Samuel John Baird.

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our very nature by God, he makes continual appeal, in express-
ing his own ineffable love to his own Son. "This is my beloved
Son, in whom I am well pleased." — Matt. iii. 17. By this love
of the parent to the child, we are taught to estimate the divine
compassion to man; since "God so loved the world that he gave
his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should
not perish, but have everlasting life." — John iii. 16. Of the
prominent and central position which these relations occupy in
the whole scheme of God, we have already had occasion to speak.
And the same argument, then applied, to establish the doctrine
of the eternal Sonship, is here equally appropriate. Is it possible
to account for the fact here suggested, upon any other supposi-
tion, than that the paternal and filial relations among men are
an adumbration and likeness of those in God?

3. Either there is a real analogy, however distant, between
these human relations and those in the divine nature ; or, there
is not. If it be denied that there is, it remains with those who
take that ground to account for the style of the Scriptures on
the subject. If it is admitted that such analogy does exist, the
alternative is, that it was intentionally enstamped on man, in
his creation, as an element in his likeness to God ; or, that it
occurred by chance, without intention on the part of the
Creator; and the illustration of the divine nature thence de-
rived was an after-thought.

4. The remarkable argument of Paul, respecting the decorum
to be observed in the public worship of God, is directly to our
purpose. " A man ought not to cover his head, forasmuch as
he is the image and glory of God ; but the woman is the glory
of the man. For the man is not of the woman, but the woman
of the man." — 1 Cor. xi. 7, 8. From this language, it is evident
that the image in which man was created involved much more
than that moral likeness which consisted in the knowledge of
God, righteousness and holiness. Certainly, no one will pretend
that these are characteristic of man, in contrast with woman.
The Scriptures give us no reason to suppose that the highest
attainments in the moral image of God are not as much within
her reach as that of man. The history of the world seems to

sect, iv.] Adam the Likeness of God. 143

show that, in the circumstances which surround us in our fallen
estate, — and it is that of which Paul speaks, — piety is more
congenial to the female character than to that of the other sex.
In fact, the language of the apostle is unambiguous in pre-
dicating the image of which he speaks upon the fact that the
man is the spring and efficient cause of the race : — " He is the
image and glory of God. For the man is not of the woman, but
the woman of the man."

5. The design of man's creation was to constitute him an
image of God, with specific respect to his triune nature, of which
the eternal generation is a conspicuous feature. This end is
announced in the decree for his creation : — " Let us make man
in our image, after our likeness;" and the distinctive relations
of the Persons of the Godhead to the creation of this crowning
work are plainly intimated in the narrative. "And God said,
Let us make man." — Gen. i. 26. "And the Lord God formed
man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the
breath of life." — Gen. ii. 7. Here Elohim, God the Father, issues
the decree; Jehovah Elohim, the Son, forms man of the dust;
and the Spirit gives him life, as we have already shown.

6. Our position is immovably established by the fact that
the second Adam distinctly asserts the relation subsisting
between him and his people to be in the likeness of that between
the Father and Son. He prays "that they all may be one; as
thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be
one in us : that the world may believe that thou hast sent me.
And the glory which thou gavest me, I have given them ; that
they may be one, even as we are one ; I in them, and thou in
me, that they may be made perfect in one." — John xvii. 21-23.
The doctrine of the mystical union will be particularly con-
sidered hereafter. That the relation of the second Adam to his
people is parallel to that of the first Adam to the race, is plainly
taught in the Scriptures. The bearing of this language of our
Saviour, taken in connection with that parallel, upon the doctrine
in question, will be apparent to the reader.

