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$10,404,593, as follows :

For protection of policy-holders generally, in

life insurance companies of this State . . . $3,689,891.00

For protection of registered policy-holders ex-
clusively 3,250,842.00

For protection of casualty policy-holders exclu-
sively 1,000.00

For protection of plate-glass policy-holders ex-
'*' clusively 50,000.00

For protection of fire policy-holders in insur-
ance companies of other States 40,000.00

For protection of fire policy-holders in insur-
ance companies of Canada 600,120.00

For protection of fire policy-holders in foreign

insurance companies 2,473,100.00

For protection of life policy-holders in foreign

insurance companies 300,000.00

Total deposit . $10,404,953.00



!8 7 5.] FIRST ANNUAL MESSAGE. 69

During the past year fifty-seven vessels arrived at the port
of New York in which, during the passage or

Quarantine.

while in port, sickness had occurred, rendering
them subject to quarantine detention. Eight vessels had eleven
cases of small-pox on board, from which 3,228 persons had been
exposed to the disease ; 121 cases of yellow fever occurred on
44 vessels bound for New York, and twelve patients with this
disease reached the port and were cared for at the Dix Island
Hospital, of whom two died ; and five cases of ship-fever were
removed by the health-officer to the hospital. No cases of
cholera occurred in the port ; but several vessels arrived from
ports infected with this disease, on three of which, coming from
India, deaths from cholera occurred during the passage. No
new disease called for any action by the health-officer.

During the year an epidemic of malignant yellow fever raged
in Havana with unprecedented violence, and prevailed in Rio de
Janeiro and in twelve other South American and West Indian
ports, and also in Pensacola and some other Southern ports of
the United States having extensive and direct communication
with New York. In Havana the deaths from yellow fever
reached the enormous ratio of 80 per cent of the persons
attacked ; and in some cases, vessels lying in that harbor dur-
ing the summer lost all their crews except one or two. It is
worthy of notice that while in previous years nearly nine tenths
of all cases of yellow fever came from the port of Havana, so
small a number reached here during the present year. This
result, in the opinion of the health-officer, is largely due to the
sanitary precautions taken by the officers of the vessels, most
of whom, being connected with regular lines, are becoming fa-
miliar with the quarantine regulations of the port and with the
rigid, though reasonable, restrictions to which vessels having per-
sons suffering from infectious diseases on board are subjected.

During the quarantine season 1,135 vessels arrived at quar-
antine from suspected ports ; of these 236 were from ports
known to be infected, and were detained, and 68 were re-
quired to discharge their cargoes on lighters in the stream
before going to the city.



70



THE WORKS OF SAMUEL J. TILDE N.



[1875-



The following table shows the statistics of emigration for
Emigration. the last fifteen years :









^nmliPT








Amount paid








11 11 111 Mr 1

of Xjiiii'






Amount paid


to Counties




Com-










for Heal Estate


and Institu-


Years.


muta-
tion


Aliens
arrived.


grants
cared for

f\n


Total cash
receipts.


Total cash
disbursements.


and Buildings,
included in


tions of the
State, includ-




Fee.




\JU

\Vnrr1 * a






total cash dis-


ed in total








* v .LI LI 8

Island.






bursements.


cash disburse-
ments.


1860 SS.nn


105,162


4,729


$289,467.92


$217,717.53




$58,869.08


1861





65,529


5,079


175,434.56


178,401.77




19,855.93




1862


u


76,306


3,247


174,454.29


138,524.56




16,016.06


1863


It


156,844


4,911


341,027.00


168,155.71




15,792.22


1864





182,916


7,363


420,366.17


373,763.39


$132,450.00


19,349.71


1865


t(


196,352


7,425


471,034.85


447,580.20


199,559.67


14,320.74


1866


tc


233,418


10,306


532,048.20


545,983.21


193,937.06


52,940.24


1867


2.50


242,731


13,237


583,154.40


538,577.22


133,695.17


33,945.87


18,68





213,686


14,250


577,349.36


662,958.12


125,769.74


1101,737.20


1869





258,989


13,911


695,499.59


606,158.58


96,852.13


48,846.66


1870


it


212,170


16,601


566,119.26


605,544.24


54,784.98


51,681.15


1871


1.50


229,639


14,369


421,957.40


605,904.17


96,419.47


39,829.58


1872





294,581


15,818


457,011.70


590,793.78


129,765.07


51,556.81


1873





266,818


12,942


415,063.28


466,108.22


61,188.46


32,678.24


*1874


u


135,323


6,300


214,631.34


299,035.14


22,129.45






Totals




2,870,464


150,488


$6,334,619.32


$6,445,205.84


$1,246,551.20


$557,419.49



The indebtedness of the Board is as follows :

