Samuel Gardner Drake.

The aboriginal races of North America; comprising biographical sketches of eminent individuals, and an historical account of the different tribes, from the first discovery of the continent to the present period ... and a copious analytical index online

. (page 98 of 131)
Online LibrarySamuel Gardner DrakeThe aboriginal races of North America; comprising biographical sketches of eminent individuals, and an historical account of the different tribes, from the first discovery of the continent to the present period ... and a copious analytical index → online text (page 98 of 131)
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they shall come and go in safety. Hereupon a chief of most elegant appear-
ance crossed to tlie encampment, and I hesitate to relate it while this
chief was conversing with the -colonel, a monster, of the militia, came up,
and with a tomahawk, which he had concealed in his clothes, laid him dead
with a single stroke ! * The name of this fiend was Wttzel. The army soon
began its retreat, and Colonel Broadhead having put his prisoners, (about 20
in number,) into the care of the soldiers, they immediately began to mas-
sacre them ! all except a few women and children were killed. These were
taken to Pittsburg, and afterwards exchanged for an equal number of white
prisoners.f Thus the peace which might have been concluded was unhappily
suspended, and the war afterwards might well have been expected to exhibit
scenes no less bloody than before.

A chief, called PACHGANTSCHIHILAS, distinguished himself upon the fron-
tiers, immediately upon the retreat of Colonel Broadhead's army ; not as many
others have, but by magnanimity and address. And subsequently his name
was set to many treaties between his nation and the United States, from that
of General Wayne at Greenville to that of St. Mary's in 1818 : if, indeed,
Petchenanalas, Bokongehelas, and several other variations, stand for the same
person. His name, according to Heckewelder, signified a fulJUler, or one icho
succeeds in all he undertakes. He was a son of a great chief whose name is
written jrewandochwalend, which signified one employed on important messages ;
and who in the French war was a great captain, and in peace a great coun-
sellor. He had upon his under lip and chin tatooed the figure of a water
lizard, on which account he was often called Ticeegachschasu. Buokongakdas
was head warrior of all the Delawares who lived on the Miami and White

PETCHENANALAS, at the head of 80 warriors, appeared suddenly at Gna-
denhuetten, surrounding it before day, allowing no one a chance for escape.
Not knowing his object, the people were filled with terror. But he soon
dispelled their fears, by telling them that he came to take the chief Gelele-
mend, and a few other head men, whom he would have, either dead or alive.
As it happened, not one of those he sought after was there at the time.
Having satisfied himself of this fact, the chief demanded that deputies from
the three Christian towns should meet to hear what he had to say to them.
When the deputies and others had met, he spoke to them as follows :

" Friends and kinsmen, listen to what I say to you. You see a great and
powerful nation divided. You see the father fighting against the son, and
the son against the father. The father has called on his Indian children to
assist him in punishing his children, the Americans, who have become re-
fractory. I took time to consider what I should do ; whether or not I should
receive the hatchet of my father, to assist him. . At first I looked upon it as
a family quarrel, in which I was not interested. At length it appeared to me,
that the father \vas in the right, and his children deserved to be punished a
little. That this must be the case, I concluded from the many cruel acts his
offspring had committed, from time to time, on his Indian children in en-
croaching on their lands, stealing their property shooting at and murdering
without cause, men, women, and children : yes, even murdering those, who
at all times had been friendly to them, and were placed for protection under

* Chronicles of Western Settlements, passim.
f Doddridge's Notes. 293.


the roof of their father's house ; * the father himself standing sentry at the door,
at the time ! Friends and relatives, often has the father been obliged to setth
and make amends for the wrongs and mischiefs done us, by his refractory
children; yet these do not grow better. No! they remain the same, and will
continue to be so, as long as we have any land left us ! Look back at the
murders committed by the Long-Knives on many of our relations, who lived
peaceable neighbors to them on the Ohio ! Did they not kill them without
the least provocation ? Are they, do you think, better now, than they were
then? No! indeed not; and many days are not elapsed, since you had a
number of these very men near your doors, who panted to kill you, but for-
tunately were prevented from so doing, by the Great Suu,f who, at that time,
had by the Great Spirit been ordained to protect you ! "

The chief then spoke with respect of their peaceable mode of life, and
commended their desire to live in friendship with all mankind ; but said, they
must be aware of their exposed situation living in the very road the hostile
parties must pass over, in going to fight each other; that they had just es-
caped destruction from one of these parties ; that therefore no time should
be lost, but they should go to the country on the Miami, where they would be
entirely out of danger.