The phenomena of generation constitute one of those classes
of facts, in respect to the works and ways of God, the familiarity

144 Tlw Elolrim Revealed. [chap. iv.

of which blinds us to their amazing character. Because we
§ 5. Wonder- see ^ daily exemplified, it does not strike us as at all
fui nature of strange or remarkable, that the creatures should, by
generation. generation, reproduce themselves, in offspring after
their own likeness. And yet it is one of the most wonderful
and inscrutable displays of the wisdom, power and exhaustless
resources of the Creator, probably without example elsewhere in
the creation of God, and explicable upon no other supposition
than that it subserves the grand design of Adam's whole consti-
tution, the exhibition of an image of God; — the lower creatures
man's likeness ; he, that of his Maker. To attempt to search out
or comprehend the essential nature of the process of generation
were absurd; but there are some facts respecting it, which are
self-evident, and which it is of importance distinctly to mark.
When the lower animals were made, God said to them, " Be
fruitful, and multiply;" and when man was created, he was ad-
dressed in similar terms : — " Be fruitful, and multiply, and re-
plenish the earth." It is not possible to explain this language
otherwise, than as announcing the communication to them of a
generative force, the cause of existence to their offspring, with-
out further exertion of creative power. The correctness of this
interpretation will scarcely be questioned; its verification is
continually before our eyes. In respect to it, the alternative is
to deny causation to the creatures altogether, and embrace the
doctrine that God is the efficient and immediate cause of all
effects. But what does the doctrine of propagation, here stated,
involve ? It implies that all the powers and forces which are,
or, to the end of time, shall be, in the living creatures, vege-
table and animal, by which the earth is filled and peopled, have
their origin in those creatures which were made at the beginning
of the world, and were implanted in them, thus to be developed
and perpetuated in their seed to the end of time. It is not, that
the powers which are developed in the offspring, have a likeness,
merely, to those of the parent. This would be, to attribute the whole
matter to a continual exercise of creative energy. But the forces
of the offspring are derived by propagation from the parents.
Those very forces numerically were in the parents, and so, back

sect, v.] Adam the Likeness of Qod. 145

to the original progenitors. This transmission and identity of
forces is readily recognised in the case of an individual parent and
his offspring. As we trace the germ, gradually expanding, we
have no difficulty in recognising and admitting that all the forces
which are engaged flow from the parent ; and so, until the
matured embryo is separated from the body of the parent. But,
when we contemplate the amazing extent and grandeur of the
whole result, we recoil. And yet it is as undeniable, as it is in-
scrutable, that the entire sum of forces which operate in the
living creation, vegetable and animal, were created and im-
planted in the primeval creatures at the beginning.

In an able dissertation which was read before the American
Association, in 1857, by Prof. James D. Dana, there occurs a
lucid exposition of some of the most important principles here
involved. To the question, What is a species ? this writer re-
plies, "It is common to define a species as a group, comprising
such individuals as are alike in fundamental qualities ; and then,
by way of elucidation, to explain what is meant by fundamental
qualities. But the idea of a group is not essential ; and more-
over, it tends to confuse the mind, by bringing before it in the
outset, the endless diversities in individuals, and suggesting
numberless questions, that vary in answer, for each kingdom,
class or subordinate group. It is better to approach the sub-
ject from a profounder point of view, search for the true idea
of distinction among species, and then proceeds, onward, to a con-
sideration of the systems of variables.

" Let us look first to inorganic nature. From the study of the
inorganic world, we learn that each element is represented by a
specific amount or law of force ; and we even set clown in numbers
the precise value of this force, as regards one of the deepest of
its qualities, — chemical attraction. Taking the lightest ele-
ment as a unit to measure others by, as to their weights in com-
bination, oxygen stands in our books as 8 ; and it is precisely of
this numerical value in its compounds. Each molecule is an 8,
in its chemical force or law, or some simple multiple of it. In the
same way, there is a specific number at the basis of other quali-
ties. "Whenever, then, the oxygen amount and kind of force was


146 The Elohim Revealed. [chap. iv.

concentered in a molecule, in the act of creation, the species,
oxygen, commenced to exist. And the making of many such
molecules, instead of one, was only a repetition, in each molecule,
of the idea of oxygen.

" In combinations of the elements, as, of oxygen and hydro-
gen, the resultant molecule is still equivalent to a fixed amount,
condition or law of chemical force; and this law, which we ex-
press in numbers, is at the basis of our notion of the new
species. It is not, necessarily, a different amount of force ; for
it may be simply a different state of concentration, or different
rate or law of action

" The essential idea of a species, thence deduced, is this : — A
species corresponds to a specific amount or condition of concen-
tered force, defined in the act or law of creation.