Due the Equitable Life Assurance Society, amount
borrowed on bond and mortgage of the lands at
Ward's Island $100,000.00

Due the counties and charitable institutions of the
State for the care and support of emigrants during
the past one and one half years 75,000.00

Due for current expenses at Castle Garden .... 16,000.00

Estimated expenses of the Castle Gar-
den and Ward's Island establish-
ments, for the month of December,
including $10,000 due for coal . . . $30,000.00

Less cash on hand and estimated re-
ceipts 20,000.00

. 10,000.00



Total estimated indebtedness Dec. 31, 1874



$201,000.00



* For eleven months.



t This sum included back claims.



iS75-] FIRST ANNUAL MESSAGE. 71

The number of emigrants at present cared for at Castle
Garden and Ward's Island is 1,041, and in the counties about
nine hundred. During the months of January and February,
the number to be cared for at Ward's Island will increase to
about two thousand and in the counties to more than twelve
hundred. On the 1st of January next the commissioners will
practically be without funds to care for these persons. The
expenses of the Ward's Island and Castle Garden institutions
will, during the months of January and February, be about
$25,000 per month, while the receipts will not exceed $5,000
per month.

The statistics of the common schools for the

Common schools.

year ending Sept. 30, 1874, are as follows :

Total receipts, including balance on hand Sep-
tember 30, 1873 ' $11,944,023.38

Total expenditures 10,779,779.61

Amount paid for teachers' wages 7,559,090.59

Amount paid for school-houses, repairs, furni-
ture, etc 1,721,282.64

Estimated value of school-houses and sites . . . 28,714,738.00



Total number of school-houses 11,775

Number of school districts, exclusive of cities . . 11,299
" " teachers employed at the same time for

the full legal term of school .... 18,554
" " teachers employed during any portion of

the year 29,683

" " children attending Public Schools . . 1,039,097

" " persons attending Normal Schools . . 6,568

" " children of school age in Private Schools 138,610

" " volumes in School District Libraries . 835,882
" " persons in the State between 5 and 21

years of age 1,591,874

The condition of the colleges and academies, subject to the
visitation of the Regents of the University, is colleges and
very satisfactory. There are within the State academies -
twenty-two literary colleges, ten medical colleges, and two
hundred and forty academies and academical departments of



72 TEE WORKS OF SAMUEL J. TILDEN. [1875.

union schools. With several of the colleges included in this
enumeration are connected special schools of law, of medicine,
and of other branches of science. By the wise liberality of
individual citizens, the endowments and appliances of several
of these institutions have during the last year been largely
increased and their means of usefulness greatly extended. The
number of scholars in attendance upon the academies has in-
creased, and the standard of scholarship has upon the whole
considerably advanced. These institutions, while they prepare
students for admission to the colleges, are also designed to fit
another class for immediate entrance upon the practical duties
of life ; and thus complementing the work of the common
schools, form an important part of the educational institutions
of the State.

The State Library, in both its departments, has been enlarged
State Libraw and ^7 tne application of all the means at the dis-
Museum. posal of the trustees. In the extent and value

of its contents, it is a source of just pride to the people of the
State. The Law Library numbers about twenty-six thousand
volumes, and the General Library about sixty-eight thousand,
including many rare and valuable works. The State Museum
of Natural History, under the management of its able curator,
Professor Hall, is reported to be in excellent condition, and
exhibits the productions of the State in a manner to afford
to the student of natural science most valuable aid in his
studies.

The National Guard consists of eight divisions, containing
The National nineteen brigades, composed of one regiment and
Guard - nine separate troops of cavalry, one battalion and

ten batteries of artillery, thirty regiments and thirteen bat-
talions of infantry. Total officers, non-commissioned officers,
musicians, and privates (three brigades estimated), 20,532.

The last Legislature made an additional appropriation of a

Soldiers of war of hundred thousand dollars for redeeming certain

certificates issued to soldiers of the war of 1812.

