Samuel Butler.

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Part m. Canto 11 1

Canto in 74

An Heroical Epistle of Hudibras to his Lady .... 103

The Lady's Answer to the Knight 116


Preface 133

The Elephant m the Moon 137

The Elephant in the Moon. In Long Verse 155

A Satire upon the Royal Society 174

Repartees between Cat and Puss at a Caterwauling . . 178
To the Honourable Edward Howard, Esq. upon his in-
comparable Poem of the British Princes 183

A Palinodie to the Honourable Edward Howard, Esq.

upon his incomparable Poem of the British Princes . 185
A Panegyric upon Sir John Denham's Recovery from his

Madness 189

On Critics who judge of Modem Plays precisely by the

Rules of the Ancients 192

Prologue to the Queen of Arragon, acted before the Duke

of York, upon his Birthday 196

Epilogue to the same 197

On Philip Nye's Thanksgiving Beard 198



Satire upon the Weakness and Misery of Man .... 203

Satire upon the Licentious Age of Charles 11 212

Satire upon Gaming 219

Satire: To a bad Poet 223

Satke upon our ridiculous Imitation of the French . . 227

Satire upon Drunkenness 232

Satire upon Mamage 236

Satire upon Pla^aries 240

Satire upon the Imperfection and Abuse of Human Learn-
ing. Part 1 247

Fragments of an intended Second Part of the foregoing

Satire 255

On a Hypocritical Nonconformist 267

On Modern Critics 276

To the Happy Memory of the most renowned Du-Val. . 281
A Ballad upon the Parliament which deUberated about

making Ohver King 289

A Ballad, in Two Parts, conjectured to be on Oliver

Cromwell. Parti 291

Partn 294

Miscellaneous Thoughts 297

Triplets upon Avarice 328

Description of Holland 328

To his Mistress 329

To the same 330

Epigram on a Club of Sots 330

Hudibras's Elegy 330

Hudibras's Epitaph 335




The saints engage in fierce contests
About tlieir carnal interests,
To share their sacrilegious preys
According to their rates of Grace:
Their various frenzies to reform,
When Cromwell left them in a storm ;
Till, in th' effige of Rumps, the rabble
Burn all their Grandees of tlie Cabal.

The learned write an insect breese

Is but a mongrel prince of bees,

That falls before a storm on cows,

And stings the founders of his house,

From whose corrupted flesh that breed 5

(){' vermin did at first proceed.

So, ere the storm of war broke out,

Religion spawn'd a various rout

This Canto is entirely independent^ of the adventures of
Hudibras and Ralpho; neither of our heroes make tlieir ap-
pearance: other characters are introduced. The Poet skips
from tlie time wherein these adventures happened to Crom-
well's death, and from thence to the dissolution of the Rump

VOL. II. 1


Of petulant capricious sects,

The maggots of corrupted texts, lo

That first run all religion down,

And after ev'ry swarm its own :

For as the Persian Magi once

Upon their mothers got their sons,

That were incapable t' enjoy is

That empire any other way ;

So Presbyter begot the other

Upon the Good Old Cause, his mother,

Then bore them like the devil's dam.

Whose son and husband are the same ; 20

And yet no nat'ral tie of blood.

Nor int'rest for their common good.

Could, when their profits interfer'd.

Get quarter for each other's beard :

For when they thriv'd they neyer fadg'd, 25

But only by the eax's engag'd ;

Like dogs that snarl about a bone.

And play together when they've none ;

As by their truest characters.

Their constant actions, plainly' appears. 30

Rebellion now began for lack

Of zeal and plunder to grow slack,

The Cause and Covenant to lessen.

And Providence to be out of season :

For now there was no more to purchase 35

O' th' King's revenue and the Churches,

I>ut all divided, shar'd, and gone.

That us'd to urge the Brethren on ;


Which forc'd the stubborn'st foi' the Cause

To cross the cudgels to the laws, 40

That, what by breaking them th' had gain'd,

By their support might be maintain'd ;

Like thieves, that in a hemp-plot lie,

Secur'd against the Hue-and-cry ;

For Presbyter and Lidependent 45

Were now turn'd Plaintiff and Defendant ;

Laid out their apostolic functions

On carnal Orders and Injunctions;

And all their precious Gifts and Graces

On Outlawries and Scire facias ; 50

At Michael's term had many trial,

Worse tlian the Dragon and St. Michael,

Where thousands fell, in shape of fees.

Into the bottomless abyss.

For when, like brethren, and like friends, .->5

They came to share their dividends.

And ev'ry partner to possess

His church and state joint-purchases.

In which the ablest Saint, and best.