"Turn, now, to the organic world. The individual is in-
volved in the germ-cell, from which it proceeds. That cell pos-
sesses certain inherent qualities, or powers, bearing a definite
relation to external nature; so that, when having its ap-
propriate nidus or surrounding conditions, it will grow, and de-
velop out each organ and member, to the completed result; and
this, both as to all chemical changes, and the evolution of the
structure, which belongs to it, as a subordinate to some king-
dom, class, order, genus and species in nature. The germ-cell
of an organic being develops a specific result, and, like the
molecule of oxygen, it must correspond to a measured quota, or
specific law of force. We cannot apply the measure, as in the
inorganic kingdom ; for we have learned no method or unit of
comparison. But it must, nevertheless, be true, that a specific
predetermined amount, or condition, or law, of force, is an
equivalent of every germ-cell in the kingdoms of life. I do
not mean to say, that there is but one kind of force ; but that,
whatever the kind or kinds, it has a numerical value or law,
although human arithmetic may never give it expression.

" A species among living beings, then, as well as inorganic,
is based on a specific amount or condition of concentered force,
defined in the act or law of creation. Any one species has its
specific value or law of force; another, its value; and so, for

sect, v.] Adam the Likeness of God. 147

all : and we perceive the fundamental notion of the distinction
between species, when we view them from this potential stand-
point. The species, in any particular case, began its existence
when the first germ-cell or individual was created ; and, if seve-
ral germ-cells of equivalent force were created, or several indi-
viduals, each was but a repetition of the other : the species is in
the potential nature of the individual, whether one or many in-
dividuals exist.

" Now, in organic beings, unlike the inorganic, there is a
cycle of progress, involving growth and decline. The oxygen
molecule may be eternal, as far as any thing in its nature goes.
But the germ-cell is but an incipient state in a cycle of
changes, and is not the same for two successive instants ; and
this cycle is such, that it includes in its flow, a reproduction,
after an interval, of a precise equivalent of the parent germ-
cell. Thus, an indefinite perpetuation of the germ-cell is, in
fact, effected ; yet it is not mere endless being, but, like
evolving like, in an unlimited round. Hence, when individuals
multiply from generation to generation, it is but a repetition
of the primordial type-idea ; and the true notion of the species
is not in the resulting group, but in the idea or potential ele-
ment, which is at the basis of every individual of the group ;
that is, the specific law of force, alike in all, upon which the
power of each as an existence and agent in nature depends.
Dr. Morton presented nearly the same idea, when he described
a species as, ' a primordial organic form.'

" Having reached this idea, as the starting-point in our notion
of a species, we must still, in order to complete and perfect our
view, consider what is the true expression of this potentiality.
For this purpose, we should have again in mind, that a living
cell, unlike an inorganic molecule, has only a historical exist-
ence. The species is not the adult resultant of growth, nor the
initial germ-cell, nor its condition at any other point : it com-
prises the whole history of the development. Each species has
its own special mode of development, as well as ultimate form
or result, — its serial unfolding, in-working and out-flowing : so
that the precise nature of the potentiality in each is expressed

148 The Eloliim Revealed. [chap. iv.

by the line of historical progress from the germ to the Ml ex-
pansion of its powers and the realization of the end of its being.
We comprehend the type-idea, only when we understand the
cycle of evolution through all its laws of progress ; both as
regards the living structure under development within, and its
successive relations to the external world."

