Samuel David Luzzatto.

Grammar of the biblical Chaldaic language : and the Talmud Babli idioms online

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iii. 28. Of the active participle : »\^, id. vi. 11 ; t^Jifa,
id. V. 12 ; ri?^, Ezra 17, 10. Of the ^ass. participle :
Hf^ivo, Dan. vii. 7. Of the future : »5n^^, Dan. ii. 24 ;
»3nj, id. ii. 4 ; yav"), id. iv. 13 ; fsy], id. iv. 33. Of the
imp. : ""SB, Ezi-a vii. 25.

Form of ^?Bn. — Paradigm ''V?n.



■^jn, he caused to exile,
T^tan, they caosed to exile.






Kbjno, one causing to exile,




"•??r!7, he will cause to exile,

nbjnp, we shall cause to exile,

libinr, ye will cause to exile,

iftam, they will cause to exile.


sing, wanting,

plur. "ftjn, do cause to exile,





n^^an, to cause to exile.

Examples of the preterite : ''bsn, Ezra iv. 10 ; ""O^H,
Dan. V. 13 ; vnyn, id. v. 20 ; vii. 12 ; vri;in, id. v. 3. Of
tlie active participle : »VDryo, rnsrya, id. ii. 21 ; Siinri, id.
ii. 23 ; KT'a, id. vi. 11. Of the future : ninn7, id. v. 12 ;
«.:iDn;', Ezra vi. 11; ninnj, Dan. ii. 7; Ti'nnp, id. ii. 6;
■\nyn-;, id. vii. 26. Of the imperative : "'pinn^ id. ii. 6.
Of the infinitive: n;'nnnb, id. ii. 10; n'JOvi'?, id. vi. 9;
"rn^nS, id. V. 2. I'liyn') has incorrectly pmo in some
modern, but oblh in the older and more correct edi-
tions; so in that of Mantua (•'B nnitt) ; in the Rabbin-
ical Bible, Venice, 1517 ; in the Bibles of Sanciuo, 1488,
and of Brescia, 1494.


Form of the byenn. — Paradigm "'sarin.





^sann, he was built,







Kiarre, one being built,



wanting, wanting,

wanting, wanting,

Ksan^, he will be built, *?3r"?> she will be built,

wanting, wanting,

fnappi, ye will be built, wanting,

wanting. • wanting.


Examples of the preterite : ■'^fin, Dan. iii. 19. Of the
participle: «3a™> ^^ra v. 8. Of i\\e future: «'9"vi"',
Dan. iil 6 r Msat??, Ezra v. 15 ; toann, id. iv. 13 ; ■•nipn^,
Dan. V. 12; Tna^r"?) id* "i- 15, the last incorrectly with
pio instead of niin.


Form of b?Bnn. — Paradigm ""asriPi.


wanting, '

"•ajrn, he prophesied,


sing, wanting,

plur, r??r"?» prophesying.



!• wanting.


wanting, wanting,

wanting, wanting,

K??Pi?, he will prophesy, saJPn, she will prophesy,

wanting, wanting,

wanting, wanting,

•jiasn;", they will prophesy. wanting.

Examples of the preterite : ^asPiH, Ezra v. 1 ; ""intDS,
Dan. iii. 19. Of the participle : i:''?r«»i?, id. v. 6. Of the
future : njnO';!, id. iii. 29 ; «;!?«?, id. ii. 9 ; lij«?o?, id. vii.
28 ; iJi?«?, id. v. 10. There occurs K instead of Yod in
tlie participle fem. nsteina, which, however, is a Hebra-




