Copyright
Samuel Gardner Drake.

The aboriginal races of North America; comprising biographical sketches of eminent individuals, and an historical account of the different tribes, from the first discovery of the continent to the present period ... and a copious analytical index online

. (page 93 of 131)
Online LibrarySamuel Gardner DrakeThe aboriginal races of North America; comprising biographical sketches of eminent individuals, and an historical account of the different tribes, from the first discovery of the continent to the present period ... and a copious analytical index → online text (page 93 of 131)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


saying the time was out, Marshall clasped his arms about a saplin to support

45 21



530 Tin: \\AI.KIM; PI UCIIASE. [BOOK .

himself, and thereupon the sheriff asking him what was tho matter, he said
he was almost gone, and that, if he had proceeded a lew poles further, he
must have tldleli. \\ e lodged in the woods that night, and heard the shout-
ing ot' the Indians at a cantico, which they were said to hold that e\ening in
a town hard by. Next morning the Indians were sent to, to know it' they
would accompany us any farther, hut they declined it, although I helievc
>me o<f them came to us before we started, and drank a dram in the com-
pany, and then straggled off about their hunting or some other amusement In
our return we came through this Indian town or plantation, Tiinoiluj Smith and
myself riding forty yards more or less before the company, and as we ap-
proached within about 150 paces of the town, the woods being open, we saw
an Indian take a gun in his hand, and advancing towards us some distance,
placed himself behind a log that laid by our way. Timothy observing his
motions, and being somewhat surprised, as I apprehended, looked at me, and
asked what I thought that Indian meant. I said, I hoped no harm, and that
I thought it best to keep on, which the Indian seeing, arose and walked before
us to the settlement. I think Smith was surprised, as I well remember I was,
through a consciousness that the Indians were dissatisfied with the walk, a
thing the whole company seemed to be sensible of, and upon the way, in
our return home, frequently expressed themselves to that purpose. And
indeed the unfairness practised in the walk, both in regard to the way where,
and the manner how, it was performed, and the dissatisfaction of the Indians
concerning it, were the common subjects of conversation in our neighbor-
hood, for some considerable time alter it was done. When the walk was
performed I was a young man in the prime of life. The novelty of the thing-
inclined me to be a spectator, and as I had been brought up most of my
time in Burlington, the whole transaction to me was a series of occurrences
almost entirely new, and which therefore, I apprehend, made the more strong
and lasting impression on my memory.

Thomas Furniss" *

As we have already observed, the end of these affairs was w r ar. The
Delawares were driven back, and they joined the French against the
English



CHAPTER IE.

Cf several chiefs spoken of by Washington, in his journal of an embassy to the French
of Ohio Battle near Great Meadows, and death of Jumonmlle SHINGIS MONA-
CATOOCHA HALF-KING JUSKAKAKA WHITE-THUNDER ALLIQUIPA CAP-
TAIN JACOBS HENDRICK His history Curious anecdote of LOGAN Cresaps
W ar Battle of Point Pleasant Logan s famous speech CORNSTOCK His history
RED-HAWK ELLINIPSICO The barbarous murder of these three Melancholy
death of Logan PONTIAC A renowned, warrior Colonel Rogers' s account of him
His policy Fall of Michilimakinali MENEHWEHNA Siege of Detroit Ponti-
ac's stratagem to surprise it Is discovered Official account of the affair at Bloody
Bridge Pontiac abandons the siege Becomes the friend of the English Is assas
strutted.

THE expedition of Washington to the French on the Ohio, in 1753, brings
to our records information of several chiefs of the Six Nations, of the most
interesting kind. He was commissioned and sent as an ambassador to the
French, by Governor Dinwiddie of Virginia. He kept an accurate journal
of his travels, which, on his return to Virginia, \vas published, and, not long
after, the same was republished in London, with a map ; the substance
of this journal was copied into almost every periodical of importance of
that day.



* Causes of the Alienation of the Delaware and Shawanese Indians, &c., 8vo. Lon
don, 1759.