Was nam'd in trust by all the rest 60

To pay their money, and, instead

Of ev'iy Brother, pass the deed.

He straight converted all his gifts

To pious frauds and holy shifts.

And settled all the other shares m

Upon his outward man and 's heirs ;

Held all they claim'd as forfeit lands

Deliver'd up into his hands,


And pass'd upon his conscience

By pre-entail of Providence; 70

Impeach'd the rest for Reprobates

That had no titles to estates,

But by their spiritual attaints

Degraded from the right of Saints.

This b'ing reveal'd, they now begun 75

"With law and conscience to fall on,

And laid about as hot and brain-sick

As th' Utter barrister of Swanswick ;

Engag'd with money-bags, as bold

As men with sand-bags did of old, eo

That brought the lawyers in more fees

Than all unsanctify'd Trustees :

Till he who had no more to show

I' th' case, receiv'd the overthrow ;

Or, both sides having had the worst, 86

They parted as they met at first.

Poor Presbyter was now reduc'd,

Secluded, and cashier'd, and chous'd !

Turn'd out, and excommunicate.

From all affairs of Church and State, 90

Reform'd t' a reformado Saint,

And glad to turn itinerant.

To stroll and teach from town to town.

And those he had taught up teach down,

And make those uses serve agen 96

Against the New-enlighten'd men.

As fit as when at first they were

Reveal'd against the Cavalier ;


Damn Anabaptist and Fanatic,

As pat as Popish and Prelatic ; lOO

And, with as little variation.

To serve for any sect i' th' nation.

The Good Old Cause, which some believe

To be the dev'l that tempted Eve

"With knawledge, and does still invite los

The world to mischief with New Light,

Had store of money in her purse

When he took her for bett'r or worse.

But now was grown deform'd and poor,

And fit to be turn'd out of door. no

The Independents (whose first station
"Was in the rear of Reformation,
A mongrel kind of Church-dragoons,
That serv'd for horse and foot at once,
And in the saddle of one steed 115

The Saracen and Christian rid ;
Were free of ev'ry sp'ritual order,
To preach and fight, and pray and murder)

V. 118. The officers and soldiers among the Independents
got into pulpits, and preached and prayed as well as fought.
Oliver Cromwell was famed for a preacher, and has a ser-
mon* in print, entitled, 'Cromwell's Learned, Devout, and
Conscientious Exercise, held at Sir Peter Temple's, in Lin-
coln's-Inn-Fields, upon Rom. xiii. 1,' in which are the follow-
ing flowers of rhetoric : " Dearly beloved brethren and sisters,
it is true tliis text is a malignant one; the wicked and ungodly
have abused it very much; but thanks be to God, it was to
their o^vn ruin." p. 1.

" But now that I spoke of kings, the question is. Whether

* Tliis, however, is now well known to be an imposture.


No sooner got the start, to lurch

Both disciplines of War and Church, 120

And Providence enough to run

The chief commanders of them down,

by the ' higher powers ' are meant kings or commoners ?
Truly, beloved, it is a very great question among- those that
are learned: for may not every one that can read observe,
that Paul speaks in the plui-al number, 'higher powers?'
Now, had he meant subjection to a king, he would have said,
' Let every soul be subject to the ' higher power,' ' if he had
meant one man; but by this you see he meant more than
one; he bids us 'be subject to the ' higher powers,' ' that is,
the Council of State, the House of Commons, and the Amiy."
ib. p. 3.

When in the 'Humble Petition' there was inserted an
article against public preachers being members of Parliament,
Oliver Cromwell excepted against it expressly: " Because he
(he said) was one, and divers officers of the army, by whom
much good had been done — and therefore desired they would
explain their article." — ' Heath's Chronicle,' p. 408.

Sir Roger L'Estrange obsei-ves ('Reflections upon Pog-
gius's Fable of the Husband, Wife, and Ghostly Father,'
Part I. Fab. 357), upon the pretended saints of those times,
" That they did not set one step in the whole tract of this ini
quity, without seeking the Lord first, and going up to enquire
of the Lord, according to the cant of those days ; v.'hich was
no other than to make God the author of sin, and to impute
the blackest practices of hell to the inspiration of the Holy

It was with this pretext of seeking the Lord in prayer, that
Cromwell, Ireton, Harrison, and others of the regicides, ca-
joled General Faii-fax, who was determined to rescue the
king from execution, giving orders to have it speedily done :
and, when they had notice that it was over, they persuaded
the General that this was a full return of prayer ; and God
having so manifested liis pleasui-e, they ought to acquiesce in
it. — ' Perencluefs Life of King Charles L'


But carry'd on the war against

The common enemy o' th' Samts,

And in a while prevail'd so far, 125

To win of them the game of war,

And be at liberty once more

T' attack themselves as th' had before.