Verbs beginning with Nun, 3, retain the same some-
times, and are conjugated like the perfect verbs. So
ironb, iron, Ezra viL 20; lisnj?, id. iv. 13; npTjnr, a par-
ticiple in the constructus, id. iv. 15 ; PpTjnb, nnfinitive
in the constructiis, id. iv. 22 ; PTJDi?, id. iv. 13 ; njjojnb,
Dan. vi. 24; pBjn, id. v. 2; ipBjn, id. v. 3. Sometimes
the Nun is omitted like in the Hebrew, e.g., nspn*, id.
iv. 14 ; bB% id. iii, 16 ; libBR, id. ib. 5 ; ipw, id. 16, 22;
npen, id. 16, 22 ; bsia, id. ib. 28 ; tinn from rnj, descend,
in the iron, properly, to place in a low positic^n, hence,
to put down, to prostrate, Ezra vi. 5 ; TOr?i?, passive
participle, id. vi. 1 ; lins, Dan. vi. II; Kto, Ezra v.
15, both last imperatives. The form rins, id. 16, the 8
with vpn, is of the root nin, equivalent to rns.

The second radical wanting in stems, called gemin-
ate, ia substituted by a BJl in the first root-letter when
preceded by a preformative, e.g., in the byen ; r^~n
(preterit 3d person fem.) instead of Tfe'^n, Dan. ii. 34 ;
ip^n, id. vi. 25 ; p'in'a, id. ii. 40 ; np'iB, id. vii. 7 ; p^n,
id. ii. 40 ; ^ipnnn, id. vii. 23. Sometimes the wanting
letter is substituted by 3 (Nun), e.g , b?3v?, fr. b^J enter,
id. ii. 25; nbyrnb, id. iv. 3. The above tSJrt is left out in
TTO, infin. bp of isn, Dan. iv. 24, and in Kno, act. partic.



in b?Bn of "'''n, id. v. 19.* It is found also compensated
by the change of the preceding vowel in ?'"il?, future ip
of yyi, id. ii. 40, and in '3b?n. imperative brcn of biy,
id. ii. -24. In Oj^nb, infinitive bsfin of the same verb, id.
v. 7, the nno is changed into biao by reason of the fol-
lowing guttural with a jap, like in the Hebrew. The
following are instances of geminate verbs inflected like
jierfect verbs : Jria, active participle of the b?B, id. ii.
40, and bban, future of the bscn, id. iv. 9.

§ 103.
But in the inflections of the geminateverha, where the
first radical is preceded by no preformative, and, con-
sequently inapt of accepting the VTi forte, the compen-
sative wn is placed in the third radical, e.g., va, Dan. iv
11 ; IT^?, id. vi. 19. So also in b?, "he entered," id. ii.
16, the nriB is showing the b to have a wn, if not pre-
vented by its position at the end of the word. So also
are the words, written : "[""bby, id. v. 8, and ribby, id. ib.
10, read by the lectio marginalis, for the same reason,
r>?, rt?. The yvp in Y^^, though followed by vyi forte,
is a long one, such as would be in rbbs, corresponding to
ynw (§ 3). The word ip7, id. ii. 35, is inflected in
accordance with the quiescent "W.

An instance of the quadriliteral bycnn after the
Hebrew, is the word MinjJ!« (§ 81).

* In the edition before me (Berlin, 1806, reTised by M. Letteris) it reads
"^Tvo, the 031 compenaated by the change of the preceding vowel.



§ 105.
bm and IJ^n, to go. The former is used only in the
'sp, and then only in the preterite, Dan. iL 17 ; Ezra iv.
22 ; id. v. 8, and imperative, which reads bjK, id. v. 15.
Of the latter, there is the participle of iJB, Sj^ntt, Dan.
iv. 20 ; r?firn?, id. iii. 25 and iv. 34. The la3t word
shows a transposition of the vowels. ijin in the ^p5
shows an abbreviation by omitting the \ as Ipyo instead
of ^^rjQ, Vy^ instead of l^n?, Ezra v. 5 ; vi. 5 ; vii. 13.
Some writers suggest a verbal stem ^in as a root for
T™ and irp ; but if such be the case, then the future
ought to be ?Iin;» with i. The suggestion may possibly
refer to the trp of yva, Ezra vii. 13, likewise Djna from nip.
But even the claim of the pap to this place is very
doubtful; for in the editions of 1488, 1449 and 1517,
the n of TTO is provided not with pa? but with nne. In
Tn\ Ezra vi. 5, the n is properly furnislied with nPD;
while the fnp at the same words, id. v. 5 and vii. 13, is
occasioned merely by the pauses made at thes^ words.

