Samuel J. (Samuel John) Baird.

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THE FIRST ADAM AND THE SECOND.



THE



ELOHIM REVEALED



\r



CREATION AND REDEMPTION OF MAN.



6sbz iaavepcbOy Iv aapxe.—i tim. Hi. ie.



BY

SAMUEL J. BAIRD, D.D.

PASTOR OF THE PEESBTTEEIAM CHURCH; WOOBUURT, N. J.



T"






PHILADELPHIA :
LINDSAY & BLAKISTOX.



n



18G0.






Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by

SAMUEL J. BAIRD,

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern
District of Pennsylvania.



STEREOTYPED BY L. JOHNSON £ CO.
PHILADELPHIA.



COI.MSS. t'RI XTK R.



MY BELOVED AND VENERATED MOTHER,

ESTHER THOMPSON BAIRD,

IS INSCRIBED

THIS ATTEMPT TO EXHIBIT SOME OF THE DOCTRINES OF CHRIST,

THE PRINCIPLES OF WHICH WERE LEARNED AT HER FEET,

FROM THE WESTMINSTER CATECHISMS AND THE WORD OF GOD,

AND DEVELOPED IN THEIR HARMONIOUS PROPORTIONS

IN THE SABBATH EVENING FAMILY EXPOSITIONS OF

A FATHER

WHOSE FAITH IS LONG SINCE LOST IN VISION.



PREFACE.



The Delphic motto, "Know thyself," is the utmost achievement of classic
philosophy. It is the first principle of the doctrine of Christ, — the starting
point to the higher knowledge of God and his Son. And, whilst philosophy
exhausts itself in constructing the maxim, and utterly fails to show how we
may come to self-knowledge, the gospel proclaims Ilini in whose glorious
person man is one with Jehovah, — without whom we can know neither our-
selves nor God ; and, knowing whom, we have all knowledge. The apostasy
of man, the corruption and depravity into which he plunged himself by his
rebellion, and the curse thereby incurred from a God of holiness and truth.
are the cardinal facts which lie at the basis of the whole saving doctrine of
the Scriptures ; — facts which, if misunderstood or ignored, the word of God
is a riddle ; if denied, the very person of Christ is a lie. The doctrine, there-
fore, of original sin, has ever been held, by the church of God, to be funda-
mental to the whole system of truth ; and every attempt to pervert that doc-
trine, or to set it aside, has been justly regarded as heresy, fraught with the
most fatal consequences to the scheme of grace and the souls of men. A
testimony to doctrines so important can never be unseasonable; and is, per-
haps, especially appropriate to the present time, when we have increasing
evidence of defection from these doctrines, among some of our American
churches, which once gloried in the faith they now disown, and were set for
the defence of the truth which they now reject and assail.

At an early date in the ministry of the author, he began to prepare what
was designed to be a brief treatise on the doctrine of Christ, viewed as the
progressive unfolding of an eternal plan for the revelation of the Most High.
Other cares and labours interposed, and the work was laid aside. More
recently, circumstances of special interest to him, but of no moment to the
public, determined him to utter a testimony to some of the doctrines which
are set forth in this work. At first no more was designed than a very brief
exposition of some cardinal points. But, as he proceeded, the theme ex-
panded ; and the importance of the topics, the impossibility of doing them
justice in a brief discussion, and the delight enjoyed in contemplating the
scheme of God, of which they constitute the chief elements, have insensibly
controlled the pen, until the present volume is the result.

It has been remarked, by one of the most eminent of our noble brother-
hood of divines, that "we want some central principle, which embraces

5



6 Preface.

equally the religion of nature and the religion of grace. Until some such
central principle is developed in its all-comprehensive relations, we are
obliged to have a twofold theology, as we have a twofold religion, — a cove-
nant of works and a covenant of grace, with no bridge between them."*
The doctrine which is illustrated in the present work, — that of God revealed
through an eternal plan, — presents itself to the mind of the writer as being
the desideratum here indicated ; as that around which all doctrinal truths
cluster and shine in a light and harmony not otherwise discoverable. It is
not, however, as an exhibition of systematic theology, in this light, that the
writer lays his present offering at the feet of the church of Christ. But,
looking upon this as the true point, from which to view the related doc-
trines of the ruin and recovery of man, — the catastrophe of the first Adam
and the redeeming work of the second, — he has constructed the argument,
on these subjects, in accordance with that idea; and only appealed to the
other leading features of the system of truth for the illustration of these.

