sacrifices which would contribute to the
permanency of the Church by the removal of those abuses which,
alas ! now render her the object of suspicion and dislike to a
large portion of the community. It has long been my persuasion
that nothing would be so likely to save her from ruin as a
declaration of this kind, bearing the evident marks of sincerity
and disinterestedness, from a large body of her Clergy. And
I am the more anxious to draw your attention to the subject,
because I am persuaded that your name would not only ensure
to such declaration the favourable consideration of the Govern-
ment, but the speedy adoption of a similar course by other
members of our body. If it would be more agreeable to you
that such a proceeding should be the result of a requisition
addressed to you, I would, under your instructions, spare no
pains in obtaining the signatures of my brethren in this Deanery
to one as consonant as possible to your and their wishes."

FROM E. BROADHURST, ESQ. (A UNITARIAN).

"CAMBRIDGE, March $th, 1832.

" MY DEAR SIR, Accept my warmest thanks for your kind
letter. Nothing could be more gratifying to my feelings than
the expressions of interest and approbation which it contained



1832.] CORRESPONDENCE. 7

from one for whom I feel the highest respect, and to whom
I owe many obligations for his uniform kindness and admirable
instruction. Moreover I was highly delighted to find that I had
not, as I feared, missed the honour of having my name recorded
on the Shrewsbury School boards. You must now allow me
to apologise, not for an inadvertence, but an error of judgement.
The fear that you would be overburdened, rather than otherwise,
with Tripos papers, dissuaded me, almost against my will, from
committing what appeared to me likely to be an act of supereroga-
tion. Therefore, i my dear sir, I must request you to absolve me
from this seeming neglect. After much inward deliberation, I
have decided not to take my degree, unless, upon unbiassed con-
sideration, I were to find that the doctrines which I have hitherto
considered true and unanswerable are both false in themselves
and can be proved to be so. I could have wished to hold the
title of a Fellow of Magdalene, were it but for a day and
unconnected with any pecuniary emolument, but the decided
objection which I have to write myself down that which I
certainly am not in thought appears to be an insuperable obstacle.
If you remember, you said, in speaking to me when at Shrewsbury
on this subject, ' that although you knew many in my case who
had taken their degrees, you thought from the opinion which
you had of my character that I should not add another to
the list.' This declaration of yours, thus kindly expressed, has
always had the effect of annihilating any symptoms of Jesuitical
reasoning which might have obtruded itself on my thoughts."

FROM THE REV. JAMES TATE.

"RICHMOND, YORKS, March 8th, 1832, Thursday Evening.

" MY DEAR SIR, I have great pleasure in giving an immediate
answer to your kind letter of the 4th.

" Secondly then, of the Greek Grammar. A copy was forwarded
to you by my booksellers, Baldwin and Cradock . . . because I
desired it. Moor's book in its palmy state, when 2nd Futures
Active and Middle were flourishing around with unsuspected
Praeterita Media, etc., was the very finest specimen of skill and
ingenuity : materiam superabat opus. Since I have had to do
with it, whatever destruction of false building has been committed
might be just fh itself, but has made sad havock of the fagade.
Still, however, as I wanted the book for use in my own school,
where for thirty-five years it has been used, and as there was a
strong demand for it at Glasgow in other parts of Scotland also
I have not scrupled to devote a great deal of time and thought
to its rectification. Not that I swear to the excellence of every-
thing which Moor originally placed, or which I have since sub-



CORRESPONDENCE. [CH. XXII I .



stituted. But it answers my purpose in our way of working at
Richmond ; and that must plead my excuse for what I have
done. I have schemed . . . and grown warm upon it ; but the
chances are very much now against my ever producing a Second
Part of Greek Grammar. Dr. Blomfield's minor book from
Matthiae, if shortened and cleared of some faults, and on a better
type . . . might do very well.

" To your objection at p. 7 I have nothing to reply : it is
part of the old book, with which I felt no call to intermeddle.

" For three declensions and two conjugations . . . that is marrow
and vitals essentially dear to us at Richmond and at Glasgow.

" And now, my dear sir, as you have this little book of grammar
in your hand, let me point out to you a few particulars in which
the Swale has endeavoured to infuse into the Clyde a stream of
more purity and correctness.

"P. 6. 'What of the Greek ablative?' Let nothing be
answered till a comparative anatomy of Greek and Sanskrit have
taken place : nothing till then.

" P. 15. What vile absurdity it was to say . . . /M/repS, not
pfirpa, for distinction's sake ! No ear could possibly make the
confusion. Many of these crotchets were manufactured doubtless
at Alexandria.