§ 106.
K^T^, Dan. ii. 5 and 8, is probably an equivalent to
f^^T*, she went (s. Grammar of the Babyl. Talm. idiom,

§ 107.
3r!?, to give, lacks the infinitive and future ; they are,
however, substituted by the verb inj (v. § 101).


bg;", to be able, forms regularly ban, ^r^ (v. § 76), but
tov, Dan. ii. 10, is exceptionally according to the



In the word SB33, Ezra, often, being of the root ""3»,

the 1 as the last radical, is apocopated (s. Grammar of

tlie Bab. Talm. idiom, § 7).

The future tense of the verb «in, to be, occurs some-
times improperly with ^ instead of the preformative
Yod, e.g., Kjn^, Dan. ii. 20 ; Ezra iv. 13 ; Tinb, Dan. ii.
43 ; ir?v!^) id. v. 17. By this b the future takes for the
most part the meaning of tlie optative or imperative.
Such a b is commonly used in the Arabic and also in
the Talmudical idiom.




Paradigm of the verbal or objective suffixes : lOp, he
has kept.

■"pnc?, he has kept me,
TTO?, he has kept thee,

?no3, he has kept him ; Mf ??, he has kept her,
sjno?, he has kept us,
Tbnop, he has kept ye, you.
As for the third pers. plur. there is in the Bibl.
Chald. made no use of the pronominal suffix, but of the
independent pronoun iian, e.g., "ion ariini, Ezra iv. 10 ;
ion ibipa sbi, id. v. 5, or lion, as lian npnni, Dan. ii.
34 ; ttniT linn sioji, id. ib. 35.

§ 113.

In the future an epenthetic Nun (3) is sometimes

found inserted between the verb and its suffix, e.g., fim^

Dan. ii. 11; n2:r>:<, id. iv. 22; ■'53>nTi, id. ib. 2; ifPT"''^?.

id, iii. 15 : Pisp^ri niB'nni, id. vii. 23 ; nminw, id. v. 17.


The termination <V; of the infinitive, when with a

suffix, is changed to rw, e.g., -[niarob, Dan. vi. 21;

anibsnb, id. v. 15; rvpfts^rp^, id. vi. 4. With a suffix of

the first person the infinitive takes the epenthetic Nun

0), eg-, ''?r:»7i">, ii ii- 26.



The verbal inflections ending in 1 take '•fj as a
suffix of the third pers. masc, e.g., "aianpn, they brought
him, Dan. ^^i. 13, from ^^ preterite: la'ipn. The same
is the case with the nouns, as '•n'os from ia««. The ver-
bal inflections ending in n-; take also the suffix "'H, e.g.,
irca, Ezra v, 11, from nja preterite. It, however, is
changed to PIJ when annexed to a verbal inflection end-
ing in n-. or «— , e.g., !''!?asT3, as he desires it, Dan. iv. 32 ;
niireb, to heat it, id. iiL 19, from the infinitives »asT?,
«!?, resp. to will, to heat.



§ 115.
The cardinal numbera of the BibL Chald. are as
follows :


1 tn,

2 wanting,*

3 nnbn and «ribB,

5 wanting,

6 wanting,

nnn or vnn,
tibn, .

- I -


MC, Dan. iil 1 and

no, Ezra vi. 15,



7 n^ao,

8 wanting,

9 wanting,

10 nnto,

11 wanting,

12 liB^ ■'^n,
wanting till
20 r-itp?,

30 rr)in,

wanting till
60 T^v,
wanting till
100 ruyrf,
1000 ^jbK, »^\>»,

* The number 2 maao. is probably ^^nn, aooordinfr to tha fem. 1'<|!)*in and
to nb9 ^npi, 13, of which tha Nan it omittad, u tbasa two woida aia ooa-
tnsted into one.




Masc. Fem.

10,000 iai, plur., Ijai, lectio inarg. laai,
1,000,000 D''Bb« Eibij, Zecfo'o marg. T^b«,
100,000,000 ■pan ian, lectio marg. laan.

