For General Oglethorpe he expressed the greatest tenderness, and entreated
the Indians to bear in remembrance the kindnesses with which the king of
England had treated him, and hoped they would always remain his subjects.
Having expressed a wish that his body might be buried among the English in
Savannah, accordingly, his corpse was there interred in Percival Square, with
military parade, and General Oglethorpe ordered a pyramid to be erected over
it, with an appropriate inscription. J
Thus are traced the first steps in the history of Georgia, and thus did every
thing promise a continuance of that friendship so well begun by General
Oglethorpe. Nothing was left undone, while the Creek chiefs were in Eng-
land, to impress upon their minds exalted ideas of the power and greatness of
the English nation. The nobility were not only curious to see them, but
entertained them at their tables in the most magnificent style. Multitudes
flocked around them, conferring gifts and marks of respect upon them. The
king allowed them 20 sterling a week, during their stay, and it was computed
that, at their return to America, they brought presents to the amount of 400
sterling. After remaining in England four months, they embarked at Grave-
send for Georgia. They were conveyed to the place of embarkation in his
In the invasion of Georgia by the Spaniards, in 1743, many Indians were
Irawn into the controversy, on both sides. Toeanoeowi, \\ or Tooanohowi, a
nephew of Tomochichi, was shot through the right arm, in an encounter with
" Harris, Voyages. t Kalm's Travels in America, i. 213.
$ M'Call, Hist. Georgia, i. 196, 197. $ Ib. i. 45. || Harris.
372 OUTACITE. INTERVIEW WITH GOV. NICHOLSON. [BooK IV
the Spaniards, by a Spanish captain. Toonnohowi drew his pistol with his left
hand, and shot tho captain through the head.
Thus, with the Spaniards upon one hand, and the English upon the other
and the French in the midst of them, the Creeks and ( 'hemkees became sub-
ject to every possible e\il to which the caprice of those several nations gave
rise. In 172M, a chief, whose name we find in writers of that day, H'o<i(its<ii!(tu\
lf~(n>$t(tnHtift\ Wootassttau, Wrosettuatmo,* &e. is styled "Governor of the Lower
and IMiddle Settlements of the Charikees." He is presumed to be the sann
with Ofm-ite, or Otassite, one of the prisoners above enumerated, and from
what we are about to relate of him. his eminence will be apparent. In 1721.
Francis Nicholson went over as governor of S. Carolina, who was said to have
been very successful in managing affairs with the Indians. Soon after his
arrival, the Cherokees despatched messengers to Charleston to adjust some
difficulties which had for some time existed; and, not long after, another more
full and complete deputation arrived. Governor Nicholson opened the council
by a long speech to " Jf'ootassite, King, and to the heads of the Lower and
Middle Settlements of the Charokee Nations."
In the course of his speech, he observes, that, when they delivered their
acknowledgments and paid their submission to the government, "the other
day," they had made mention of 37 towns that had sent down their chiefs for
that purpose, and wished to be satisfied that these towns were represented,
that his words might be carried to all their inhabitants. After laying much
stress on their submission and respect to the king of England, he speaks thus
sensibly upon their trading with the whites, which at the same time discovers
to us the origin of former troubles.
After ordering that if either party injured the other, restitution should be
made by the aggressor, he says, "Frequent complaints have been made that
your people have often broke open the stores belonging to our traders, and
carry'd away their goods ; and also pillaged several of their packs, when
employ'd and entrusted to carry them up ; and restitution has never been
made, which are great faults: We therefore recommend to you, to take all
possible precautions to prevent such ill practices for the future," &c. "And to
prevent any injury or misunderstanding, we have pass'd a law, which appoints
commissioners that are to go twice a year to the Congaree, or Savana garrison,
to hear and redress all grievances."
" Woosatasate being a man in great esteem amongst you, having given fre-
quent testimonies of his affection and firm adherence to this government, and
being appointed king over you by the former governor f of this province; so
I, who am sent immediately from his majesty, having the same regard to so
deserving a man, and in compliance with your own request, that I would
constitute proper commanders over you, do now declare the said Woosatasate,
your leader and commander in chief over all the lower settlements of the
Cherrokees, and give him a commission for that office, under the broad seal
of this his Majesty's province," &c. " I expect that you, M'oosatasate, do, within
a month after your return, call together all the chief men in your district, and
that you make them thoroughly acquainted with what I now say to you, and
require of you, and shall give directions, that all the Englishmen amongst you
shall be at that meeting. That your ancient government may be restored, I
recommend to you to keep your young men in that due decorum they us'd to
be," &c. This treaty was held 3 February, 1721, O. S., or this is the date to
Governor Nicholson's speech ; but it appears by our account that it was the
middle of March before the Indian deputies left Charleston.