After a discussion of the permanence, and the variations, of
species, Mr. Dana concludes that " we should therefore conceive
of the system of nature as involving in its idea a system of
units, finite constituents, at the basis of all things, each fixed
in law ; these units, in inorganic nature, as adding to their kinds
by combinations in definite propositions ; and those in organic
nature adding to their numbers of representative individuals,
but not kinds, by self-reproduction; and all, adding to their
varieties by mutual reaction or sympathy. Thus, from the law
within and the law without, under the Being above, as the Author
and sustainer of all law, the world has its diversity, the cosmos
its fulness of beauty."*

Implanted in the creatures at the beginning, by the creative
hand, the forces thus described are seen operative everywhere,
filling the earth with life and activity, and exerting a generative
power, which, although occasional and transient in the indi-
vidual, is unceasingly active and perpetual in species and races.
Thus have we, in the investiture of Adam with the whole com-
mon nature of man, its unfailing energy as an active force, and
its amazing fecundity, as it flows from generation to generation,
through all the myriads of the human family, communicating
distinct personal existence and part in the one common nature
to each individual of the race an image, inconceivably grand, of
the eternal generation in the divine nature. Of that generation,
as we have seen, the prophet Micah speaks in terms, the analogy
of which to these facts cannot fail to strike the reader: — "His
goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting."
1 6. Definition The word, nature, is that by which we designate
of nature. t ne permanent forces, which were, at the beginning,

incorporated in the constitution of Adam and the creatures;

* American Journal of Science and Art, 1857, vol. xxiv. p. 305.

sect, v.] Adam the Likeness of God. 149

and which, by their severalty, determine and define the seve-
ral species of the living things. The word is sometimes defined
inaccurately, as the name of a mere abstraction, which has no
real existence; — as the designation applied to our conception of
the mere aggregate of characteristics belonging to a given sub-
stance. The opinion to be adopted on this point depends upon
that which we accept respecting the reality of the existence of
the objects of such general conceptions as those expressed by
nature, genera, species, &c. On this, — the question agitated
between the Nominalists and Realists of the mediceval schools,
— there are three several theories embraced by different classes
of philosophers. According to the first of these, such concep-
tions are the mere products of the imaginative faculty, — results
of logical deduction from the observation of many like individuals.
A second theory represents universals as being realities which
have an actual objective subsistence of their own, distinct from
and independent of that of the particulars and individuals. A
third holds that universals are, in a certain sense, realities in
nature, but that the general conceptions are merely logical, —
the universals not having an existence of their own separate
from the individuals through which they are manifested.
The first of these is the theory of a certain class of skeptical
naturalists, who reject the whole teachings of the Scriptures
on the subject. The second would seem to involve the idea that
each several species is endowed with a diffusive substance, out
of which the individuals of the species derive existence and
attributes, in which they live and move. The third is the
scriptural doctrine ; according to which the substances were at
the beginning endowed with forces, which are distinctive and
abiding; and which, in organic nature, flow distributively, in
continuous order, to the successive generations of the creatures.
Of these forces, the word, nature, is the expression. In its
proper use, it conveys the distinct idea of permanent in-dwelling
force. It expresses the sum of the essential qualities or efficient
principles of a given thing, viewed in their relation to its sub-
stance, as that in which they reside and from whence they ope-

150 Tlw Elohim Revealed. [chap. iv.

rate. Such is the sense in which the word is constantly em-
ployed in the Scriptures. Thus, — Rom. ii. 14, 15, — " When the
Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things con-
tained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto
themselves : which show the work of the law written in their
hearts, their conscience also bearing witness." Here, the
apostle, by the word, nature, indicates a force within, which he
otherwise calls " the law written in their hearts," the minister
of which is conscience, testifying against sin and in behalf of
holiness and God. Again : " If thou wert cut out of the olive-tree
which is wild by nature, and wert graffed contrary to nature
into a good olive-tree, how much more shall these, which be the
natural branches, be graffed into their own olive-tree!" — Rom.
xi. 24. Here the idea of propagated and continuous force is
conspicuous. So in Eph. ii. 3: — "Ye were by nature children of
wrath," — "nature," is the designation of a force which Paul
elsewhere calls " the law of sin and death," (Rom. viii. 2,)
which, by its perverse energy, is the cause of transgression and
the curse. The word is not, therefore, expressive of a mere ab-
straction, but designates an actual thing, an objective reality.
Thus, the human nature consists in the whole sum of the forces,
which, original in Adam, are perpetuated and flow in generation
to his seed. And our oneness of nature, does not express the
fact, merely, that we and Adam are alike; but that we are thus
alike, because the forces which are in us and make us what we
are, were in him, and are numerically the same which in him
constituted his nature and gave him his likeness. The body
which is impelled by two diverse forces, x and y, moves in the
direction of neither of them; but in that of a different force, z,
the resultant of the two. Yet is neither of the forces lost; but
merely modified, each by contact with the other. The new
force, z, is simply x, modified by y. So, in the successive gene-
rations of the human race, so far as their traits are the result
of propagation, so far as they are the offspring of their parents,
theirs are but the same identical forces which were in those
parents, only appearing under new forms. The alternative is,
that the generation of creatures is a creative act; that the rela-

