Samuel Griswold Goodrich.

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clubs.

5. Catiline refused at first to enlist the slaves, who flocked to him
in great numbers, but trusted to the strength of the conspiracy in the
city. But on the approach of the consul Antonius, who was sent
with an army against him, and hearing that his accomplices in Rome
had been put to death, he became convinced that his cause wu
ruined.

6. He now attempted to save himself by rapid marches towards
Gaul, but the passes of the Apennines were strongly guarded ; the
consular army approached, and he was hemmed in on every side.
Catiline, seeing his escape cut off, resolved to give battle to Antonios,
and the armies met near Pistoria.

7. The conspirators fought with the utmost desperation, but were
slain to a man, B. C. 62. The suppression of this conspiracy was
the most glorious act in the life of Cicero. The Romans unani-
mously declared that he had saved the republic, and the senate
bestowed upon him the honorable title of Father of his Coumtrt.



CHAPTER LXXXIX.

Rebellion of Spartacus.

1. Sertorius, after the death of Marius and Cinna, had fled to
Spain, where he established an independent republic. Pompey and

LXXXVIII. — 1. What measures were next taken by Catiline and Cicero? 2. Wbal
of the Allobrnsred ? 3. What took place in the senate ? 4. What was done to tlie con-
spirators f 5 What preparations were made by Catiline? 6. How did he attempt lo
escape 9 7. What became of him 7, What title did the Romans bestow upon Cicerot



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THE FIRST TRIUMVIRATE. 121

Metellus were sent against hira, but they wert defeated in CTery
battle, although they were esteemed the best generals of the age.

a. The Romans were compelled to abandon the enterprise againsi
Sertorius, but the officers of this general, being jealous of his fame
and authority, conspired against him and put him to death. The loss
of their able general was the ruin of the Spanish republic ; the con-
spirators, destitute of talents, were unable to supply the place of Ser-
torius, and Pompey was soon enabled to establish the Roman autlior-
ity in Spain.

3. About this period Rome was disturbed by the rebel-
lion of Spartacus. This person was originally a Thracian shepherd ;
and having been brought to Rome as a captive, was trained up for one
of the gladiators, a class of unhappy wretches whom the Romans
employed to fight and murder one another in the amphitheatre, for
their amusement.

4. Spartacus, with thirty of his companions, escaped from their
confinement at Capua, and took to the highway. Their numbers
were quickly augmented by fugitives and desperadoes of every sort,
and Spartacus, with ten thousand men under his command, at length
emerged from the mountains of Campania, and began to lay waste the
country.

5. His army increased every day, and became so well disciplined
as to defeat two Roman consuls who were sent against them. The
praetor Crassus was then placed at the head of a third army. Spar-
tacus at first obtained some advantages over him, and Crassus began
to despair of success ; but at length the Romans gained a decisive
victory, B. C. 71, and put to the sword twelve thousand of the
gladiator's army.

6. Spartacus fought to the last ; when wounded in the legs, he
fought upon his knees, wielding his sword in one hand and his
buckler in the other. When he was overpowered by an irresistible
force, he sunk and expired upon a heap of Romans who had fallen
beneath his sword.

7. A portion of the army of Spartacus, however, rallied afler his
defeat, and being routed by Pompey, this ambitious leader claimed a
great portion of the glory which was due to Crassus.



CHAPTER XC.

The First Triitmcira/e.

1 1 HE overtlirow of Catiline seemed only to leave an open theatre
f jr the ambitious projects of other leaders. Pompey and Crassus
had for some time been jealous of each other ; but Caesar, whose

UXXIX. — 1. What of Sertorius 7 2. How did he perish 7 3. Who was Spartacus ?
4. How did be begin his war with the Romans ? 6. What success had Crassus agaiiwt
him J 6. Describe the death of Spartacus ? 7. What of Pompey 7
11

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rJ2 THE FIRST TRIUMVIKATK.

abilitieb were now known and valued , resolved to turn their rivalry to
his own advaiitag:e.

3. This celebrated man was descended fiom illnstrious ancestors,
but he warmly espoused the popular interests at his first entrance into
public life. Shortly after the death uf Sulla, he procured the recall
of those whom the dictator had lianished. By acts similar to tliis,
he became a favorite with the people.

3. With consummate skill he applied himself to the task of recoii
ciling Pompey and Crassus, knowing that the result would be favora-
ble to his own elevation. He succeeded so well that he persuaded
them to forget all their old animosities, and combine with himself in a
scheme for dividing the command of the republic between them.