There occurs r'nrbri, Dan. iii. 23, with a suffix. Some
of the old Grammarians read the second n with a TOT
forte. See ''» nnsa

The following are ordinal numhera :


the first, •^TP (§ 28),

the second, wanting,

the third, •'C^B,

the fourth, ■»5-'a7,

emphatical STiai, Dan. iii. 25,


j- wanting.


the first, emphatical «ri;«tt'7J5,
the second, nj^jn, Dan vii. 5,
the third, nstrpbn, id. ii. 39,
the fourth, «''S"ia-i, lectio marg., n«r?"?. id: "■ 40 ; vii. 23.
emph. ^Oira^.


The words Kfibg, Dan. v. 16, 29, and ^l?bn, id. v. 7.



are appellations of a certain rank or dignity, especially

§ 118.
rase in, Dan. iii. 19, signifies seven times as much,
sevenfold. Completely it should be nyao m by, for one,
seven, like in other Aramaic dialects, )'nn "rn b?, for one,
two, i.e., twice as much.

• Eqninlent to the Hebrew B'bOi, n-iolilfl, captain, leader, Exod. xiv. 7 ;
XT. 4; Tarchi takes ^bn for a fraotional namber, and interprets ^pVl^l
cbo^ Hn*3qa, he shall rule over the third part of the kingdom.



The adverbs in the Bibl. dial, have no special ter-
mination, and there occurs only one instance, nisrsp,
Dan. ii. 7, showing a trace of a peculiar termination,
similar to that of the Hebrew in rii^Baip.

. §120.
Adverbs probably original, are:

1. ins and T'V^h then, soon after, hereupon, soon.

2. is, not, preceding tlie yidure, which then takes the

meaning of the imperative, Dan. ii. 24 ; iv. 16 ; v. 10.

3. lbs, Dan. ii. 31 ; iv. 7, 10; vii. 8, and

lis, Dan. vii. 6 (occurring seven times), from which
is derived the rabbinical "'in, behold ! lo !

4. ns, here.

5. 8^, no, not.

6. Ti5, more, yet, Dan. iv. 28.

7. msn, there, Ezra v. 17; vi. 12; msn "p?, from there.

Gesenius takes, incorrectly, this n as n localis (like
the Ilebr. mjo).

Adveibs derived from other parts of words by addi-
tional syllables or without, are :

1- "'^ni'?) Ezra vii. 23, of uncertain meaning ; possibly :
diligently, eagerly.*

• I think it to be of Pers. origin, compound of ; -A which meana : of, from,
^rouon,— .^, meaning: in, i<*6i«i,t»i<sd/. (Locot.) and \j, meaning (o, tUl



2. WR, there is, are, from r"'Si=0''«, n being, a person
(like the Ilebr. »? from v>»). It ia proliably the
abbreviated plural of T'n''S (like the Ilebr. ■>!« of
^^'is), as in fact it forms with the suffixes, like the
nouns in plural, T'r!"'*^, ■'^'''""'1*, Ti3''f]"'«. T"''?, is to be
taken, properly, neither as an adverb, nor as any
other part of words, but as a complete sentence, a cir-
cumstance which sho^vs the great antiquity of this
woi'd. The meaning of ■>r''Sf! with suffixes, therefore,
is not merely, there is, but, I am, thou art, he is, etc.
Tlius bns r'?'''?n, Dan. ii. 26, is to be translated, art
thou able? vribo «:ni« «b, id. iii. 18, we are iurt wor-
8hi])ping; VTny T'3T'>«, id. iii. 15, are ye ready '{ "'H-'K
b-is-i »3nb«, id. iii. 17, is our God able? (see § llt>).