Although there were events, in every year, of importance, yet, in this place,
\\e shall take up the period rendered more memorable by the distinguished
* Hewatt, I. 298.
t James Moore, who, according to Hewatt (I. 276), was put into office in opposition to the
regular course, by a kind of revolutionary spirit. See Oldmixon, who is far more particular,
1. 348. -Moore was elected in 1701. The author of " The British Dominions," (142,) say*
the Indians were cruelly treated during his administration. There were several other govern
ors before Nicholson, beside Moore.
Chief of the CHEROKEES
CHAP. IV.] ATTAKULLAKULLA. 373
ATTAKULLAKULLA and OCKONOSTOTA.* The fame of Carolina
had, in 1753, drawn a multitude of Europeans to her shores. The same year,
on the 26 May, MALACHTY, attended by the Wolf-king and the Ottasee chief,
with about 20 others, and above a hundred of their people, carne to Charleston.
They were met, on their way, by a troop of horsemen, who conducted them to
:he town, by the governor's order, in great state. This was to induce them
to make peace and remain their allies, and, to this end, the governor, Glenn,
made a very pacific speech, in the Indian manner. Malachty, who, at this -
time, seems to have been the head chief among the Creeks, presented the
governor with a quantity of skins, and readily consented to a peace with the
English; but, in regard to a peace with the Cherokees, he said, that was a
matter of great moment, and he must deliberate with his people, before he
could give an answer. The Cherokees were already under the protection of
the English, and some of them had, not long before, been killed by the Creeks,
in the very neighborhood of Charleston. The party which committed this
outrage was led by Malachty. Notwithstanding, a cessation of hostilities seems
to have taken place, for numbers of each nation joined the English immediately
after the capture of Oswego, by the French, in 1756. The Cherokees are
particularly named, as having rendered essential service in the expedition
against Fort Duquesne ; but a circumstance happened, while those warriors
were returning home from that expedition, which involved them in an imme-
diate war with the English, in whose service they had been engaged. Having
lost their horses, and being worn out with toil and fatigue, on coming to the
frontiers of Virginia, they picked up several of those animals, which belonged
to the inhabitants of the places through which they travelled. This, Dr. Ram-
say f says, was the cause of the massacre which they suffered at that time.
But Mr. Mair,\ who lived then among the Indians in those parts, says,
" Several companies of the Cheerake, who joined our forces under Gen.
Stanwix, at the unfortunate Ohio, affirmed that their alienation from us was
because they were confined to our martial arrangement, by unjust suspicion of
them were very much contemned, and half starved at the main camp :
their hearts told them, therefore, to return home, as freemen and injured allies,
though without a supply of provisions. This they did, and pinching hunger
forced them to take as much as barely supported nature, when returning to
their own country. In their journey, the German inhabitants, without any
provocation, killed, in cool blood, about 40 of their warriors, in different places
though each party was under the command of a British subject." It must
be remembered that, upon Braddoctfs defeat, Virginia had offered a reward
for the scalps of hostile Indians. Here, then, was an inducement for remorse-
less villains to murder, and it was impossible, in many cases, to know whether
a scalp were taken from a friend or an enemy. Out of this, then, we have no
hesitation in saying, grew the excessive calamities, which soon after distressed
the southern provinces. Forty innocent men, and friends, too, murdered in
cold blood by the backwoodsmen of Virginia, brought on a war, which caused
as much distress and misery among the parties engaged, as any since that
region of country was planted by the whites.