The former appropriation paid on the certificates allowed



I875-]



FIRST ANNUAL MESSAGE.



73



.52 r j>-Q on $100 of principal. The appropriation of 1874
paid the balance due on the principal, and 8-16.72 on $100 of
interest.

On the first day of January, 1874, the unsettled balance in
favor of the State was 81,209,286.11. Since that War claims

4 r\f\m against the

time another instalment of over 834,000 has been United states.
presented to the Treasury Department. In the unsettled balance
above stated is included a claim for 8131,188.02, interest on
comptroller's bonds, which cannot be paid without legislative
action.

The quantity of salt from the Onondaga Salt Springs in-
spected during the last fiscal year was 6,594,191
bushels, less by 1,364,981 bushels than the pro-
duction of the preceding year. The net revenue from this
source was 810,341.67, showing a falling off, as compared with
the preceding year, of 811,424.08.

The following statement shows the expenditures and earnings
of each of the prisons for the year ending Sept.

30,1874:- State prisons.



Salt springs.





Advances from
the Treasury.


Received from
Earnings.


Excess of
Ependitures.


Auburn


$233,166.90


$101 91040


$131 256 50


Clinton


337,674.12


153473.60


184 204 52


Sing Sing


360 054.58


124 009 43


9.36 045 15


Miscellaneous *






37 031 5












930,899.60


379,393.43


$588,537.42



In 1867 the excess of advances from the Treasury

over receipts from earnings was $366,874.79

In 1868 it was 512,547.74

In 1869 it was 595,774.45

In 1870 it was 461,304.99

In 1871 it was 470,309.23

1 Miscellaneous Expenditures, not distributed, including 26,231.25 for trans-
portation of convicts.



74 THE WORKS OF SAMUEL J. TILDEN. [1875.

In 1872 it was $465,881.84

In 1873 it was 597,289.06

In 1874 it was 588,537.42

The number of convicts in each of the prisons, Sept. 30, 1874,
was as follows :

Auburn 1,202

Clinton 552

Sing Sing 1,306

3,060
Total, Sept. 30, 1873 3,025



XXXV.

SOME four months prior to the convening of the New York
Legislature in 1875 a body of United States soldiers, in pur-
suance of orders from General Sheridan, entered the Legislature
of Louisiana while that body was in session and removed from
it five of its members, under the pretext that they had been
illegally seated, and that in some undefined contingency
violence might result from their remaining there. The first
impulse to this outrage upon the sovereignty of Louisiana was
given by the following letter from Governor Ames of Mississippi
and the accompanying documents, written shortly before the
then impending State election.



JACKSON, Miss., Sept. 8, 1875 (5.30 P.M.).
To President U. S. Grant, Washington, D. C. :

Domestic violence prevails in various parts of this State beyond
the power of the State authorities to suppress. The Legislature
cannot be convened in time to meet the emergency. I therefore,
in accordance with Section 4, Article IV. of the Constitution of
the United States, which provides that the United States shall
guarantee to every State in this Union a, republican form of
government, and shall protect each of them against invasion, and
on application of the Legislature, or of the Executive when the
Legislature cannot be convened, against domestic violence, make
this my application for such aid from the Federal Government as
may be necessary to restore peace to the State and protect its

citizens.

ADELBEKT AMES, Governor.

Governor Ames, having been asked for further information,
made reply under date of September 11, in which he said :



76 THE WORKS OF SAMUEL J. TILDEN. [1875.

"The necessity which called forth my despatch of the 8th instant
to the President still exists. Your question of yesterday asks for
information, which I gladly give. The violence is incident to a
political contest preceding the pending election. Unfortunately,
the question of race, which has been prominent in the South since
the w r ar, has assumed magnified importance at this time in certain
localities. In fact the race-feeling is so intense that protection
for the colored people by white organizations is despaired of.
A political contest made on the white line forbids it."

On September 14 Attorney-General Pierrepont sent the
following letter to Governor Ames :

DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, WASHINGTON*, D. C., Sept. 14, 1875.