3. K!7»o«, Ezra vi. 12 a. o., speedily, fast.*

4. S'l'i'ira, constantly. Therefrom the Rabbinical "fin,
according to Gesenius from ii'T, tarry, last ; accord-
ing to Rabbi Abraham Lattes from Tin, return,
viz. iu a periodical way, as in Dan. vi. 17, 21, in
regard to the periodical, and not constant, daily

5. s^n, equivalent to the Hebrew Kbn, signifying an in-


6. K'jsn, Dan. iii. 14, is it true, that . . . ?

7. ■''13 (iBi*?), like, as.

(Teinp.)= \j _5 -A : at thu very time, on the ipot. So also is : o i )»\ • /'"' "'

men tnkt, an abbreviation of this oompoond in the Turkish language. (See
Fuad-Effendi'a Oam. Oram., Ch. V., Sect. 2d.

• Probably of Peru, origin ; comp. SPBOX ('AirwaJilTat, Diod. 8. ii. 03), a
name of the god Behram in the shape of a horse, as this animal is called in the
Zend, Asp, or Asph. But, Asa : horse is the Samikrit name which means orig-
inally, tpeed, BwiflnesB. Hee H. Muller, Science of Language. ,



8. n:-!? and ys (from p3), so, thus,
a nnns, Dan. ii., togetlier, at once.

10. na3, Dan. iii. 33, how ! how very ! how much !

11. N13D3 (v. § 104), as we shall say, namely, as follows.

12. reys, l?3, Ezra iv. 10, 11; vii. 12, and r?3, id. iv.
17 (r?3), now, presently. n?3 and p?3 are applied

in introducing a sentence, likewise, "and now," in

13. T'?;'?^ and s^ttt"?^) Dan. ii. 44, for ever, in eternity.

14. s-'ato, Dan. v. 9 ; vi. 15, 24 ; vii. 28, many, very,

■ § 122.

Adverbs composed of two or more words :
nn •'"nn«, Dan. li. 29, 40, and njT insa, Dan. vii. 6, 7,

after this, after which.
nn bap-bj, Dan. ii. 12, 24, and
nj7 ^?i?!;, according to that, in consequence of that,

therefore, likewise.

T>n!j5 TP, Ezra v. 16, since that time.

a-'s: 113, Dan. ii. 8, and

oiop 1T3, Dan. ii. 47, in truth, in certainty.

nn nq-p, ya, Dan. vi. 11, and

rm rn^^p, Ezra v. 11, before this time, years ago.

r^ns -a, Dan. iv. 5, at last.

ns 19, Dan. vii. 28, hitherto.

T?3 ns, Ezra v. 16, until now.

nnbs IS] ^ ... J
, V f Dan. VII. 8, and

isnSy iyi ncby ya, Dan. ii. 20, for ever, in eternity.

* From P37, time, like the Hebr. r9, which is also applied as an adverb.
"WCSi nj ""S, Hos. xiil. 13,



The prepositions in the Bibl. Ghald. are as follows:

a As a prefix, having the same signification as in Heb.

i signifying, the same, as in Heb., but mostly the accu-
sative, e.g., •'ST '>»*^'i> s?^'?, Dan. ii. 48, the king ele-
vated DanieL

■•nns, Dan. ii. 29, with suffixes ; Tin-i-ins, id. vii. 24, and

ir«3, id. viL 6 and 7 (ir«a,=Dipna) with sufBxes: !r?»?5,
id. ii. 39, after.

r?, id. vii. 5, with sufiixes, inT?, id. vii. 8, between.

a «^, id. ii. 34, without. w

rnb* by, close to; ^rrfs yn, Ezra iv. 12, from thy neigh-
borhood, i.e., from thee, like the Hebr. D?n.

Tsb, Dan. vii. 25, towards, at the side.

IP, from, with suffixes ^m, »sis, um, linjia, in™, '<m.

TW, Dan. vi. 5, from the part, in regard.

15?, id. vi. 11, opposite.

T?, until, till.

by, upon, by, near by, to, Dan. ii. 24; vi. 7 and 10; vii.
16; more than, id. iii. 19; opposite, id. iii. 29; v. 23,
Ezra iv. 18; on, id. ib. 11, 17; with the suffixes
of the plural nouns "'>?, !!?>?, O"'!??, sj^?;, lin-'b?; and
Dnby, Ezra vii. 24.