CHAP. III.] WASHINGTON'S JOURNEY AMONG THE INDIANS. 531

SHINGIS was the first chief he visited, who lived in the forks of the
Alleghany and Monongahela Rivers, where Pittsburgh now stands. He intend-
ed holding a council with the celebrated Half-king,* already mentioned, at
Loggstown, and such others as could be assembled at short notice, to strengthen
them in the English interest. He therefore invited Shingis to attend the
council, and he accordingly accompanied him to Loggstown. "As soon as
I came into town," says Washington, "I went to Monakatoocha, (as the Half-
king was out at his hunting cabin, on Little Beaver Creek, about 15 miles off,)
and informed him by John Davidson, my Indian interpreter, that I was sent a
messenger to the French general, and was ordered to call upon the sachems
of the Six Nations to acquaint them with it. I gave him a string of wampum
and a twist of tobacco, and desired him to send for the half-king, which he
promised to do by a runner in the morning, and for other sachems. I in-
vited him and the other great men present to my tent, where they stayed
about an hour, and returned." This place was about 140 miles, " as we went,
and computed it," says the great writer, " from our back settlements, where
we arrived between sunsetting and dark, the twenty-fifth day after I left
Williamsburgh."

Half-king, it seems, had, not long before, visited the same place to which
Washington was now destined ; for as soon as he returned to his town, Wash-
ington invited him privately to his tent, " and desired him to relate some of
the particulars of his journey to the French commandant," the best way for
him to go, and the distance from that place. "He told me," says Washington,
"that the nearest and levelest way was now impassable, by reason of
many large miry savannas ; that we must be obliged to go by Venango, and
should not get to the near fort in less than five or six nights' sleep, good
travelling." Half-king further informed him that he met with a cold recep-
tion; that the French officer sternly ordered him to declare his business,
which he did, he paid, in the following speech :

"Fathers, I am come to tell you your own speeches ; what your own m.niths
have declared. You, in former days, set a silver basin before us, wh< rein
there was the leg of a beaver, and desired all the nations to come and eat of
it; to eat in peace and plenty, and not to be churlish to one another : and that
if any such person should be found to be a disturber, I here lay down by the
edge'of the dish a rod, which you must scourge them with ; and if your father
should get foolish, in my old days, I. desire you may use it upon me as well
as others. Now, fathers, it is you who are the disturbers in this land, by
coming and building your towns ; and taking it away unknown to us, and by
force. We kindled a fire, a long time ago, at a place called Montreal, where
we desired you to stay, and not to come and intrude upon our land. I now
desire you may despatch to that place ; for, be it known to you, fathers, that
this is our land, and not yours. I desire you may hear me in civilness ; if
not, we must handle that rod which was laid down for the use of the obstrep-
erous. If you had come in a peaceable manner, like our brothers the English,
we would not have been against your trading with us, as they do ; but to
come, fathers, and build houses upon our land, and to take it by force, is
what we cannot submit to."

Half-king then repeated what was said to him in reply by the French,
which, when he had done, Washington made a speech to him and his council,
He acquainted them with the reason of his visit, and told them he w r as in-
structed to call upon them by the governor of Virginia, to advise with them,
to assure them of the love of the English, and to ask the assistance of some
of their young men, to conduct him through the wilderness, to the French,
to whom he had a letter from his governor. Half-king made this reply :

"In regard to what my brother the governor had desired of me, I return

* He is called a Huron by Loskid, Hist. Missions, iii. 123. He was called by the Dela-
wares Pomoacan, which in English means Sweet-house. Heckewelder, Nar. 235. In the
letter, or speech, as Washington called it, which this chief sent to the governors of Virginia
and Pennsylvania, in 1754, his name is set down Seruniyattha. See 1 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc.
vi. 143. f will here note, that my friend, JARED SPARKS, Esq., verbally informs me, that he
' is of opinion, that this is not the same Half-king mentioned in Loskid. I am now of tto 1
same belief, although it is possible.



532 HALF KING. BATTLE NEAR GREAT MEADOWS. [BOOK V-

you this answer." "I rely upon you as a brother ought to do, as you say we
are brothers, and one people." "Brother, as you have asked my advice, I
hope you will be ruled by it, and stay until I can provide a company to go
with yon. The French speech belt is not here ; 1 have it to go lor to my
hunting cabin. Likewise the people, whom I have ordered in, are not yet
come, and cannot until the third night from this; until \\hich time, brother,
1 must beg you to stay."