For now there was no foe in arms
T' unite their factions with alarms, i30

But all reduc'd and overcome.
Except their worst, themselves, at home,
"Who 'ad compass'd all they pray'd and swore.
And fought, and preach'd, and plunder'd for,
Subdu'd the Nation, Church, and State, 135

And all things but their laws and hate ;
But when they came to treat and transact
And shared the spoil of all th' had ransackt.
To botch up what th' had torn and rent.
Religion and the Government, uo

They met no sooner, but prepar'd
To puU down all the war had spar'd ;
Agreed in nothing but t' abolish,
Subvert, extirpate, and demolish :
For knaves and fools b'ing near of kin, hj

As Dutch boors are t' a sooterkin.
Both parties join'd to do their best
To damn the public interest.
And herded only in consults.
To put by one another's bolts ; iso

T' out-cant the Babylonian lab'rers.
At aU their dialects of jabb'rers,


And tug at both ends of the saw,

To tear down government and law.

For as two cheats that play one game, 155

Ai-e both defeated of their aim ;

So those who play a game of state,

And only cavil in debate,

Although there's nothing lost nor won.

The public bus'ness is undone, 160

Which still, the longer 'tis in doing.

Becomes the surer way to ruin.

This when the RoyaUsts percBiv'd,
(Wlio to their faith as firmly cleav'd,
And own'd the right they had paid down les

So dearly for, the Church and Crown)
Th' united constanter, and sided
The more, the more their foes divided :
For though out-number'd, overthrown,
And by the fate of war run down, no

Their duty never was defeated.
Nor from their oaths and faith retreated ;
For loyalty is still the same,
Whether it win or lose the game ;
True as the dial to the sun, 175

Although it be not shin'd upon.
But when these Brethren in evil.
Their adversaries, and the Devil,
Began once more to shew them play.
And hopes at least to have a day, iso

They rally'd in parades of woods,
And unfrequented solitudes ;


Conven'd at midnight in out-houses,

T' appoint new-rising rendezvouses,

And, with a pertinacy' uumatch'd, iss

For new recruits of danger watch'd.

No sooner was one blow diverted.

But up another party started,

And as if Nature too, in haste

To furnish out supphes as fast, 190

Before her time had turn'd destruction

T' a new and numerous production ;

No sooner those were overcome

But up rose others in their room.

That, like the Christian faith, increast 195

The more, the more they were supprest;

Whom neither chains nor transportation,

Proscription, sale, or confiscation,

Nor all the desperate events

Of former try'd experiments, 200

Nor wounds could terrify, nor mangling,

To leave oflF Loyalty and dangling.

V. 201, 202. The brave spirit of loyalty was not to be sup-
pressed by the most barbarous and inhuman usage. There
are several remarkable instances upon record; as that of the
gallant Marquis of Montrose, the loyal Sir. Gerrard, and Mr.
Vowel, m 1654; of Mr. Pcnruddock, Grove, and others, who
suffered for their loyalty at Exeter, 1654-5; of Captain Rey-
nolds, who had been of the King's party, and, when he was
going to be turned off the ladder, cried, God bless King
Charles, ' Vive le Roi ; ' of Dalgelly, one of Montrose's party,
who being sentenced to be beheaded, and being brought to
the scaffold, ran and kissed it : and, without any speech, or


Nor Death (with all his bones) affright

From vent'ring to maintain the right,

From staking life and fortune down 205

'Gainst all together, for the Crown ;

But kept the title of their cause

From forfeiture like claims in laws ;

And prov'd no prosp'rous usurpation

Can ever settle on the nation ; 210

Until, in spite of force and treason,

They put their loyalty in possession ;

And, by their constancy and faith,

Destroy'd the mighty men of Gath.

Toss'd in a furious hurricane, 215

Did Oliver give up his reign.

ceremony, laid down his head upon the block and was be-
headed ; of the brave Sir Robert Spotiswood ; of Mr. Court-
ney, and Mr. Portman, who were committed to the Tower the
beginning of February, 1657, for dispersing among the soldiers
what were then called ' seditious ' books and pamphlets.

Nor ought the loyalty of the six counties of North Wales to
be passed over in silence, who never addressed or petitioned
during the Usurpation; nor the common soldier mentioned in
the ' Oxford Diurnal,' first Week, p. 6. See more in the story
of the 'Impertinent Sheriff,' L'Estrange's 'Fables,' Part II.
Fab. 265. Mr. Butler, or Mr. Pryn, speaking of the gallant
behaviour of the Loyalists, says, " Other nations would have
canonized for martyrs, and erected statues after their death,
to the memory of some of our compatriots, whom ye have
barbarously defaced and mangled, yet alive, for no other mo-
tive than undaunted zeal."