■p? 83?, Dan. vi. 8, superior to.

* Coutr. of nsib bom nfh, ooUneotlon.



tu», with, by, next, Dan. ii, 11; in (in regard to time),

id. iii. 33; iv. 31; vii. 2.
bapb, bnp, oj)posite, before, in the presence, Dan. 3; v. 1,

5 ; in consequence, accordingly, id. v. 10 ; Ezra vi.. 13,

with suffix n>?Pr'.
D'lJ!, before, in the presence, with suff. 'ns'ip, ?ri?7i?,
' (spoTis, Dan. v. 23, is irregular), ''nia'Tg, a"«a'7p„ lin^-JR.
nnp 'p3,=''3BiT3, from before, Dan. ii. 15 ; vi. 27; Ezra vii.

14, with suff. ■'n7El», "'^'^'^pT?, etc.
ninn, beneath, under, Dan. vii. 26 ; with suff. "inirhp,

Dan. iv. 9, 18.
rinn in, Jer. x. 11, from under; with the suff. ""nipni? Ta,

Dan. iv. 11, as if from rnr ip.



The conjanctions are as follows :

tra, but, though, sui-ely, Dan. ii. 28; iv. 12, 20; v. 17 ;
Ezra V. 13, Probably from the Rabb. •'n^ or «"«'?a,
meaning: certainly (tii?), like the Latin conjuuctiou
verum, yet, but, from vei'us. Like na«3 of tJie
Mishna, meaning : yet, when following ""B by Cis.

■'n, that, as [because ; used in the same way as are itf ^f;
and ""B in the Hebr. Also in relation to a sentence].

■n baij.'bs, because of that, for this cause, for reason of
that. The word ^3 is here of no special meaning, and
ba^"b3 seems to be originally one word, forming
bacbs, like the Rabbin. ""Dbs, iDSbs [from •'£» bs, in
presence of all that, considering that], bap ba seems
to be the origin of nB5"b5 in Eccles.

(">Ta) ■'-13 Kn, Dan. ii. 43, even as ("iWS3), in the same
way as. .

■"T ja, after that, therefrom, Dan. iv. 23 ; Ezra ivT 23 and
V. VI.

•"T nnan by, that, in order to, to the end, Dan. ii. 30 IT
"""I rria"!, Dan. iv. 14, has its origin in the ancient use
of changing the end-consonant into the initial of tlio
following word when both consonants are of the
s.arae nature. (See Proleg. § 198.)

V?, if, when, in, in yiTts TiaT-iR p ira. Dan. iii. 15, has
been considered by some to be the Hebr. p, behold !



But this is wrong ; for in the Aram, it never has this
meaning, and the sentence is to be translated, Now, if

ye be ready, etc. (well !), but if not, etc A similar

ellipsis is found in Exod. xxxii.' 32. srnbx t-'S p,
etc., ib. ib. 17, must be translated: ... "If the God
whom we worship be able to deliver us, He will deliver
us from the burning, fiery furnace, and from thy Iiand."
Tlie king having said, who is that God tliat shall
deliver you out of my hand? they, considering the
lespect due to him, did not contiatlict directly, but
deferentially answered : If He will be able. He will
deliver us ; but even if, as thou sayest. He be not able
to do it, kndw, that still we shall not worship the
golden image. In K3"ix nv\r\ p, Dan. iv. 24, p is not
altering its meaning, but it must be taken with an
ellipsis, thus: If (thou wilt) that there be a length-
ening of tliy tranquillity. -^p . . • P, Ezra vii.
26, whether so ... or so .. .

pb, d) except, unless, only if, Dan. ii. 11, 30; iii. 23;
vi. C, 8, 13; Ezra v. 12 (from p sb instead of »b p,
Lat. nisi, instead of, si no/i) ; I>) therefore, con-
sequently (I3b), Dun. ii. G, 9 ; iv. 24.*

qsi, id. vi. 22 ; Ezra v. 10; vi. 5, and also.

nob, Ezra iv. 22, and nab-'^, id. vii. 23 ; that not, unless,
like the Talm. »y})V, and the Hebr. nab and nabo.

nia-by, why ?