When Washington told him that his business would not admit of so much
dclav, the chief seemed displeased, and said it was " matter of no small mo-
ment, and must not be entered -without due consideration" IVrhaps it will not
be too much, to give this Indian chief credit for some of that character which
was so well exemplified by Washington in all his after-life. And "as I found
it impossible," says the narrator, "to get off', without affronting them in the
most egregious manner, I consented to stay." Accordingly, Half-kins; gave
orders to King Shingis, who was present, to attend on Wednesday night with
the wampum, and two men of their nation, to be in readiness to set out with
us next morning." There was still a delay of another day, as the chiefs
could not get in their wampum and young men which were to be sent ; and,
alter all, but three chiefs and one hunter accompanied. " We set out," says
Washington, " about 9 o'clock, with the Half-king, Juskakaka,* White-thundery
and the hunter; and travelled on the road to Venango, where we arrived the
4th of December." This place is situated at the junction of French Creek
with the Ohio. Here the French had a garrison, and another a short distance
above it, which w 7 as the extent of our discoverer's peregrinations northward.
The commanders of these posts used all means to entice Half-king to desert
the English, and it was with great difficulty that Washington succeeded in
preventing them. They endeavored to weary him out by making the chiefs
delay their departure from day to day, by means of liquor, so that they should
be left behind. At length, having out-generalled his complotters, and "got
things ready to set off', I sent for the Half-king" continues the narrator, " to
know whether he intended to go with us, or by water. He told me that
IVhite-thunder had hurt himself much, and was sick, and unable to walk ;
therefore he was obliged to carry him down in a canoe ; " so, notwithstanding
the delays, Washington was obliged to go without him ; but he cautioned him
strongly against believing Monsieur Joncaire's pretensions of friendship, and
representations against the English. Hero ends Washington's account of
Half-king.

And before closing our account of the termination of Washington's journey,
we will close our account of this chief also. In 1754 he accompanied Wash-
ington in his excursion to dislodge the French from the disputed territory
upon the Ohio, and was his constant counsellor, until after the surrender of
Fort Necessity at the Great Meadows, on the 4 July. At the surprise of M.
de Jumonvttle, on the 28 May previous, he led a company of his warriors,
and piloted the English under Washington to the place where he was encamped,
which was but a few miles from Great Meadows. Jumonville's force was
small, consisting of but about 33 men. The night previous to the attack,
Half-king, who was encamped six miles from Great Meadows, having made
a discovery of the approach of the French force, sent an express to Washing-
ton, to inform him that the French were discovered in an obscure retreat.
The colonel immediately marched out with 40 men and reached Half -king's
quarters a little before sunrise. A council was now held by the chieis of the
parties, and it was agreed that the English and Indians should march together
and attack the French. They marched in single file through the woods, in
the Indian manner, in a most dismal storm of rain ; and following the track
just explored by Half-king's spies, soon found themselves near the party
Jumonville was in a secure place, half a mile from a road, and surrounded
by rocks, and had he not been fallen upon by surprise, it is doubtful whether
the attacking party had not found it difficult to have contended successfully

* We hear again of this chief in 1794, when, with 58 others, he signed a treaty with th*
United States at Fort Stanwix. His name is there written Jislikaaga, which signified a green
grasshopper. He was sometimes called Little-Billy.



CHAP. III.] SHINGIS KUSTALOGA. 533

against him. But not being discovered, Washington made a good disposition
of his men ; himself with the English formed the right wing, and Half-king
at the head of the Indians, the left. The French were found without their
arms in their hands, but they flew to them, and a fight of about 15 minutes
ensued. None of the party escaped. Eleven of the French were killed,
among whom was M. de Jumonville ; one wounded, and 21 taken prisoners.
Washington lost but one man, and two or three only were wounded.*

We now return to the narrative of Washington, which we had found it
necessary abruptly to interrupt.

He now set out for the frontiers with all expedition. He had, he says, the
' most fatiguing journey possible to conceive of. From the 1st to the loth
December, there was but one day on which it did not rain or snow inces-
santly ; and through the whole journey, we met with nothing but one contin-
ued series of cold, wet weather."