The fragmentary manner in which the work has been written, — at times
snatched from pastoral and other labours and cares, and other causes, —
have necessarily induced many imperfections and defects. Nor would the
author venture before the public in a form so imperfect, did he not hope
that, with all, his offering may be acceptable to Christ, and advantageous
to his church and cause.

Trained from my childhood in the love of the doctrines of the "Westmin-
ster Confession, — confirmed, by the results of my maturest studies, in the
conviction that they are in thorough accordance with the word of God, — I
have not attempted to conceal the fervour of a devoted zeal in their behalf;
nor to imitate that, charity which consists in indifference to the loveliness of
the truth and the deformity of error. Constrained, on some points, to differ
with brethren and fathers beloved and venerated in our own church, — the
candour and directness, which the importance of the questions seemed to de-
mand, have not, I trust, been inconsistent with that respect and deference
which I cordially cherish for men at whose feet I should be happy to sit.

The introductory chapter is designed to exhibit the position which has
been occupied by the church, from age to age, on the subject of original Bin.
The graces of composition have been cheerfully sacrificed to this object. My
authorities, besides those marginally acknowledged, are, the Corpus et Syn-
tagma Confessionum, by Caspar Laurentius, Geneva, 1G12, and the Collectio
Confessionum, by Niemeyer.

The fruit and the solace of many toilsome hours is now committed to tin-
candour of the Christian public, — not without the earnest hope and the
prayer that He in whose fear it has been written will accept it to his own
glory, and the furtherance of his cause.

1 Southern Presbyterian Review, 1858, vol. x. p. 619.



CONTEXTS.



INTRODUCTION.

HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE DOCTRINE OF ORIGINAL SIN. — P. 11.
$ 1. Doctrinal development through contact with error. § 2. Doctrine of Tertullian.
g 3. Hilary and Ambrose. g 4. Pelagius. § 5. Augustine. # 6. Mediasval theology.

# 7. Earlier Reformed confessions. § 8. Continental divines. § 9. The Remonstrants
and the Synod of Dort. § 10. "Westminster Assembly, g 11. British divines. § 12.
Doctrine of Placeeus. § 13. Edwardean theology.

CHAPTER I.

THE TRIUNE CREATOR. — P. 51.
§ 1. The creation was by the Trinity as such. g 2. The Father and Son. — The
eternal generation. — Proof from the second Psalm, gg 3, 4. From Proverbs viii. 22-31.

# 5. From Proverbs xsx. 3, 4, and Micah v. 2. g 6. From the gospels. $ 7. From the
epistles. \ 8. Other arguments. $ 9. Objections met. g 10. General considerations.
>J 11. The Scripture argument summed up. \ 12. The doctrine respecting the Father,
Son, and Spirit, severally, and as one.

CHAPTER II.

THE ETERNAL PLAN. — P. 82.

\ 1. In working, wisdom requires an object. § 2. God's object was the revelation of
himself, the Triune God. § 3. To that end, an eternal plan, g 4. It includes the
minutest details. £ 5. The angels and the material universe. — In it God shines. g 6.
His moral glories revealed in man, Christ, and the work of redemption. # 7. Earth its
theatre. £ 8. The revelation progressive and cumulative.

CHAPTER III.

THE PROVIDENTIAL ADMINISTRATION. — P. 100.

2 1. Different theories of second causes. §2. Our doctrine. § 3. Edwards' theory.
J} 4. His doctrine of identity. \ 5. His doctrine unscriptural. # 6. Office of the sys-
tem of nature. £ 7. God's immediate agency. — McCosh's theory. £ 8. Miracles and
special providences. \ 9. General principles of administration. § 10. Mode of dis-
pensation. § 11. Conclusion.

CHAPTER IV.

ADAM THE LIKENESS OF GOD. P. 132.