V. 215, 216. At Oliver's death was a most furious tem-
pest, such as had not been known in the memory of man, or
hardly ever recorded to have been in this nation. It is ob-


And was believ'd, as well by Saints

As mortal men and miscreants,

To founder in the Stygian ferry,

Untn he was retriev'd by Sterry, 220

served, in a tract entitled, ' No Fool to the old Fool,' L'Es-
trange's ' Apologj',' p. 93, " That Oliver, after a long course
of treason, murder, sacrilege, perjury, rapine, &c. finished his
accursed hfe in agony and fury, and without any mark of true
repentance." Though most of our historians mention the
hurricane at his death, yet few take notice of the storm in the
northern counties, that day the House of Peers ordered the
digging up his carcase, with other regicides. The author of
the ' Parley between the Ghost of the late Protector and the
King of Sweden in Hell,' 1660, p. 19, merrily observes, " That
he was even so turbulent and seditious there, that he was
chained, by way of punishment, in the general pissing place,
next the court-door, with a strict charge that nobody that
made water thereabouts should piss any-where but against
his body."

V. 220. The news of Oliver's death being brought to those
who were met to pray for him, Wr. Peter Sterry stood up, and
desired them not to be troubled; " For (said he) this is good
news, because, if he was of use to the people of God when he
was amongst us, he will be much more so now, being ascend-
ed into heaven, at the right hand of Jesus Christ, there to in-
tercede for us, and to be mindful of us upon all occasions."
•Dr. South makes mention of an Independent divine ( Sermons,
vol. i. serm. iii. p. 102) who, when OUver was sick, of which
sickness he died, declai-ed, " That God revealed to him that he
should recover, and live thirty years longer; for thaJ God had
raised him up for a work which could not be done in a less
time." But Oliver's death being published two days after,
the said divine publickly in his prayers expostulated with God
the defeat of his prophecy in these words : " Thou hast lied
unto us; yea, thou hast lied unto us."

So famihar were those wretches with God Almighty, that


Wlio, in a false erroneous dream,

Mistook tlie New Jerusalem

Profanely for the apocryphal

False Heaven at the end o' th' HaU ;

Whither it was decreed by Fate 225

His precious I'eliques to translate :

So Romulus was seen before

B' as orthodox a senator,

From whose divine illumination

He stole the Pagan revelation. q3o

Next him his son and heir-apparent
Succeeded, though a lame vicegerent ;

Dr. Echard observes of one of them, "That he pretended to
have got such an mterest in Christ, and such an exact know-
ledge of affairs above, that he could tell the people that he had
just before received an express from Jesus upon such a busi-
ness, and that the ink was scarce dry upon the paper."

V. 224. After the Restoration Oliver's body was dug up,
and his head set up at the farther end of Westminster-hall,
near which place there is a house of entertainment, which is
commonly known by the name of ' Heaven.'

V. 231, 232. Oliver's eldest son, Eichard, was by him, be-
fore his death, declared his successor; and, by order of the
Privy Council, proclaimed Lord Protector, and received the
compUments of congratulation and condolence at the same
time from the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldennen ; and ad-
dresses were presented to him from all parts of the nation,
promising'to stand by him with their lives and fortunes. He
summoned a parhament to meet at Westminster, which re-
cognised him Lord Protector; yet, notwithstanding, Fleetwood,
Pesborough, and their partisans, managed affairs so, that he
was obhged to resign.

Wmt opinion the world had of him we learn from Lord Cla-
rendon's account of liis visit ' incog.' to the Prince of Conti at


Who first laid by the Parl'anient,
The only crutch on which he leant,
And then sunk underneath the state, 235

That rode him above horseman's weight.
And now the Saints began their reign,
For which they "ad yeai'u'd so long in vain,
And felt such bowel-hankerings

Pezenas, who received him civilly, as he did all strangers, and
particularly the English; and, after a few words (not know-
ing who he was), the Prince began to discourse of the affairs
of England, and asked many questions concerning the King,
and whether all men were quiet, and submitted obediently to
him? which the other answered according to the truth.
" Well," said the Prince, " Oliver, though he was a traitor
and a villain, was a brave fellow, had great parts, great cou-
rage, and was worthy to command: but for that Richard, that
coxcomb, coquin, poltroon, he was surely the basest fellow
alive. What is become of that fool ? How is it possible he
could be such a sot? " He answered, " That he was betrayed
by those he most trusted, and had been most obliged to his
father." So being weary of his visit, he quickly took his
leave, and next morning left the town, out of fear that the
Prince might know that he was the very fool and coxcomb he
had mentioned so kindly; and two days after the Prince did
come to know who he was that he had treated so well. — Cla-
rendon's History of the Rebellion, vol. iii. p. 519. See a cu-
rious anecdote of Richard Cromwell in Dr. Maty's Memoirs
of Lord Chestei-field.