CcBsar, Crassus and Pompey, dividing the Republic

4. They agreed that nothing should be done in the common wealth
without their mutual concurrence. This union was <^ed the First
Triumvirate, which was established B. C. 59. They were supporte<l
in their project by Clodius, a man of profligate character, but possess-
ing influence with the people. His chief object, on this occasion,
was to wreak his vengeance on Cicero, for having given evidence
against him on a criminal trial.

5. To do this more eflTectually, Clodius caused himself to be t-ans-
ferred from the patrician to the plebeian order, and then becoming a
candidate for the tribuneship, was elected without much opposition.
By the exertions of Clodius, a decree of banishment was pronounced
against Cicero ; but the great orator was honorably recalled at the
end of a year, and restored to his dignity and estates.

XC — 1. What followed the overlhrow of Catiline? 2. What of Julius Ciesar? 3
How did he manage Pompey and Crassus? 4. What of the First Triuravtnte? 5.
What was done by Clodius? What h.ippened to Cicero? 6. How did the CQOS'it
(Uride their government ? 7. WhatofQaul?



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JUUUS CiESAR IN GAUL. 123

6. While Clodius by his violence kept the city in constant acita-
rion. Pompey and Crassus were again elected consuls together. The
former chose Spain for his province, the latter Syria, hoping that it9
wealth would afford a prey to his boundless avarice.

7. Gaul was allotted to Cssar. This country was peopled by
fierce and powerful nations, most of them unsubdued, and the
remainder only under a nominal subjection to Rome. As tliis was an
appointment rather to a conquest than to an administration, the goveni-
ment was granted him for five years, as if by its length to ccmpcnsate
for its danger.



CHAPTER XCi.
Julius CcBsar in Gaul,

1. Cjesar's victorious career in Gaul lasted nearly eight years ,
but it would be impossible, within the limits of this history, to enume-
rate the battles which he fought and the states he subdued during
this period. He first marched against the Helvetians, whom he
defeated, killing nearly two hundred thousand of them in battle.
The Grermans, commanded by their king, Ariovistus, were next cut
off, with the loss of eighty thousand m^n, their monarch himself nar-
rowly escaping in a little boat across the Rhine.

2. The Belgae next encountered the Roman arms, and received so
terrible an overthrow that the rivers and marshes were choked and
heaped up by the piles of the slain. The Neryians, who were the
most warlike of those barbarous nations, defended theniselves valiantly
for a short time.

3. In one battle the Romans were in danger of being utterly routed,
but Caesar^ hastily snatching up a buckler, rushed through his troops
into the midst of the enemy, and turned the fortune of the day, the
barbarians being repulsed with a terrible carnage. The Celtic Gauls
were next brought under subjection, and after these all the Gallic
nations from the Mediterranean to the British Channel.

4. Stimulated by the desire of further conquest, Cssar crossed over
into Britain, B. C. 54, alleging as an excuse for the invasion, thai the
inhabitants had furnished supplies to his enemies. A report of a
pearl-fishery on the British shores is supposed to have supplied a
stronger motive to his avarice.

5. On approaching the coast, near Dover clifis, he found them
covered with armed men ; and sailing along a few miles further, he
landed at Deal, though vigorously opposed by the natives. At
length, terrified at Cassar^s power, they sent to sue for peace.

6. Some hostages had been given, when a spring tide suddenly
damaged the Roman fleet, and the Britons resolved to try the chance
of a battle. They attacked one of the legions while it was foraging,

XCI. — 1. What of CaMar'fl luccesa in GauH 2,3. The Be\ste ami Xervians*. 4
What ofthe invasion of Britain} 6. Where did Caesar iand ? 6 Wliai l>ap|iPi.eJ t .h*



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124 PARTHIAN EXPEDITION OF CRASSU&

And Cssar bad some diflicalty m saying it. They next assailed the
Roman camp, but were repulsed.

7. Cssar, who had neither cava]ry nor proTisions, thought it besl
to return to Gaul, and readily made peace with the Britons ; he then
departed, and wrote a letter to the senate, giving an account of what
he called his victory in Britain ; for this a thanksgiving was decreed
at Rome.

8. The following year he invaded Britain a second time, with a
much stronger force. He fought several battles with the natives,
defeated their king, Cassibelan, crossed the Thames, and captured
his chief town. The Britons, however, were far behind the Gauls
ill civilization, and their towns were nothing more than fortresses in
the woods, without walls ; their houses were mere wigwams.