$ 1. Adam the image and likeness. \ 2. His body immortal. § 3. Likeness in his
generative nature. $ 4. Proof that this was designed. $ 5. AVonderful nature of gene-
ration. \ 6. " Nature" defined. \ 7. The breath of life, the Spirit's image. g 8. Tho

7 '



8 Contents.

natural attributes of his soul. § 9. His moral powers. — Reason. — Conscience. § 10. The
Will. § 11. Nature of motives. § 12. Freedom of the will. §13. Definitions of liberty :
Edwards, Leibnitz, and Aristotle. § 14. Adam's knowledge. § 15. Proof of it from
the use of language, § 16. His righteousness and holiness. § 17. His dominion.
Recapitulation.

CHAPTER V.

THE LAW OF GOD. — P. 187.

§ 1. God our sovereign. § 2. Hopkinsian theory. § 3. Beecher's Conflict of Ages.
§ 4. ne sets fate above God. § 5. The doctrine infidel. § 6. Office of intuition, § 7.
Doctrine of the Scriptures. § 8. May the creatures sit in judgment on God ? §9.
Beecher's experiment. §10. The doctrine precludes a revelation of God. §11. Nature
and necessity of God's sovereignty. § 12. The law is, Glorify God. § 13. It demands
perfect obedience, of the whole being, perpetually. § 14. It binds all. § 15. Adapts
itself to all cases. § 16. Office of the written law.

CHAPTER VI.

THE PRINCIPLE OF THE LAW. — P. 228.

§ 1. God's moral attributes. § 2. He glories in them. § 3. Their nature and evi-
dence. § 4. Design of their revelation. § 5. The principle thus deduced. § 6. The
perfection of the law consists in its transcription from the moral nature of God.

CHAPTER VII.

THE NATURE OF SIN. — P. 243.
§ 1. Sin is unlawfulness. § 2. Phenomena of moral natures. § 3. Moral obligation.
- — Its subject the nature. § 4. The law addresses the nature. § 5. Edwards' doctrine
of the nature of sin. § 6. Sin of nature. § 7. Results of our inquiry. § 8. Barne.-'
doctrine.

CHAPTER VIII.

DEATH, THE PENALTY OF THE LAW. — P. 263.
§ 1. Sanctions necessary. § 2. Nature of a penalty. § 3. Death, not metaphorical.
§ 4. Its use illustrated in Abel's death. § 5. It is not bodily dissolution. § 6. It is
God's inflicted curse.

CHAPTER IX.

THE LAW A COVENANT OF LIFE. — P. 280.
\ 1. The covenant gratuitous from God. § 2. The promise, its symbols and seals.
\ '■',. Date of the promise. § 4. The trees of life and knowledge. § 5. The promise
was a covenant, g 6. Positive constitution of the covenant. § 7. The life promised.

CHAPTER X.

ADAM THE COVENANT HEAD OF THE RACE. P. 305.

§ 1. Proof of Adam's headship. § 2. The cause of it, the inscription of the covenant
in his propagative nature. §3. Proofs of the doctrine. §4. Other scriptural examples.
§5. Principle of identity. §6. The idea of a " constituted" representation untenable.
§ 7. The principle of representation. § 8. Eve part of the representative head.



Contents. 9

CHAPTER XL

EXTENT OF ADAM'S PARENTAL RELATION. — ORIGIN OF THE
SOUL. — P. 335.
§ 1. History of doctrine on the subject, g 2. Philosophical arguments against propa-
gation. $ 3. These answered. \ 4. Scripture argument against it considered, g 5.
Affirmative argument gratuitous. £ 6. Seth's birth. § 7. Other Scripture proofs. § 8.
The proper position of philosophy in relation to theology. § 9. Creationism involves a
duality in man. § 10. Relation to Christ's humanity. \ 11. It is inconsistent with
the doctrine of miracles. § 12. And with the certainty of the relation of cause and
effect. $ 13. Difficulty on original sin. £ 14. Creation theory on the subject. § 15.
Recapitulation.

CHAPTER XII.