To Governor Ames, Jackson, Miss. :

This hour I have had despatches from the President. I can
best convey to you his ideas by extracts from his despatches :

"The whole public are tired out with these annual autumnal
outbreaks in the South, and the great majority are ready now to
condemn any interference on the part of the Government. I
heartily wish that peace and good order may be restored without
issuing the proclamation ; but if it is not, the proclamation must
be issued. But if it is, I shall instruct the commander of the
forces to have no child's play. If there is a necessity for military
interference, there is justice in such interference, to deter evil-doers.
I would suggest the sending of a despatch or letter, by means of a
private messenger, to Governor Ames, urging him to strengthen
his own position by exhausting his own resources in restoring
order before he receives Government aid. He might accept the
assistance offered by the citizens of Jackson and elsewhere.
Governor Ames and his advisers may be made perfectly secure ; as
many of the troops now in Mississippi as he deems necessary may
be sent to Jackson. If he is betrayed by those who offer assis-
tance, he will be in a position to defeat their ends and punish
them."

You see by this the mind of the President, with which I and
every member of the Cabinet who has been consulted are in full
accord. You see the difficulties, you see the responsibilities which
you assume. TVe cannot understand w T hy you do not strengthen
yourself in the way the President suggests, nor do we see why
you do not call the Legislature together and obtain from them
whatever power and money and arms you need. The Constitu-
tion is explicit that the Executive of the State can call upon the



1875.] THE VIOLATED SOVEREIGNTY OF LOUISIANA. 77

President for aid in suppressing domestic violence only when the
Legislature cannot be convened ; and the law expressly says : " In
case of an insurrection in any State against the government
thereof, it shall be lawful for the President, on application of the
Legislature of said State, or of the Executive when the Legislature
cannot be convened," etc. It is plain that the meaning of the
Constitution and laws when taken together is that the Executive
of a State may call upon the President for military aid to quell
domestic violence only in case of an insurrection in any State
against the government thereof when the Legislature cannot be
called together.

You make no suggestions even that there is any insurrection
against the government of the State, or that the Legislature would
not support you in any measures you might propose to preserve
the public order. I suggest that you take all lawful means and
all needed measures to preserve the peace by the forces in your
own State, and let the country see that the citizens of Mississippi,
who are largely favorable to good order, and who are largely
Eepublican, have the courage and the manhood to fight for their
rights, and to destroy the bloody ruffians who murder the innocent
and unoffending freedmen. Everything is in readiness. Be care-
ful to bring yourself strictly within the Constitution and the laws ;
and if there is such resistance to your State authorities as you
cannot by all the means at your command suppress, the President
will quickly aid you in crushing these lawless traitors to human
rights.

Telegraph me on receipt of this, and state explicitly what you
need.

Very respectfully yours,

EDWARDS PIEREEPOXT.



The election took place on the 2d of November, and resulted
in a general defeat of the Republicans. The total vote for
State treasurer was 162,751, of which Hemenway received
96,596, and Buchanan 66,155, making the majority of the
former 30,441. Six members of Congress were chosen at the
same time. In the first district L. Q. C. Lamar, Democrat,
was elected without opposition ; in the second, G. Wiley Wells,
Democrat, received 19,250 to 13,149 for A. R. Howe, Repub-
lican ; in the third, H. D. Money, Democrat, received 13,774,
to 5,883 for R. C. Powers, and 5,114 for F. H. Little ; in the
fourth, 0. R. Singleton, Democrat, received 19,890 to 9,914



78 THE WORKS OF SAMUEL J. TILDEN. [1875.

for Jason Niles ; in the fifth, Charles E. Hooker, Democrat,
received 16,539 to 10,653 for James Hill ; and in the sixth,
John R. Lynch, Republican, was elected, receiving 13,741
votes to 13,510 for Roderick Seal. The Legislature, elected at
the same time, consisted of twenty-six Democrats and eleven
Republicans in the Senate, and ninety-seven Democrats and
twenty Republicans in the House, making the Democratic
majority fifteen in the Senate and seventy-seven in the House,
or ninety-two on a joint ballot.