9. Having regulated the tributes to be paid by the conquered
tribes, he return^ to Gaul. The tributes, however, were never paid,
and the Romans gained nothing by the invasion except some little
knowledge of the island.

10. The conquest of Gaul was completed B. C. 50. Cesar
established a sjrstem of administration for the country, imposing upon
it an annual tribute ; and having thus secured it under the Roman
dominion, he prepared to carry out his ambitious designs by seizing
upon the sovereignty of the republic for which he had made this
Acquisition.

11. The military talent displayed by Cesar, in the subjugation of
Gaul, is sufficient to place him in the first rank of generals. But we
must bear in mind that in this brilliant achievement, nations were
robbed and innocent people were slaughtered without mercy, that the
renown of many victories might pave the way to the overthrow of the
liberties of Rome.

13. We are told that Caesar captured eight hundred towns and
cities, subdued three hundred nations, and defeated in battle three mil-
lions of men, of whom one million were slain, and anoth'er million
taken and sold for slaves. All this misery w^as inflicted that one man
might be great !



CHAPTER XCn.

Parthian Expedition of Crasstts,

1. Crassvs, on takii^ possession of his province, projected an
expedition against the Parthians, hoping to enrich himself by the
plunder of that people. He crossed the Euphrates with a large
army, and began to ravage Mesopotamia. Several of the Greek
towns in that quarter submitted without opposition, but instead of
pushing his conquests without delay, Crassus returned to Syria to

Romans? 7. What was the result of this inrasion? 8. When was the tarasion
repeated 7 What was its success? 9. What did the Romans gain by their inrasiona?
10 What of the conquest of Gaul 9 What did Cnsar next prepare ? 1 1, 12. WW; was
the character of his wars in Gaul 7



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DISAI?1^ERS OF CRASSUS. 125

pass tne winter, thus giving the Parthians leiBnre to collect their
forces

2. He spent the time here in amassing money. A Partliian
embassy came to complain of his acts of aggression, as their nation
had given the Romans no just cause for war. Crassus boastful y
replied, that he would give his answer in Seleucia, a suburb of
Ctesiphon, the Parthian capitol. The eldest of the envoys laughci,
and showing the palm of his hand, said, '* Crassus, hairs will grow
there before you see Seleucia."

3. The lioman soldiers, when they learned the numbers of the
Parthians, and their mode of fighting, were dispirited. The sooth-
sayers announced evil signs in the victims. The officers of Crassus
advised him to pause before deciding upon this dangerous under-
taking, but in vain.

4. To as little effect did the Armenian prince, Artabazus, counsel
him to march through Armenia, which was a mountainous country,
and unfavorable to cavalry, in which the strength of the Parthians
lay. He replied that he would go through Mesopotamia, where he
had left many brave Romans in garrison.

5. The Armenian, who brought six thousand horse to join Crassus,
and had promised as many more, saw the desperate character of the
undertaking, and retired. Crassus passed the Euphrates at Zeugma.
The thunder roared, lightnings flashed, and other ominous signs
appeared, but nothing could stop him.

6. He took his march along the eastern bank of the river. No
enemy appeared, and Cassius, one of his officers, advised to keep on
the l)orders of the stream till they should reach the point nearest
Seleucia ; but an Arab emir, named Akbar, w^ho had been on friendly
terms with the Romans when Pompey was there, joined Crassus, and
assured him that the Parthians were collecting their most valuable
property with the intention of flying to Hyrcania and Scythia ; for
which reason he urged him to push on without delay.

7. This account was false, and designed to lead the Romans to
their ruin. Crassus, however, trusting to the deceitful Arab, left the
river, and entered on the wide plain of Mesopotamia. The Arab led
the way, and when he had brought the Roman army to the place
agreed on with the Parthians, he rode off, assuring Crassus tliat it
was for his advantage.



CHAPTER XCni.

Disasters of Crassus.

1. The Romans now began to discover signs of treachery, for or
the same day a party of horse sent forward to reconnoitre fell in with

XGDL — 1 What expedition waa planned bjrCrasaus? How did lie commence it?
!. What of ^he Parthian embassy 7 3. What of the soldieni and soothsayers ? 4. What
ufArUbazus? 5. What of the passage'/ he Euphrates 1 6 IV Cassius and A khe'
*. How was Crassus dec«>ived 7
11*



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126 ' DISAJH-ERS OP CRA%OS.

the enemy, and were nearly all killed. Crassus was peiplexcxl, ht\
tl'll marched on, drawing up hie infantry in a square, with his cav-
alry on the flanks. They reached a stream, where his officers wished
hira to halt for the night and try to gain further intelligence, but he
persisted in adrancing, and at length came in sight of the enemy.