THE APOSTASY OF ADAM. — P. 385.
$ 1. We know not how sin could enter a holy being. — But it was by his free will.
§ 2. Process of the apostasy. § 3. Its moral enormity. \ 4. It was the depravation
of the race.

CHAPTER XIII.

THE PERMISSION OF MORAL EVIL. — P. 397.
# 1. Phases of optimism, g 2. New Haven theory, that God could not prevent sin.
g 3. Fallacy of optimism. — It degrades God. § 4. God can, but chooses not to prevent
sin; and by occasion of it reveals his highest moral glories.

CHAPTER XIV.

Paul's discussion of original sin. — p. 410.

$ 1. General view of the epistle to the Romans. §§ 2, 3. Exegesis of ch. v. 12.
g 4. Verses 13, 14. £ 5. Verses 15-17. $ 6. Verses 18, 19. § 7. Verses 20, 21. § 8.
Doctrine of the apostle. § 9. Inbeing in Adam and in Christ, g 10. Dr. Hodge on the
word, sin. § 11. "Regarded and treated." \ 12. Christ "made sin." g 13. Bearing
of Dr. H.'s view upon the scope of the apostle. § 14. Parallel of Adam and Christ.
(J 15. Complacency in Christ's righteousness. § 16. Relation of this theory to the fall.
g 17. Romans, chapter vi. § 18. Chapter vii. g 19. The doctrine. — Sin an indwelling
power. § 20. Its origin in Adam.

CHAPTER XV.

DEFINITION OF GUILT AND OF IMPUTATION. — P. 461.
j? 1. Guilt is criminal liability. $ 2. Definitions of Calvin, Marck, Van Mastricht, and
Rutherford. § 3. Analysis of these. \ 4. Usage of the Westminster standards. \ 5.
Imputation defined.

CHAPTER XVI.

THE GUILT OF ADAM'S FIRST SIN. — P. 474.
\ 1. Doctrine of imputation. $ 2. Edwards on imputation. § 3. Arminian theory.
§ 4. It is untenable. # 5. Use of the word, sin. # 6. Sinners only punished. $ 7.
Punishment without crime. § 8. Law of identity. 9. Contrition duo for the apostasy.
§ 10. Sense of personal responsibility. # 11. Our doctrine opposed to mediate imputa-
tion. § 12. Adam's transgression, and the sins of our immediate parents.



10 Contents.

CHAPTER XVII.

NATIVE DEPRAVITY. P. 510.

g 1. Pelagian and Socinian admissions. g 2. Facts of the case. g 3. Physical cor-
ruption, g 4. Dr. Stuart's " innocent susceptibilities." g 5. Elements of depravity. —
Want of righteousness, and actual depravity, g 6. Testimony of the Scriptures. g 7.
Total inability. g 8. " Natural ability." g 9. The crime one. g 10. Conclusion.

CHAPTER XVIII.

PROPAGATION OF ORIGINAL SIN. — P. 529.
g 1. The doctrine. g 2. Sin sometimes penally admitted, but never originated, by
God. g 3. Edwards' doctrine, g 4. Penal privation theory, g 5. Conclusion.

CHAPTER XIX.

TEE ETERNAL COVENANT. — P. 545.
g 1. The curse on man is stayed, g 2. History of the promise, g 3. The covenant
with David, g 4. The eternal covenant, g 5. The Parties and terms, g 6. The Holy
Spirit the Witness, g 7. It was a real covenant, g 8. Its date eternity, g 9. Its
beneficiaries the elect, g 10. Its seal the oath of God. g 11. It ordained the Son to
be the Revealer of God. g 12. In its purview are comprehended all things and events.

CHAPTER XX.

THE SECOND ADAM. — P. 578.
g 1. Christ was truly a man. g 2. The Mediator must be a man. g 3. Scripture
testimony, g 4. He was without sin. g 5. He is God. g 6. The church his body. —
Scripture testimony, g 7. Nature of the union, g 8. Thus in him all fulness dwells.

CHAPTER XXL

Christ's obedience to the law. — p. 605.

g 1. Christ's obedience voluntary, g 2. How he came under the curse, g 3. He
satisfied for his members, g 4. He obeyed the precept, g 5. He bore the curse, g 6.
Mr. Barnes' doctrine, g 7. Christ bore the very penalty, g 8. Particulars of his hu-
miliation, g 9. His conflicts with Satan, g 10. His last sufferings, g 11. " It is finished."