The Christian Indians replied, that, as they had never injured the Amer-
icans, they thought they need not fear injury from them; that if their
friends at war wished them well, in truth, they would not make their
settlement upon the path they took to go to war, as it would lead their
antagonists the same way ; and that they could not remove without great
detriment ; and therefore, as they were then situated, they could not consent

to go.

Pachgantscliiinias consulted in the mean time with his chief men, and
answered very feelingly to what the brethren had said. He observed that he
was sorry that they should differ from him in opinion, but that he had no
intention to use compulsion, and only requested that those might be permit-
ted to go, whose fears prompted them to it. This was readily assented to,
and the council broke up, and the warriors departed. At Salem they made a
short stay, where they conducted themselves as they had done at Gnaden-
huetten. Here a family of old people joined them, through fear of what Pach-
gantschihilas had predicted, and the event justified the proceeding! The
massacre of Gnadenhuetten will ever be remembered with the deepest regret
and indignation.

Nothing was feared from the good PttcTienanalas ; but the prowling mon-
sters jWKee, dirty, Elliot, and perhaps others, calling themselves white, were
the plotters of the ruin of the innocent people at Gnadenhuetten, which fol-
lowed not long after.

Our present design makes it expedient that we pass over many events in
the chronicles of the frontier wars, that we may be enabled to proceed with
more minuteness of detail, in the lives of the eminent chiefs. Although
we cannot, by any rule known to us, derive Buokongahelas from Pachgantsd-
hilas or Petchenanalas, vet, as they have as much affinity as Pomdacom and
Metacomet, we shall let them pass for the same person, and thus continue our

Buokongahelas was not only a great, but a noble warrior. He took no de-
light in shedding blood ; and when he raised the hatchet on the side of the
British in the revolution, it was for the best of reasons ; and would that nume-
rous other allies we could name had acted from as pure motives ! Our next
notice of Buokongahelas is in 1792, when he showed himself no less magnan
imous than at Gnadenhuetten and Salem. Colonel Hardin. Major Trueman
and several others, were sent, in May of this year, by Washington, with a flag
of truce, to the Indian nations of the west, particularly the Maumee towns
They having arrived near the Indian town of Au Glaize on the south-wes

* Alluding- to the murder of the Conestoga Indians, which was as atrocious as that at Gua
denhuetlen, and of which we shall in due course give a relation.
+ Referring to what we have just related of Colonel Daniel Broadhead and his army.


l)raii(,h of the Miami of the Lake, fell in with some Indians, who treated
them well at first, and made many professions of friendship, hut in the end
took r.d vantage of them, while off' their guard, and murdered nearly all of
them. The interpreter made his escape, after some time, and gave an ac-
count of the transaction. His name was William Small i/ ; and he had been
Mune lime before with the Indians, and had learned their manners and cus-
toms, which gave him some advantage in being able to save himself lie was
at first conducted to An Glaize, and soon after to " Buokungahda, king of the
Delawares, by his captors." The chief told those that committed the murder,
he ivas very sorry they had killed the men. That instead of so doing, they should
have brought them to the Indian towns ; and then, if what they had to saij had not
been liked, it would have been time enough to have killed them then. Nothing, he
said, could justify them for putting them to death, as there was no chance for them
to escape. The truth was, they killed them to plunder their effects. Buokon-
gahelas took Mr. Smallif into his cabin, and showed him great kindness ; told
him to stay there while he could go safely to his former Indian friends.
(He having been adopted into an Indian family, in place of one who had
been killed, in his former captivity.) While here with Buokongahdas,
which was near a month, Mr. Smcdly said the chief would not permit
him to go abroad alone, for fear, he said, that the young Indians would
kill him.