2. The Parthian conunander, however, kept Uie greater part of his
forces out of view, and those who appeared had their armor covered
to deceive the Romans. On a given signal the Parthians began to
lieat their kettle-drums, and when they thought this unusual sound
had struck terror to the hearts of the Romans, they flung oflf their
roverinffs, and appeared glittering in helms and corslets of steel.

3. Then, pouring in multitudes round the solid mass of the Roman
army, they discharged showers of arrows upon them, camels being at
hand laden with fresh supplies of missiles. The Roman light troops
essayed in vain to drive them off, and Crassus ordered bis son to
charge them with a body of cavalry.

4. The Parthians gave way and drew them on, but when at a suf-
ficient distance from the main army, they turned upon their pursuers,
riding round and round, raising such a dust that the Romans could
not see to defend themselves. Great numbers were slain, and at
length young Crassus broke through the enemy with a party of
horsemen, Vnd reached the top of a hill.

5. There the Parthians again surrounded him ; and at length,
being wounded and seeing no hope of esdape, he caused his shield-
bearer to kill him. The Parthians cut off his head, and stuck it ou
the point of a spear. Crassus was advancing to the relief of his son,
when he heard the roll of the Parthian drums, and presently saw the
enemy with the bloody head elevated in the air.

6. The Romans were struck with consternation at the sight.
Crassus vainly tried to encourage them, crying out that the loss was
hiis, not theirs. All day the Parthians hung upon their front and
flanks, galling them with clouds of arrows. At night they withdrew,
and Crassus now began to give way to despair.

7. A council of war was held, and it was resolved to retreat
under cloud of the darkness. This was immediately carried into
eflect, but the wailings of the sick and wounded, who were left
behind, informed the Parthians of the movement. However, as it
was not their custom to fight by night, they remained quiet till
morning.

XCIII. — I What disaste f.rst befell ihe army of Crassus 1 2, 3, 4. How did the Par
tbians attack the Romans 5. What of the death of young CraMiisf 6. What wa«
the condua of his father 1 What of the retreat of tbe rU>mana ?



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0£ATH OF CRASSCJa 127

CHAPTER XCIV.
Death of Crassus.

1 . The next morning the Parthians took possession of the desnled
camp, slaughtering four thousand men whom they found in it ; they
then pursued the retreating army, and cut off the stragglers. The
Romans succeeded in reaching the town of Carrhs, where they had
a garrison. The Parthian commander, to gain time, made proposals
of peace, but after a while it appeared that he was insincere, and
Crassus marched away from Carrhe in the night, under the guidance
of a Greek.

2. This guide proved treacherous, and led the army into a place;
full of marshes and ditches. Cassius, who had distrusted him in
season, turned back and saved himself, with a body of five hundred
cavalry. Octavius, the second in command, having had faithful
guides, secured a position among some hills, with his division of five
Siousand men, and enabled Crassus to escape from the marshes, afler
ho had* been assailed in that dangerous position by the Parthians.

3. ^he latter now, apprehensive that the Romans would save
themselves in the night, released some of their prisoners, declaring
that their king did not wish to carry matters to extremities. Fur-
ther to pronM)te this stratagem, the commander, with a number of
his oflicers, rode to the hill where Crassus was stationed, with their
bows unbent, and the commander, holding out his hand, called on
Crassus to come down and meet him.

4. The Roman soldiers were overjoyed at these signs of amity,
but Crassus put no faith in them. At length, afler urging and
pressing, they began to abuse and threaten him. Crassus then took
his officers to witness the force that was put on him, and went down,
accompanied by Octavius, and some of his other officers.

5. The Parthians at first affected to receive him with respect, and
brought a horse for him to mount ; but they soon contrived to pick a
quarrel with their prisoners, and killed them all on the spot. Quarter
wss then offered to the troops, and most of them surrendered.

6. Twenty thousand of the Romans were killed and ten thousand
made prisoners in this disastrous expedition, which was undertaken
firom the basest and most sordid motives, without a shadow of justice
'Fhe Parthians, it is said, poured melted gold down the throat of
Crassus, afler having cut off his head, in reproach of his insatiate
avarice.