• Tho passages quoted in J) admit just as well the sijrnifioation given in a).




«n, Dan. iii. 25, and «n in •'"ja »n (§ 23), may be con-
sidered to be interjections, meaning, lo ! see ! behold !







The language in which the Babylonical Talmud was
written is called the Bahjlonical-l'almudical idiom,
and forms a dialect of the Ai-amaic or Chaldaic lan-


The Babylonical Talmud, though very large in
volume, maintains in its language grammatical unity
and harmony. Its language is characterized as the
'' Talmudical dialect," from which, however, the dialect
of the following parts in the Talmud is more or less
different :

a) A great number of passages in the Mishna and
Baraitha, as also such sentences as belong to Palestineau
authors (R. Yochanan, R. Amea, R. Ashe), which are
abundantly scattered in these parts of the Talmud.
They are not Aramaic, but Hebrew of a later period,
the so-called o^'asn iioS, Rabbinical dialect.

i) Sentences l)elonging to Palestinean sages; they are
nearer to the Targum dialect.

c) Some pieces of notarial style, as honorary instru-
ments, meiKsantile contracts, etc., being also more of the
Targum dialect.

d) The tract of Nedarim, which differs somewhat in
its dialect from that of the Bab. Talmud, as has been
noticed already by Rabeuu Asher iu his commentary





to Nedarim, p. 2), saying raMn D-'i'H llffibo nbs, only
that the language of Nedarim is different (from tlie
common Talm. dialect). So also is the tract of Nazir
distinguished by its use of some of the phraseology
peculiar to Nedarim. The linguistic peculiarities uf
both tracts pertain to the Falestineau dialect (se^.
§§ 38, 47, 48).


As to its wording the Talm. dialect uses, besides the
Hebrew, also words of many other languages, as Greek,
Latin, Persian, Syriac, Arabic, etc. Concerning the
different Talm. dictionaries, there are given fome use-
ful notices by Moses Landau in his preface to the "'Siya
Xnfi. As to the originally Persian words in the Talmud,
see Adrian Reland, dissert miscellan., t II., diss, ix.,
and an extract thereof in the tJ'^ny ■'"I'lDa, Jahrgang 587,
p. 76-79.*

■ §4.

The Talmud consists of records and discussions, relat-
ing partly to the doctrines of the different schools
(academies) in regard to ritual statutes, civil and moral
laws, and partly to matter of popular nature, having
the social and political life as the subject of consider-

§5- .
In the doctrinal parts of the Talmud a great number
of Hebrew words, as also many technical terms and
designations peculiar to the nature of this matter, are
applied, and expressions originally Greek, as found in
the Mishnah, are profusely employed. In the sections

■ And of later date : T. Peile's Et7molog:iBahe Btudieo.

relating to popular matter, however, a great variety of
exclusive Talm. words, as also Pei'sian and Chaldaic
expressions are abundantly prevailing.

,; In relation to its grammar the Talmudical dialect is
particularly characterized by its disposition towards an
utmost contraction of woi-ds, and this peculiarity is the
ground on which the following rules and regulations
are founded :


1) The terminal consonant is generally, and, when a
Nun (3), almost always omitted, e.g., "'"ins for TTOS, say-
ing, partic plur. ; «|a for l|tt (!« ■)»), wherefi-om ? "'3
for tT"?, in the house of . . . (Germ, bei) ; »»"'«, «a-'n,
vm^i, 1 shall, thou wilt, he will say, for "!»■'«, it?''!?, nB\3 ;
«mT for noiT, small ; in for ain (§ 97). There is in the
Bibl. Cliald. but one instance of such an apocope, viz.,
the word KT3.3, Ezra, often.

Apocopated words change either the »11D into a
vowel, e.g., ''p"'!? instead of oipn, she will stand, i.e., the
question will stand undecided ; or the vowel into a
diphthong *, e.g., "'^in instead of r"<in, I was ; or, lastly,

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