At one place, a monster entertained a party of Indians, and treated them
kindly, while, at the same time, he caused a gang of his kindred ruffians to lie
in ambush where they were to pass, and, when they arrived, barbarously shot
them down to a man ! The news was forthwith carried to the Cherokee
nation, and the effect of it upon the minds of the warriors, was like thai, of
electricity. They seized their tomahawks and war clubs, and, but for the
wisdom of Jlttakullakulla^ would have murdered several Englishmen, then in
their country upon some matters respecting a treaty. As Jlttakullakulla was a
shief sachem, he was among the first apprized of the murders, and the design
* Ouconnostotah. Ouconnostota, Ouconnoslata, \Vijnne. Occonostota, Ramsay. Attakul-
'.akulla was generally called the Little carpenter.
t Hist. South Carolina, i. 169.
t Hist. Amer Indians, 245. That the Indians" taking- horses was no pretext for the murders,
even at the time, appears evident. ( 'As (says Captain M'Call, i. 257.) the horses in those
parts ran wild in the woods, it was customary, both among the Indians and white people on the
frontiers, to catcl them and appropriate them to their own use."
374 ATTAKULLAKl'LLA. LITTLETON'S ILL CONDUCT. [BOOK IV
of vengeance. lie therefore goes immediately to them, and informed them of
their danger, and assisted them to secrete themselves; then, without loss ot'
time, lie assembled his warriors, and made a speech to them, in which he
inveighed, with great bitterness, against the murderous English, and urged
immediate? war against them; u and never (said he) ahaUthe hatchet be buried
until l/ie blood of our count ri/in<n be atoned for. Let us not (he continued) violnti
our faith, or the laws of hospitality, by imbruing our hands in the blood of tlm*
who are now in our power. They came to us in the confidence of friend ah ijj, iril ,
belts of wampum to cement a perpetual alliance with us. Let us carry them back
t) their own settlements ; conduct them safeli/ within their confines, and then ta/,'
up the hatchet, and endeavor to exterminate the whole race of them" This counsel
was adopted. Before commencing hostilities, however, the murderers were
demanded, but were blindly refused them, and we have related the conse-
The French, it was said, used their influence to enrage the Indians; but if
that were the case, we should not deem it worth naming, as it appears to us
that nothing more could be necessary to inflame them than the horrid out-
rages of which we have spoken.
It appears from another source,* that Governor Littleton was met at Charles-
ton by a deputation of 32 Cherokee chiefs, among whom was Ockonostota,
who, on hearing of the warlike movements at that place, had set out to visit
the English, and if possible to prevent a war with them. For although some
of their young warriors had committed several acts of violence, yet the great
body of the nation were friendly towards the English, and desired peace.
But instead of seizing on this opportunity of treating with the chiefs, he
insultingly told them, "That he would soon be in their country, where
he would let them know his demands." Ockonostota began to speak in
reply, " but the governor being determined that nothing should prevent his
military expedition, declared he would hear no talk he had to make, neithei
in vindication of his nation, nor any proposals with regard to peace." The
Lieutenant-Governor BULL saw the bad policy of this step, and urged the
necessity of hearing what Ockonostota, the Great Warrior, as he was called,
had to say, and settling their difficulties ; but this good advice had no effect
on Littleton, and he marched from Charleston in October, a few days after
At a place of rendezvous, about 140 miles from that place, his force amounted
to about 1400 men. The chiefs, by order of the governor, had marched with
the army to this place, and, although burning with resentment at their treatment,
yet they discovered no signs of discontent. When the army was about to march
from Congarees, (this being their place of rendezvous,) the chiefs were all made
prisoners, and under guard were marched to Fort Prince George, f
Their resentment now showed itself; " stung to the heart by such base
treatment," they cringed in sullen silence, and we may suppose that " they
spent their time in concerting plots for obtaining their liberty, and satisfaction
for the injuries done them." f
Being now at Fort Prince George with his army, Littleton found himself in
about the same repute with his own men as with the injured Indians; he
therefore concluded not to carry his conquests any further at present, but to
make a treaty, and retain captive Indians enough as hostages to insure its
observance. He therefore sent a messenger to Attakullakidla, who was reck-
oned the wisest man in the nation, or the best friend to the English, request-
ing him to come to Fort George. He immediately came; and to show the
English he was their friend, produced a French prisoner whom he had just
taken in an expedition against that nation, and whom he presented to Gov-
ernor Littleton. A "congress" was now (about 18 December, 1759) held
with Attakullakulla, in winch a long speech, in which all the grievances he
could think of were enumerated by the governor ; after which the chief
made another, in which he promised to do all he could to persuade his coun-
trymen to give the governor the satisfaction he demanded ; yet he said, " it
* Hewatt, Hist. Carolina, ii. 216.
t This fort was upon the Savannah River, near the Cherokee town called Keowee.
t Hewalt, Hist. Carolina, ii. 18.