XCIV.— 1. What of the Roman c^mp and army? 2. Hnw was Crassus betrayed 1
What of Cassius and Ocuvius? 3. What stratagem was practised by the Parthians?
1 How did they succeed? 5. Whnt of the death of Crassus? 6. What was the loss f f
the Roumns In this war} How did the Parthians serve the dead body of Crassus f



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lUb filVALRY OP FOMPEY AND CiESAR.

CHAPTER XCV.
Rivalry of Pompey and, Ctnar,



Pompey,

1. When the news of the defeat and death of Crassus reached
Rume, the disaster to the national arms caused immense grief and
mortification. The loss of the general gave the people no concern,
yet this was in reality the greater misfortune of the two, for he alone
had the power to keep Caesar and Pompey in friendship.

2. The removal of Crassus now left in the Roman world only these
two competitors for the sovereign power, so far superior were they in
weight and influence to all other men. There were at this time in
the republic two parties, one for maintaining the constitution as it
then was, the other for revolution. It was hardly possible, therefore,
to avoid a civil contest, in which the two parties should range them-
selves in opposition under these two eminent men.

3. Pompey at first favored all the projects of Caesar, and procured
him a prolongation of his command, and supplies of troops. But

XCV. — 1. How did the disaster of Crassus affef the Romans? 2. What was U»e
state of parties at Rome 7 3, 4. What of the rivalr if Pompey and Caesar! 5. What



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CIVIL WAR. 129

he soon becdue eavious of exploits that obscured the fame of his
own achieven ents. His partisans began to detract from the brilliant
character of Caesar's victories, and many of that general's official let-
ters were suppressed by the senate.

4. It soon became obvious that the jealousies of these great rivals
could be settled only on the field of battle, and their adherents began
to prepare for the combat long before the principals had any decided
inclination to conmience hostDities. When Catsar became aware of
the procjeedings against him, he demanded permission to hold the
consulship wMle absent, together with a prolongation of his govern-
ment in Gaul.

5. This was done for the purpose of trying whether Pompey would
openly oppose him. The latter remained apparently inactive but he
secretly employed two of his partisans, who maintained in the senate
that the laws did not permit any one absent to stand as a candidate
for the office of consul.

6. Caesar well knew that there was no safety for him except at the
head of his army, for Cato and others had already tlireatened to
impeach him for illegal acts done in his consulate ; he therefore chose
to remain in Gaul till matters were further advanced.

7. He dismissed two of his legions which the senate ordered home,
having previously attached both officers and soldiers to his interest by
bounties. He further strengthened his party at Rome by lavishing
bribes in great profusion, particularly on Caius Curio, a tribune of the
|puople, who had great influence in various ways.



CHAPTER XCVI.
Civil War,

1. The senate, who were now devoted to Pompey, passed a decree
recalling Cssar from his government. But Curio placed an obstacle
in the way of this movement, by proposing that Pompey and Caesar
should both lay down their offices. The apparent fairness and
impartiality of the proposal threw Pompey and his party into great
perplexity. Some time was wasted in debates and negotiations.

2. Pompey was as eager for war as Caesar possibly could be. The
joy manifested by the people on the occasion of his recovery from an
illness gave him the most exaggerated notion of his influence over
them. He was moreover completely misled by the accounts which
he had received of the disaffection of Caesar's army, and the prov-
inces.

3. He therefore derided the fears of his friends, who dreaded
Caesar's power ; and when it was remarked that there were no troops
in Italy to oppose him, he replied, '^ Wherever I stamp my foot,

took place in the senate 9 6. What course was taken by Caesar? 7. How did h«
firenelhen his parly ?
XCVI.— I. What was done by Curio? 2,3. What of Pompey 's expecutions)

9



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•30 cnriL war.

loffions trill spring up!** The senate at length declared Cteoiir a

Sublio enemy, in case he did not give up his command by a certain
ay. . '

4. It was resolved that troops should be raised in every part of
Italy, and that Pompey should be supplied with money from the pub-
lic treasury. War, in fact, was declared against Caesar. Antony
and Cassius, disguised as slaves, left Rome secretly and joined
CflBsar, who had by this time entered the north of Italy, and was at .
Kavenna with one of his legions.

6. Cesar forthwith assembled his soldiers, and complained to thcin
of the treatment he had received from the senate. The army having
declared its resolution to stand by him, he sent off orders to hia
le^tes in Graul to join him by forced marches with all their troops,
lie then took up his march for Rome.



Casar at the Rubicon



Online LibrarySamuel Griswold GoodrichA pictorial history of ancient Rome: With sketches of the history of modern ... → online text (page 13 of 34)