" P. 20. I generally approve of what I have left unchanged ;
but often, as here on the article, I have altered without any notice.

" P. 35. In re levi important errors may be involved ; there-
fore I have said dv . . . originally privative, before a consonant d.

" P. 47. I have purposely set the neuter next to the
masculine, both for clearness and simplicity, and to suggest a
principle : what else is the neuter but somehow or other an
abortion of the masculine ?

" P. 59. In this monitum I think much important matter is
suggested : my object has been to set masters a-thinking . . .
where they have only dreamed before.

" P. 65. Here also, to many masters with old books, a startler
is given.

" P. 88. The brevity of my book struck me at one time as
unhappily deficient in respect of M//U. By constantly referring to
the parallel forms of riO^fja I rather find advantage gained than
difficulty incurred.

" P. 99. I have gladly dismissed ' (Attice) ' from cuc^Koa,
c'A.i?A.v0a, etc. There never was any other form in any other
dialect. Why could not the Alexandrine Grammarians have
said, The greater part of verbs ab initio pure have the augment
so and so some half-dozen have reduplication ' ?

"P. 1 10. On this monitum quintum I have been writing
largely in the Gentleman's Magazine : two numbers are out ; a
third is ready for next month.



1832.] CORRESPONDENCE. 9

"P. in. My here proceeding with the second class of tenses,
and in that process daring to reject for good and all the 2nd
Future Active and Middle, has delighted my timid self as a very
bold and heroic achievement.

"P. 117. The Paulo-post-futurum I had long ago discarded
from my grammatical creed : just as good call sTtTvp.^ Paulo
ante prceteritum.

"I cannot be supposed to make money out of such publica-
tions, however much of time, thought, talent, may have been
expended upon them.

" To mend the matter, Cameron was insolvent before this last
edition came from the press.

" At all events it delights me to contribute to the rectification
of Greek Grammar, to the demolition of Analogica Lingua Grcecce,
and to the reformation, on a new extended sound basis, of Greek
Etymology.

" So much at a time as scholars may like to read I print once
in the Gent. Mag. The matter grows under my hand, and I do
flatter myself the present generation, which sees a Sanskrit Pro-
fessorship established at Oxford, will yet be enabled to understand
Greek the better, for going to its mother-tongue in search of
illustration.

" What could Plato know beyond the obvious composites and
derivatives, and why are we to be frightened by any idolatrous
' divine ' attached to his name from considering the Cratylus as
a very mortal and most erroneous piece of bad etymology ?

" You will perhaps be surprised when I tell you that if
Hemsterhuis, in his grand theory, built on any hypothesis which
Schultius's Hebrew speculations suggested to him, he was utterly
ignorant of the Hebrew language, and of Schultius the grammarian
of it.

" Let me return to the Platonic and Eustathian doctrine. The
first verse in the first book of the Iliad contains four most
magnificent specimens :

" i. Mijvts, lasting wrath; Th. /juevio, to remain firm : but where
is the wrath ? A purely gratis dictum \ Some man's auros !<a
for it : nothing more.

"2. aet'&o . . . ab a epitatico, et verbo etSw, sa'o, quia ha;c
vox pertinet maxime ad poetas, quibus multarum rerum cognitio
attribuitur.

" If Dr. Butler were to tell this to me ten hours together ' by
Shrewsbury clock,' with all my love and veneration for him, I
would not believe it.

" 3. Oca and 0eos, a 0eo>, curro, quia planetae qui continue
cursu versantur, apud antiques dicebantur dii,

" Vel a QtoM (which, like /o-aw and scores besides, never existed)
intueor, contemplor, quia Deus omnia intuetur.

" 4. 'A^tXAcvs . . . ' on account of the origin of the name, it



10 CORRESPONDENCE. [Cn. XXIII.

is written 'A^tXev?, being formed from a intens. and TO xeiXos, the
lip? Ohe ! jam satis est.

" Ought not \heproceres of Greek learning like you to publish
the ban of the Greek Empire against the currency of such
Brummagem coin ? "

FROM THE REV. S. TILLBROOK.

" FRECKENHAM, MILDENHALL, SUFFOLK, March 2<)th, 1832.

" MY DEAR ARCHDEACON, Will you be kind enough to
answer me the following queries ?



Online LibrarySamuel ButlerThe life and letters of Dr. Samuel Butler, head-master of Shrewsbury school 1798-1836, and afterwards bishop of Lichfield, in so far as they illustrate the scholastic religious, and social life of England, 1790-1840 (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 40)