CHAP. IV.] ATTAKULLAKULLA. IMPRISONMENT OF HOSTAGES. 375
neither would nor could be complied with, as they had no coercive authority,
one over another." He desired that some of the chiefs then confined might
be liberated to aid him in restoring tranquillity ; and accordingly Ockonostota,
Fiftoe, chief of Keowee, and the head warrior of Estatoe, were given up, and
two Indians were taken in exchange and put in irons. The other Cherokees
present, ohserving what was going forward, withdrew into the woods, and Jlt-
iakullakulla, presuming the business must end here, withdrew also. It had been
premised, or rather demanded, in the governor's speech, that 24 Indians, who
were known to have killed white people, should be given into his hands to be
put to death, or otherwise disposed of. Two only had been delivered, and 22
yet remained of the number of the murderers, in their own native forests.
As soon as Littleton knew of Attakullakulla? s departure, he sent for him, and
he immediately returned, and the business of a treaty was renewed, and on
the 26 December, 1759, it was signed by
ATTAKULLAKULLA, OTASSITE, OCONNOECA, and
OUCOANOSTOTA, KlTAGUSTA, KlLLCAHNOKEA.
By article III. of the treaty,* it was agreed that 22 chiefs, (those \vho had
been treacherously seized,) should remain as hostages, to ensure the delivery
of the like number of murderers to the English. There seems, however, to
have been but 21 retained, whose names we are able to give below, and who.
under the name of hostages, were thrown into a dismal, close prison, scarce
larcre enough for six men, where thev remained about two months, and were
then masacred, as in the sequel we shall show:
Chenohe, Ousanatanali, Tallichama, Tallitahe, Quairasattahe, Connasaratah.
Katadoi, Otassite of Watogo, Ousaiwldah of Jore, Kataeletah of Cowetche,
Chisquatalone, Skiagusta of Sticoe, Tanaesto, Wohatche, If'yejah, Oucahchista-
nah, J\*icolche, Tony, Toatiahoi, Shallisloske, and Chistie.\
Things having been thus settled, Mr. Littldon returned to Charleston, where
lie was received like a conqueror, although what he had done, it will appear,
was worse than if he had done nothing.
Ockonostota, for good reason, no doubt, entertained a deep-rooted hatred
against Captain Cotymore, an officer of the garrison, and the army had but just
left the country, when it was found that he \vas hovering about the garrison
with a large number of warriors. But it was uncertain, for some time, wheth-
er they intended to attack the fort, or whether they wished to continue near
their friends, who were imprisoned in it. However, it is said, that, by some
means, a plan was concerted between the Indians without and those confined
within the fort, for surprising it. Be this as it may, Ockonostota, on the 16
February, 1760, practised the following wile to effect the object. Having
placed a party of his warriors in a dark cane-brake near at hand, he sent a
squaw to the garrison to invite the commander to come out, for he had some-
thing of importance to communicate to him. Captain Cotymore imprudently
went out, accompanied by two of his officers, and Ockonostota appeared upon
the opposite bank of the Savannah, with a bridle in his hand, the better to
conceal his intentions. He told the captain he was going to Charleston to
effect the release of the hostages, and requested that a white man might
accompany him ; and that, as the distance was great, he would go and try to
catch a horse. The captain promised him a guard, and hoped he would
succeed in finding a horse. Ockonostota then quickly turned himself about,
and swinging his bridle thrice over his head, which was the signal U) hi>
men, and they promptly obeying it, about 30 guns were discharged upon the
officers at the same moment. Captain Cotymore received a shot in his leir
breast, from which he died in two or three days after, and both the others
were wounded. I On recovering the fort, an attempt was made to put the
* It is printed at length in the BRITISH EMPIRE, by Huddlestone Wynne, Esq. ii. 273
277 ; an author of no inconsiderable merit on our affairs.
t Several of these 22 were of the number who had been in England in 1730, and executed
a treaty with the king, as has been before stated, and as will be seen by comparing the names
Stbove with those named in the treaty.