From another source we learn the names of several of the murdered. " A
letter from Paris (in the new French settlement), dated July 17, states, that
intelligence had been received at Fort Jefferson, of the death of Major True-
man, Mr. I}'eeman, Debachi and Jarrat. That this information was brought
by two prisoners, who were laboring in a cornfield, and made their escape.
The one had been taken prisoner at the time General Harmer was defeated
the other is William Duer, of Capt. Buchanan's company of levies. They
further inform, that on the 15th June a party of Indians took 8 men prisoners,
who were making hay near Fort Jefferson ; that when they had moved the
prisoners some distance from the fort, they divided them four were given
to the Chippewas, and four to the Shawanese that the Shawanese burnt the
four unfortunately assigned to them that the Chippewas took theirs home,
to the intent of making laborers of them that the Indians are determined
for war, and will not treat, but will kill every white person that attempts to
go to them, either with or without a flag that their present plan is to cut off
the escorts of provisions destined to the outposts, and by that means oblige
the troops stationed there to surrender ; and that for this purpose they kept
two spies constantly out."*

It is said that the conduct of the British, at the battle of Presque-lsle, for-
ever changed the mind of this chief, as it did that of many others, in regard
to them. Buokongahdas said he would henceforth trust them no more. The
fort at Maumee was critically situated, but by its own imprudence. The offi-
cers of it had told the Indians that if the battle turned against them, they
should have protection in the fort. Immediately after, General Wayne in-
formed them, that if they did protect the Indians in that event, he would
treat them as though found in arms against him; therefore, thinking their
own safety of more consequence than keeping their faith with the Indians,
they barred the gates, and were idle spectators of those they had basely be-
r rayed, cut down in great numbers by the swords of the horsemen, under
their very ramparts !

It would seem from a passage in the Memoirs of General Harrison,^ that
Buokongahdas died soon "after the treaty of 1804; "that if he had been
alive, Mr. Dawson thinks, when Tecwnseh and the Prophet enlisted so many
nations against the Americans, he would not have suffered their plans to
have been matured. The same author relates an incident of peculiar interest,
concerning our subject, which is as follows: After the fight with Wayne's
army before mentioned, Buokongahelas collected the remnant of his hand,
and embarked with them in canoes, and passed up the river, to send a flag of

* Carey's Museum, xii. 15. t By Mr. Dawson, page 82.


truce to Fort Wayne. When the chief arrived against the British fort, he
was requested to land, which he did. When he had approached the sentinel,
he demanded, " What have you to say to me ? ' He was answered that the
commandant desired to speak with him. " Then he may come HERE," was the
reply. The sentry then said the officer would not do that, and that he would
not be allowed to pass the fort, if he did not comply with its rules. " What
shall prevent me ? " said the intrepid chief. Pointing to the cannon of the fort,
the sentry said, "Those." The chief replied indignantly, "/ fear not your
cannon: after suffering the Americans to defile your spring, ivithout daring tojire
on them, you cannot expect to frighten BUOKONGEHELAS." He reembarked, and
passed the fort, without molestation. By " defiling their spring," he meant
an ironical reproach to the British garrison for their treachery to the Indians,
which has been mentioned.

It is said that BuokongaJielas was present at Fort M'Intosh, at the treaty
of 1785 ; but as his name is not among the signers, we suppose he was
opposed to it. General George R. Clark, Arthur Lee, and Richard Butler, were
the American commissioners ; the former had been a successful warrior against
the Indians, which had gained him the respect of Buokongahelas ; and when
he had an opportunity, he passed the others without noticing them, but went
and took General Clark by the hand, and said, " / thank the Great Spirit for
having this day brought together two such great ivarriors, as BUOKONGAHELAS
and GEN. CLARK."

A separate article in the treaty just named, illustrates the history of several
chiefs already mentioned. It is in these words : "It is agreed that the Del-
aware chiefs Kelelamand, [Gelelemend, Killbuck,] or Colonel Henry; Henguc-
pushees, or the Big-cat ; Wicocalind, or Captain White-eyes ; who took up the
hatchet for the United States, and their families, shall be received into the
Delaware nation, in the same situation and rank as before the war, and enjoy
their due portions of the lands to the Wyandot and Delaware nations in this
treaty, as fully as if they had not taken part with America."