This expedition of Washington has in it great interest, more especially from
his superior eminence afterwards. It is pleasing to contemplate the "savior
of his country " in every adventure and circumstance of his life ; and even
gratifying to view him with a gun in one hand, a staff in the other, and a
pack upon his back; wading through rivers, encountering storms of sleet and
snow, and sleeping upon the ground, thus early, for his country's good. He
had some very narrow escapes, and, during part of the way on his return, he
had but one attendant. One day, as they were passing a place called Mur-
dering Town, they were fired upon by one of a war-party of French Indians,
who had waited in ambush for them ; and although they were within fifteen
paces of him, yet they escaped unhurt. They captured the fellow that fired
upon them, and kept him until nine at night, then dismissed him, and trav-
elled all night, "without making any stop," fearing they should be pursued
the next morning by his party. Continuing their course all the next day,
they came to the river where they intended to cross. Here the firmness of
Washington and his companion was thoroughly tried. The river was very
high, and filled with floating ice, and there was no way to pass it but by a
raft. They had " but one poor hatchet," with the assistance of which, after
laboring from morning till sunset, they had a raft ready to launch ; on this
they set out, but it was soon crushed between the floating ice, and they very
narrowly escaped perishing. Washington was himself precipitated into the
river, where the water was ten feet deep. Fortunately, however, he catched
by a fragment of the raft, and saved hi^nself. They finally extricated them-
selves from their perilous situation, by getting upon the ice which confined
their frail bark, and from thence to an island, and finally to the opposite shore.
The cold was so intense, that Mr. Gist froze his hands and feet. This place
was about three miles below the mouth of the Yohogany, where an Indian
queen, as Washington calls her, lived. He went to see her, he observes, she
having " expressed great concern that we passed her in going to the fort. I
made her a present of a watch coat, and a bottle of rum, which latter was
thought much the best present of the two." Her name was Mliquippa. From
this place, he pursued his journey home without further accident.

We have mentioned the friendly attention of Shingis to our adventurer, who
had probably expected he would have attended him on his journey ; but Shin-
iris went to collect in his men, and did not return. The Indians said it was
owing to the sickness of his wife, but Washington thought it was fear of the
French, which prevented him. But this conjecture does not seem well
founded, for he ordered Kustaloga, who lived at Venango, to proceed to the
French and return the wampum, which was as much as to tell them they
wished no further fellowship with them.

The massacres which followed BraddocKs defeat were horrible beyond
description. Shingis and Captain Jacobs were supposed to have been the
principal instigators of them, and 700 dollars were offered for their heads.-f
Captain Jacobs did not long escape, although the reward did not hasten his
end. The hostile Indians had their head-quarters at Kitanning on the Allegha-

* SPARKS'S Writings of Washington, ii. 451, 452.
f Watson's Annals of Philadelphia, 450.

45*



534 KITTANMNG DESTROYED DEATH OF CAPT. JACOBS. [Boon V

ny River, 44 miles above its confluence with the Monongahela. Here thev
retired with their prisoners and booty alter their expeditions into the frontiers
In 175(5, Colonel John Armstrong was sent with about 300 men against J\i
fanning. "On 3 September he joined the advanced party at the JJea\ei
Dams, near Frankstown ; and on the 7th in the evening, being within (5 mile*
of Kitanning, the scouts discovered a fire in the road, and reported that there
\\ere but 3 or at most 4 Indians at it. It was not thought proper to attempl
surprising" them, as it might be a means of alarming the town, if any should
escape. Hence Lieutenant Hogg, with a file of 12 men, was ordered to watch
ili-m, while the main body proceeded to the immediate vicinity of Kitanniog.
The niirht being warm, many of the Indians lodged in a cornfield upon the
margin "of the river, about 100 rods below the town. Here at day-break the
attack began. Several Indians were killed in the field, and the town was im
mediately entered. As they advanced, Captain JACOBS gave the war whoop,
retired to his log-cabin, and defended himself with great bravery. Inspired
by his intrepidity, his men refused quarter, saying, " //e are men, and will not
be prisoners" The whites being unable to drive them from their wigwams
Colonel .Armstrong ordered these to be set on fire. At the same time he re
ceived a musket-shot in the shoulder. " When the Indians were told that the)
would be burnt if they did not surrender, one of them replied, he did not cure,
as he could kill 4 or 5 before he died" When the fire approached them, some
began to sing, and others burst -from their houses, and were killed in then
flight. Captain Jacobs, when defence could no longer avail him, endeavored
to escape, with his wife, though a window of his house. This was his last act
-he was shot down, and his wife also. A lad, called the King's Son, was killed
with them. As at Nerigwok, many were killed in the river as they fled.