t "Two Indian women appeared at Keowee, on the other side of the river. Mr. Dohertq
went out, and accosting them, asked what news ? Ockonostota joined them, pretending some
376 CHEROKEE WAR MONTGOMERY'S EXPEDITION. [Boo K IV
hostages in irons. An Englishman, who laid lr>ld on one of them for dial
purpose, was stabixd ;ui(l slain; and, in the scuffle, two or three more were
wounded, and driven out of the place of confinement. The tragedy in the
fort had now only commenced ; the miserahle prisoners had repelled their
assassins for the moment, and, donhtless, hoped j'or deliverance from their
friends without, who had now closely besieged the place. But, unfortunately
for these poor wretches, the fort was too strong to he carried by their arts of war.
and the dastardly whites found time and means to murder their victims, one h\
one, in a manner too horrible to relate.* There were few persons among
the Cherokees who did not lose a friend or relation by this massacre ; and, as
one man, the nation took up the hatchet, and desolations quickly followed.
Meanwhile, singular as it may appear, Attakullakidla remained the fast
friend of the whites, and used all his arts to induce his countrymen to make
peace. But it was in vain he urged them to consider that they had more
than revenged themselves; they were determined to carryall before them.
. lltakullakulla was now an old man, and had become much attached to the
i'^nglish, from several causes. On the other hand, Ockonostota was a stern
warrior, in the vigor of manhood, and, like the renowned Pontiac, was deter-
mined to rid his country of his barbarous enemies.
The leaders in every town seized the hatchet, telling their followers that the
spirits of murdered brothers were flying around them, and calling out for ven-
geance. All sung the war-song, and, burning with impatience to imbrue their
hands in the blood of their enemies, rushed down among innocent and de-
fenceless families on the frontiers of Carolina, where men, women, and
children, without distinction, fell a sacrifice to their merciless fury. Such
of the whites as fled to the woods, and escaped the scalping-knife, perished
with hunger. Every day brought fresh accounts to the capital of their
ravages and desolations. But, while the back settlers impatiently looked to
their governor for relief, the small-pox raged to such a degree in town, that
few of the militia could be prevailed on to leave their clistressed families to
serve the public. In this extremity, an express was sent to General Amherst,
the commander-in-chief in America, for assistance, in terms too pressing to
be denied. Accordingly, he ordered a battalion of Highlanders, and four
companies of Royal Scots,f under the command of Colonel Montgomery,
afterwards Earl Eglinton, to embark at New York for Carolina, "in the
mean time, Littleton, having been appointed governor of Jamaica, William
Bull succeeded him ; a change much to the advantage of the province.
Colonel Montgomery arrived in Carolina towards the end of April, to the
great joy of the people, who had taken measures to cooperate with him to the
best advantage ; but, as the conquest of Canada was the grand object now,
General Jtmherst had ordered Colonel Montgomery to strike a sudden blow for
the relief of the Carolinians, and then to return to head- quarters at Albany,
without loss of time ; and we have scarce an example in military history,
where an officer fulfilled his commission with greater promptitude. He soon
after rendezvoused at the Congarees ; and, being joined by many gentlemen
"f distinction as volunteers, besides the principal strength of the country, he
marched for the heart of the Cherokee country. After reaching a place
called Twelve Mile River, he encamped upon advantageous ground, and
marched with a party to surprise Estatoe, about 20 miles from his camp. In
the way, he took Little Keovvee, and put every man to the sword. Estatoe
tie found abandoned, except by a few that could not escape, and it was
reduced to ashes, as was Sugar Town, and every other settlement in the
lower nation. About 60 Indians were killed, and 40 taken prisoners; but the
matters of business j he drew from the fort several of the officers to converse with them."
Hay wood's Hist. Tennessee, 30.
* " A bottle of poison was found with one of the dead hostages, probably intended to be
dropped into the well j and several tomahawks were found buried in the earth." Haipcood,
Hist. Tennessee, 30. Any stories would gain credence among- the whites, which went to
make the Indians as bad as themselves. Whether the bottle spoken of contained poison,
may be questioned ; and, if it did, it may be reasonably doubted whether the Indians knew
any thing about it.
f I am following Heiratt, but the Annual Register, iii. 62, says, " a regiment of Highland
'< rs, a battalion of RoyaJ Americans, a body of grenadiers," &c.
CHAP. IV.] CHEROKEE WAR. BATTLE OF ETCHOE. 377
warriors had generally escaped to the mountains and deserts. Thus fur, the