V. 237. A sneer upon the Committee of Safety, amongst
whom was Sir Henrj' Vane, who (as Lord Clarendon ob-
serves) " was a perfect enthusiast, and ■without doubt did be-
lieve himself inspired; which so far corrupted his reason and
understanding, that he did at the same time believe he was
the person deputed to reign over the saints upon earth for a
thousand years."


To see an empire, all of kings, 21.0

Deliver' (1 from tli' Egyptian awe

Of justice, government, and law,

And free t' erect what sp'ritual cantons

Should be reveal'd, or gospel Hans-towns,

To edify upon the ruins 245

Of John of Leyden's old outgoings,

Wlio, for a weather-cock hung up

Upon their mother-church's top.

Was made a type by Providence

Of all their revelations since, 250

And now fulfill'd by his successors.

Who equally mistook their measures :

For when they came to shape the model,

Not one could fit another's noddle ;

But found their Light and Gifts more wide 255

From fadging than th' unsanctify'd,

Wliile every individual Brother

Strove hand to fist against another,

And still the maddest and most crackt

Were found the busiest to transact ; 26O

V. 241, 242. Dr. James Young observes, " that tv/o Je-
saitical prognosticators, Lilly and Culpeper, were so confi-
dent, anno 1652, of the total subversion of the law and gospel
ministry, that in their scurrilous prognostications they pre-
dicted the downfall of both; and, m 1654, they foretold, that
the law should be pulled down to the ground, the Great
Charter and all our liberties destroyed, as not suiting with
Englishmen in these blessed times ; that the crab-ti-ee of the
law should be pulled up by the roots, and grow no more, there
being no reason now we should be governed by them."


For though most hands dispatch apace

And make light work (the proverb says),

Yet many difF'rent intellects

Are found t' have contrary effects;

And many heads t' obstruct intrigues, 265

As slowest insects have most legs.

Some were for setting up a king,
But all the rest for no such thing,
Unless King Jesus : others tamper d
For Fleetwood, Desborough, and Lambert ; 270

V. 267, 268. Hany Martyn, in his speech in the debate
"Whether a King or no King? said, " Tliat, if they must
have a King, they had rather have had the last than any
gentleman in England. He found no fault in his person but

V. 269. Alluding to the Fifth Monarchy men, who had
formed a plot to dethrone Cromwell, and set up King .lesus.

V. 269, 270. Fleetwood was a lieutenant-general ; he mar-
ried Ii-eton's widow, Oliver Cromwell's eldest daughter; was
made lord-lieutenant of Ireland by Cromwell, major-general
of divers counties, one of Oliver's upper house; his salaiy
supposed to be £6,600. a-year. Desborough, a yeoman of
£ 60. or £ 70. per annum ; some say a plowman. Bennet,
speaking to Desborough, says, " When your Lordship was a
plowman, and wore high shoon — Ha ! how the Lord raiseth
some men, and depresseth others ! " Desborough married
Cromwell's sister, cast away his spade, and took up a sword,
and was made a colonel ; was instrumental in raising Crom-
well to the Protectorship, upon which he was made one of his
council, a general at sea, and major-general of divers counties
of the west ; and was one of Oliver's upper house. His an-
nual income was £. 3,236. 13s. 4c?.

V. 270. Var. ' Lambard.' Lambert was one of the Eump
generals, and a principal opposer of General Monk in the
restoration of King Charles IL The writer of the Narrative


Some for the Rump ; and some, more crafty,
For Agitators, and the Safety :

of the late Parliament so called, 1657, p. 9, observes, " That
Major-general Lambert, as one of Oliver's council, had £ 1000.
per annum, which, with his other places, in all amounted to
£ 6,512. 3s. 4<Z."

V. 272. In 1647 the Army made choice of a set number
of officers, which they called the General Council of Officers;
and the common soldiers made choice of three or four of
each regiment, mostly corporals and Serjeants, who were
called by the name of Agitators, and were to be a House
of Commons to the Council of Officers. These drew up a
Declaration, that they would not be disbanded till their ar-

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