The Indians were said to have had their houses stored with spare arms and
ammunition ; for, when they were burnt up, their guns discharged from the heat,
and quantities of powder blew up from time to time, which threw some of
their bodies to a great height in the air. Eleven prisoners were recovered at this
time, who informed their deliverers that a great quantity of goods was also
consumed, which had but ten days before been sent them by the French ; and
that the Indians had boasted that they had powder enough for a ten years' war
with the English. They also learned that the party which Lieutenant Hogg
had been left to watch, instead of being but 3 or 4, consisted of 24 warriors,
who were on their way to attack Fort Shirley, having been sent forward by
Captain Jacobs, while he was to have followed with a strong force the next
day. Hence the fate of the lieutenant's party was suspected. On returning
to the place, Colonel Armstrong found that Lieutenant Hogg had attacked the
Indians at great disadvantage, in point of numbers, and had been defeated,
himself and Captain Mercer (afterwards General Mercer, who fell at Princeton)
severely wounded. At the first fire Hogg's party killed 3 of the Indians, who,
after maintaining the fight for an hour, killed but 3 of the whites. Hogg,
being now wounded, was abandoned by his men, but \vas fortunate enough to
be found by the army.* It was at this period, that the dead bodies of some
that had been murdered and mangled were sent from the frontiers to Phila-
delphia, and hauled about the streets, to inflame the people against the
Indians, and also against the Quakers, to whose mild forbearance was attrib-
uted a laxity in sending out troops. The mob surrounded the house of
assembly, having placed the dead bodies at its entrance, and demanded im-
mediate succor. At this time the above reward was offered.

Mr. Heckewelder knew Shingis, or, as he wrote his name, Shingask, f and
gave him a good character. He was brother to King-beaver, and in the French
war was considered the greatest Indian warrior of the day. He was a terror
to the whole frontier of Pennsylvania. " Passing one day with him," says Mr.
Heckewelder, "in the summer of 1762, near by where his two prisoner boys
(about 12 years of age) were amusing themselves with his own boys, and he
observing me looking that w r ay, inquired what I was looking at. On my
replying that I was looking at his prisoners, he said, When I first took them

* Coll. N. Y. Hist. Soc. iii. 398^ 3 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. iv. 2989.
t Level, or Bog-meadow.



CHAP. III.] SHINGIS. HENDRICK. 535

they were such ; but they are now my children ; eat their victuals out of one
and the same bowl ! which was saying as much as, that they, in all respects,
were on an equal footing with his own children alike dear to him." Though
of small stature, the same author observes, he had a great mind.

The wife of this chief died in 1762. She was of the highest rank and re-
spectability ; and the ceremonies at her funeral, and manner of decoration
and interment, described here, would occupy several pages.*

In the time of the French war, when the governor of Pennsylvania sent C.
F. Post to the distant tribes to persuade them from aiding the French, men-
tion is often made in the journal which he kept,f of Shingis, and uniformly to
his advantage. The Reverend Mr. Post performed two missions, the first at
the close of 1758, and the second in 1759. Under date of 28 August, 1758,
he writes, "We set out from Sawcunk in company with 20, for Kushcushkec ;
on the road Shingas addressed himself to me, and asked, if I did not think,
that if he came to the English they would hang him, as they had offered a
great reward for his head. I told him that was a great while ago, 'twas all
forgotten and wiped away now." An Indian in the company, called Shamo-
kin Daniel, who had been tampered with by the French, understanding what
was said, interrupted and said, "Don't believe him, he tells nothing but idle
lying stories," and asked, " Why then did the English hire 1200 Indians
[meaning the Cherokees] to kill us ? " Mr. Post protesting it was false, Daniel
vociferated, G d d n you for a fool ; did you not see the woman lying in the
road that was killed by the Indians that the English hired?" After a few
other harsh expressions, Shingis told him to be still, for he did not know what
he said."

Mr. Post dined with Shingis on the 29 August, at which time he observed to
him, that although the English had offered a great reward for his head, yet he
had never thought to revenge himself, but was always very kind to such pris-
oners as were brought in, and that he would do all in his power to bring
about a peace, and wished he could be sure the English were in earnest for
peace also.

Although the name of Shingis has not generally been as conspicuous as
that of Captain Jacobs, yet he is said to have been " the greatest Delaware
warrior of his time," and that, " were his war exploits on record, they would
form an interesting document, though a shocking one." {

Hendrick was a gallant Mohawk chief, who took part, with many of his
men, against the French, in the year 1755. The French were encouraged
by the defeat of General Braddock, and were in high expectation of carrying-



Online LibrarySamuel Gardner DrakeThe aboriginal races of North America; comprising biographical sketches of eminent individuals, and an historical account of the different tribes, from the first discovery of the continent to the present period ... and a copious analytical index → online text (page 93 of 131)