GELELEMEND, one of the most conspicuous of those noticed in the provision
of the treaty of Fort M'Intosh, we will proceed to consider in this place.
His name signified A leader, but he was called Killbuck because the whites
had so called his father, and to distinguish him, junior was added. Upon
the death of White-eyes, he, as that chief had done, accepted the office of
chief, until the young heir should be old enough to fill the important place.
He continued the course of measures carried on by his predecessor, but in
spite of all he could do, Captain Pipe succeeded in defeating his designs.
Such was the power of Pipe, that Gelelemend and his party were forced
through fear to abandon their council-house at Goschochking, and retire
under the protection of the Americans near Pittsburg. Here they supposed
themselves safe, but they were soon disappointed; "for while the friendly
chiefs, together with a number of their people, were peaceably living together
on an island just below the town of Pittsburg, they were suddenly surprised
and attacked by the murdering party which had returned from killing near a
hundred of the Christian Indians, and partly killed and partly put to flight,
from whence this chief (Killbuck) saved his life only by taking to the
river and swimming across to the point, or town, [of Pittsburg] leaving al)
his property behind ; among which was the bag containing all the wampum
speeches and written documents of William Penn and his successors for a
<rreat number of years, which had for so long a time been carefully preserved
by them, but now had fallen into the hands of a murdering band of white
savages, who killed at the same time the promising young Delaware chief
above mentioned." The many services he rendered to Pennsylvania were
known and appreciated ; which services, however, being obnoxious to the
enemy, drew their hatred upon him, so much so, that they ordered any that
should meet with him to shoot him dead. He therefore remained concealed
some time after the peace with the Indians, with his family at Pittsburg. He
finally joined the Christian Indians and lived und r their protection; never
venturing far from home, lest the Mimseys should meet with and kill him
He was baptized by the name of William Henri/, a name he had been long
known under, and which was that of a distinguished member of congress,


562 r \rrm HIT:. [BOOK v.

conferred by himself. Killbuck * died in the laith in January, 1>1 1, aged

Bin ut 80.f

At tin- time these peaceable Indians \\ere murderously driven Iron) their
island, as just noticed. liig-ral\ narrou ly seapi d tin- slanirliti r. 1 le retired
to the .Miami country, where h- afterwards died. He liad In en an able

counsellor, and afterwards a chief of the Turtle tribe.f JJut to return to
( 'aptain Pi/)C.

At one time alter an expedition against the \merirans. Captain Pipe v>nit
tn !> troit, where he was received with respi ct Ity the British coninialidai T.
who, with his attendants. \\ a> invited to the coiineil-hoiise, to ri\ e an account
of j>ast transactions. He was seated in front of his Indians. t;;ein^ilie chi- t'
o!;: cr, and held in his loft hand a short stick, to \\hieh was fastened a scalp.
A;ter a usual pause, he arose and spoke as follows:

" Fat hi r, [then he stooped a little, and, turning- towards the audit nee, \\ith
.1 countenance full of great expression, and a sarcastic look, said, in a IO\\-T
ion of voice.] " / have said FATHER, although, indeed. I do not knoic wnv / am
to ca!l HIM s<t, having never known any other fatfnr lh<m the French, and consider-
ing the English only as BROTHERS. But as this name is also imposed upon us,
I shall make use of it, and say, [at the same time fixing his eyes upon the com-
mandant,] Father, some time ago you put a war hatchet into my hands, saying,
Take this weapon and try it on the heaels of my enemies, the Long-Knives, and
let me afterwards know if it WHS sharp and good? Father, ett the time when y>:u
gave ;' this weapon, 1 had neither cause nor inclination to go to icar against a
people who had done me no injury ; yet in obedience to you, who say you are my
father, and call me your child, 1 received the hatchet ; well knowing, that if I did
not obey, you would withhold from me the necessaries of life, without ichich I could
not subsist, and which are not elsewhere to be procured, but at the house of my
father. You may perhaps think me a fool, for risking my life at your bidding, in
a cause too, by winch I have no prospect of gaining anything; for it is your cause
and not mine. It is your concern tofght the Long-Knives ; you have raised a
ijicnrel amongst yourselves, and you ought yourselves tojight it out. You should
not compel your children, the Indians, to erpose themselves to danger, for your gnk> . - .
Father, many lives have already been lost on your account ! .^'idions have su<-
f'ered, and been weakened ! children have lost parents, brothers, and relatives. '-
wives have lost husbands ! // is not known hoic many more may perish before
your war will be at an end! Father, I have said, that you may, perhaps, think me
a fool, for thus thoughtlessly rushing on your enemy ! Do not believe this, father :
Think ii' t that I want sense to convince me, that although you now pretend to keep
up a perpetual enmity to the Long-Knives, you may before long conclude a peace
U'ith them. Father, you say you love your children, the Indians. This you have
often told them, and indeed it is your interest to say so to thtm. that you may have
them ett your service. But, father, who of us can believe theit you can love a people
of a different color from your own, better than those who have a white skin like
yours / Fat'ier, pay attention to what I am going to say. Jt'hile you, father,