CHAPTER XXII.

THE LAST ADAM A QUICKENING SPIRIT. — P. 638.
g 1. Effectual calling, g 2. The new birth, g 3. Justification, g 4. Adoption, g 5.
Communion with God. g 6. Sanctification. g 7. The resurrection, g 8. The church
Christ's body, g 9. It is his witness, g 10. Its history and inheritance.

CHAPTER XXIII.

Christ's kingdom and glory. — p. 665.

g 1. Recapitulation of the past, g 2. Messiah's kingdom, g 3. Its coming will be
sudden, g 4. All flesh will be holy, g 5. Its duration will be long, g 6. Satan's last
struggle, g 7. The last judgment, g 8. The kingdom delivered up to the Father,
g 9. The New Jerusalem.



INTRODUCTION.



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE DOCTRINE OF ORIGINAL SIN.



\ 1.

The Church of God has been called to engage in a continual conflict,
not only with external enemies, but, much more, with corruptions and
heresies within her own bosom. The whole scheme of grace was devised
for the purpose of revealing to the creatures the truth concerning the
nature and perfections of God ; and it is carried on through a testimony
thereto. The principal exertions, therefore, of the father of lies have
always been directed to the object of silencing or corrupting the church,
— which is the pillar and ground of the truth, — so as to prevent her testi-
mony to that doctrine which is according to godliness, by the instru-
mentality of which his sceptre is broken and his slaves set free. At the
same time, the King of Zion, who is Head over all things to the church,
has permitted and overruled these machinations of the Serpent, so as to
induce among his own people a clearer apprehension, and more affec-
tionate embrace, of the truth. As often as the spirit of error has come
in, the Spirit of the Lord has lifted up a standard against it. All needful
truth was, from the beginning, deposited in the sacred oracles. But
much of the testimony therein contained has always lain unappre-
hended, until the oppositions of false science have brought it into ques-
tion. Then has been fulfilled the promise of our Saviour : — " When he,
the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth." — John xvi.
13. Thus, from age to age, has the doctrine of God been gradually un-
folded in clearer light, and comprehended in a growing fulness by the
true Israel of God.

Of this mode of the divine economy, the history of the doctrine of
Original Sin presents an interesting example. The essential principles
of this doctrine were indeed held from the beginning; but their precise
significance, relations and boundaries, in the system of truth, have only
been recognised and defined by a gradual process, through many conflicts
with grievous heresies.

11



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Historical Sketch. 13

"The image oannot in all respects equal the reality. For it is one tiling
to be like the reality ; another, to be the rery reality. So, also, the afflatus,
since it is but the image of the spirit, cannot present Buch a likene of
God, that inasmuch as the original, that is, the Spirit which is God, is
withoul sin, therefore the image, the afflatus, tnusl be held incapable of
sin. In (his, the i n i : t ^r< ■ is inferior to the original,— the afflatus less ex-
cellent than the Spirit; yet baying (ho very lineaments of God, inas-
much as the BOul was immortal; as it was free, and subject to its own
will ; ;is it was prescient of many things, rational, and capable of appre-
hension and knowledge. Nevertheless, in these things it was hut an
image, and not endowed with the very energy of divinity. So neither
was it beyond the reach of apostasy; because this is peculiar to God, the
original; and not characteristic, ol' (he image."* "I find man created
by God) free, and subject to his own will and power ; and perceive in him
no nearer image and likeness of God, than the structure of this consti-
tution. For in features and corporeal lineaments, which are so various
in the human race, be dues not, exhibit a representation of God, whose
likeness is one: but in that substance which he derived from God him-
self, that is, his soul, conformed to the image of God, and enstamped with
liberty and power of his own will. 'Phis state of liberty was confirmed
by the eery law which was given bim by God. For a law would not have



Online LibrarySamuel J. (Samuel John) BairdThe first Adam and the second : the Elohim revealed in the creation and redemption of man → online text (page 1 of 66)