sect, vi.] Adam the Likeness of God. 151

tion between parents and children is a mere fantasy, the former
sustaining no causative relation to the latter. The word,
nature, is used in the sense here stated, by Augustine, by
Calvin, and generally by the old standard writers.

That which distinctively outshadowed the Third Person of the
Trinity in Adam's natural constitution, was, the breath of life, —
3 7 Theireath ^ e air, a fluid, all-pervasive; inscrutable alike in
the Spirit's its motions and influences; sustaining life, and
image. essential to its support, in all its forms, in all the

creatures of earth; and spirated continually from the bosom
of man. That this fluid, thus related to man, was designed to
image forth the Spirit, proceeding from the First and Second
Persons, is demonstrated by arguments substantially the same
as the chief of those respecting Adam's likeness to the Father
and Son. The name of the Spirit, both in the Hebrew and
Greek Scriptures, is the same as that of the breath of man, and
the air. The wind is frequently employed as the symbol of the
Holy Spirit. See the Song of Solomon, iv. 16 ; Ezekiel xxxvii.
9, 10, 14 ; John iii. 8. Other arguments might be accumulated,
were it necessary. We shall only add one, which is of itself
conclusive. It consists in the unambiguous testimony of the
Lord Jesus Christ. After his resurrection, he, on one occasion,
came among his assembled disciples with the salutation, "Peace
be unto you : as my Father hath sent me, even so send I you.
And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and saith unto
them, Keceive ye the Holy Ghost." — John xx. 21, 22. With this,
compare the narrative in Acts ii. 2, 4 : — "And suddenly there came
a sound from heaven, as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled

all the house where they were sitting And they were all

filled with the Holy Ghost." On the meaning of this remark-
able action of the second Adam, and of the account of the
pentecostal baptism, as bearing upon the present question, it is
unnecessary to insist.

Of the doctrinal relations of the features of God's image in
Adam's nature, thus enumerated, some things will appear in the
course of the following discussions. Doubtless, much, on these,
as on all other points, is reserved for the revelations of heaven.

152 Tlie Elohim Revealed. [chap. iv.

Some of the natural attributes of Adam's soul were elements
of the divine likeness; as, that it was an immaterial substance,
a 8 Natural ^ e tne Father of spirits, in having neither mem-
attributes of bers, parts nor form; and that it was a living and
the soul. immortal spirit. Not that it was endowed with an

existence necessarily eternal. This is an incommunicable attri-
bute of the everlasting God. It is indeed a common error, to
assume immortality to be an essential and inseparable attribute
of spiritual existence. But that is, to make the soul independent
of Him who "upholdeth all things by the word of his power," —
Heb. i. 3; "by whom all things consist." — Col. i. 17. The im-
mortality of the soul consists in its endowment with a life, which
the declared and unchangeable will of the Creator assures of per-
petuity, under his upholding power; — a perpetuity which he
could as easily confer upon matter, and withhold from spirits,
were such his pleasure. In this, as in all things else, the first
Adam exhibits a signal inferiority to the second. Whilst, in the
one, life was a dependence on God, in whom he lived, (Acts xvii.
28,) to the other, it is "given to have life in himself." — John
v. 26. In the former, immortality was possessed as a gift flow-

Online LibrarySamuel John BairdThe first Adam and the second → online text (page 15 of 66)