Regarding the result of the election, Senator H. R. Revels,
colored, wrote to the President as follows :

" Since the reconstruction, the masses of my people have been,
as it were, enslaved in mind by unprincipled adventurers, who,
caring nothing for the country, were willing to stoop to anything,
no matter how infamous, to secure power to themselves and per-
petuate it. My people are naturally Republicans ; but as they grow
older in freedom, so do they in wisdom. A great portion of them
have learned that they were being used as mere tools ; and, as in
the late election, uot beiug able to correct the existing evil among
themselves, they determined, by casting their ballots against these
unprincipled adventurers, to overthrow them. My people have
been told by these schemers, when men were placed upon the
ticket who were notoriously corrupt and dishonest, that they must
vote for them ; that the salvation of the party depended upon it ;
that the man who scratched a ticket was not a Republican. This
is only one of the many means these malignant demagogues have
devised to perpetuate the intellectual bondage of my people. To
defeat this policy, at the late election men, irrespective of race or
party affiliation, united and voted together against men known to
be incompetent and dishonest. I cannot recognize, nor do the
masses of my people who read recognize, the majority of the offi-
cials who have been in power for the last two years as Republi-
cans. We do not believe that Republicanism means corruption,
theft, and embezzlement. These three offences have been preva-
lent among a great portion of our office-holders ; to them must be at-
tributed the defeat of the Republican party in the State, if defeat
there was ; but I, with all the lights before me, look upon it as an
uprising of the people, the whole people, to crush out corrupt rings
and men from power. The bitterness and hate created by the late
civil strife have, in my opinion, been obliterated in this State, ex-
cept, perhaps, in some localities, and would have long since been
entirely effaced, were it not for some unprincipled men who would



1875.] THE VIOLATED SOVEREIGNTY OF LOUISIANA. 79

keep alive the bitterness of the past and inculcate a hatred be-
tween the races, in order that they may aggrandize themselves by
office and its emoluments to control my people, the effect of which
is to degrade them."

In defiance of the state of facts and of public opinion indi-
cated by the election returns and by the statement of Senator
Revels, himself a colored man, General Sheridan presumed to
order United States soldiery to enter the hall in which the
Legislature was sitting ; to determine who were and who were
not entitled to participate in its deliberations ; and to remove
five of the members of the body from the hall by force to make
place for five others whom the Legislature, in the completeness
of its authority to determine who were entitled to participate
in its deliberations, had solemnly excluded. Governor Tilden
chose to treat this outrage upon the sovereignty of Louisiana as
an outrage upon every sovereign State of the Union ; and as
such he deemed it his duty to lodge his official protest against
it in the following Message. It deserves to be noted as an
additional motive for his making common cause with Louisi-
ana in this matter and for inviting the attention of the New
York Legislature to a subject lying wholly outside of its juris-
diction, that the Cabinet at "Washington had officially approved
of General Sheridan's proceedings.



THE OUTRAGE UPON THE SOVEREIGNTY OF

LOUISIANA.

EXECUTIVE CHAMBER, ALBANY Jan. 12, 1875.
To the Legislature :

ON your re-assembling I deem it to be my duty to invite your
attention to the grave events which have happened in our sister
State of Louisiana. The interval of your adjournment has
offered you an opportunity to receive the statements of the
parties concerned in those occurrences, particularly that of
Lieutenant-General Sheridan in his official Report to the Sec-
retary of War, dated Jan. 8, 1875. You are now enabled to
know with certainty all the facts necessary to form a just and
deliberate judgment as to the nature of the principal acts which
have created so much public excitement.

According to the official Report of Lieutenant-General Sheri-
dan, the United States soldiers entered the House of Represen-
tatives of the State of Louisiana while that bodv was in session

mt

and removed from it five of its members. The pretexts for
this act are : First, that it was done under directions from the
Governor of the State, recognized by the President. Second,
that the persons removed "had been illegally seated," and
" had no legal right to be there." Third, that a fear existed
in the mind of Lieutenant-General Sheridan that in some un-
defined contingency violence might happen.

With respect to the first and second of these pretexts, it is a
decisive answer that the Louisiana House of Representatives
had by the Constitution of that State the exclusive judgment
as to the right of these members to seats ; that its judgment



i875-] THE VIOLATED SOVEREIGNTY OF LOUISIANA, 81

is subject to no review by any judicial authority, still less
a review by the Governor or by any officer of the United
States army ; and that its judgment in favor of these members
thus forcibly removed is binding in law and conclusive upon
the Governor and Lieutenant-General Sheridan and upon every
other person. In respect to the third pretext, the fear in the
mind of Lieutenant-General Sheridan of possible future vio-
lence when no violence really existed, is not only no lawful
occasion, but not even an excuse for an invasion of the right
of the House of Representatives of Louisiana to judge for itself



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