are setting me [meaning the Indians in general] on your enemy, much in the
same manner as a hunter sets his dog on the game ; while I am in the act of rushing
on that enemy of yours, with the bloody destructive weapon you gave me, 1
may, percharce, happen to look beick to the place from whence you started me ; and
what shall I see? Perhaps I may see my father shaking hands with the Long -
Knives : //-,-. with these very people he now cedls his enemies. I may then see him
laugh eit my folly for having obeyed his orders ; and yet I am now risking my life,
at his command ! Father, keep what I have said in remembrance. Abu 1 , father.
here is what has been done with the hcttchet you gave me. [With these words he
handed the stick to the commandant, with the scalp upon it, above men-
tioned.] I have done with the hatchet what you ordered me to do, and found it
sharp. Nevertheless, I did not do all that I might have done. A b, / did not. .My

* Another of the same name is mentioned hv Mr. Latrobe, Rambles, ii. 118, whom he saw
at New FairfieW in 183- : " a venerable " man " watching the bed of his dying daughter, the
last of] 2 children/'

t Hecke*>elder > s Biogaphy of the Delawares. &c.. in Philos. Trans.
Piischiis. according to


heart failed within me. I felt compassion for your enemy. Innocence [helpless
women and children] had no part in your quarrels ; therefore I distinguished 1
spared. 1 took some live flesh, which, while I was bringing to you, I spied one of
your large canoes, on which I put it for you. In a few days you will recover this
flesh, andjind that the skin is of the same color with your own. Father, I hope
\)ou will not destroy what I have saved. You, father, have the means of preserv-
ing that which with me would perish for want. The warrior is poor, and his cabin
is always empty ; but your house, father, is always full."

After a high encomium upon this speech, which need not be repeated, Mr.
Heckewelder says, "It is but justice here to say, that Pipe was well acquaint-
ed with the noble and generous character of the British officer to whom this
speech was addressed. He is still living in his own country, an honor to the
British name. He obeyed the orders of his superiors, in employing the In-
dians to fight against us; but he did it with reluctance, and softened as much
as was in his power the horrors of that abominable warfare. He esteemed
Captain Pipe, and, I have no doubt, was well pleased with the humane con-
duct of this Indian chief, whose sagacity in this instance is no less deserving
of praise than his eloquence."

The name of Captain Pipe is unfortunately associated with the history of the
lamented Colonel William Crawford, who perished at the stake, after suffering
the most horrible and excruciating tortures possible for Indians to inflict. He
was particularly obnoxious to them, from having been many years a successful
commander against them. He fell into the hands of the Indians not far from
Upper Sandusky, in the latter end of May, 1782. At this time he was arrived
there, at the head of a band of about 500 volunteers, who were attacked and
put to flight, without having acquitted themselves like soldiers in any degree :
except, indeed, some individual instances. At least a hundred were killed
and taken, and of the latter, but two are said ever to have escaped-

Captain Pipe, if not the principal, was probably one of the chief leaders of
the Indians at this time. When the rout of the army began, instead of re-
treating in a body, they fled in small parties, and thus fell an easy prey into
the hands of their pursuers. Colonel Crawford became separated from the
main body of his soldiers, by his extreme anxiety for his son, and two or three
other relations, whom he suspected were in the rear, and therefore waited
for them an unreasonable time. He at length fled, in company with a Dr.
Knight and two others. Unfortunately, after travelling nearly two days, they
were, with several others, surprised by a party of Delawares, and conducted
to the Old Wyandot Town. Here Captain Pipe, with his own hands, painted
Crawford and Knight black in every part of their bodies. A place called
the New Wyandot Town was not far off. To this place they were now
ordered, and Pipe told Crawford, that when he arrived there, his head should
be shaved ; of which, it seems, he did not understand the import. These mis-
erable men were accompanied by Pipe and another noted Delaware chief,

Online LibrarySamuel Gardner DrakeThe aboriginal races of North America; comprising biographical sketches of eminent individuals, and an historical account of the different tribes, from the first discovery of the continent to the present period ... and a copious analytical index → online text (page 98 of 131)