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for the cause; the container for the thing contained; or the sign for
the thing signified.

When we say, "They read _Milton_," the cause is put for the effect,
meaning "Milton's _works_." "Gray hairs should be respected;" here the
effect is put for the cause; meaning by "gray hairs," _old age_, which
produces gray hairs. In the phrase, "The kettle boils," the container is
substituted for the thing contained. "He addressed the _chair_;" that
is, the person in the chair.

5. A SYNECDOCHE OR COMPREHENSION. When the whole is put for a part, or a
part for the whole; a genus for a species, or a species for a genus; in
general, when any thing less, or any thing more, is put for the precise
object meant, the figure is called a Synecdoche.

Thus, "A fleet of twenty _sail_, instead of, _ships_." "The _horse_ is a
noble animal;" "The _dog_ is a faithful creature:" here an individual is
put for the species. We sometimes use the "head" for the _person_, and
the "waves" for the _sea_. In like manner, an attribute may be pat for a
subject; as "Youth" for the _young_, the "deep" for the _sea_.

6. PERSONIFICATION or PROSOPOPOEIA is that figure by which we attribute
life and action to inanimate objects. When we say, "The ground _thirsts_
for rain," or, "the earth _smiles_ with plenty;" when we speak of
"ambition's being _restless_," or, "a disease's being _deceitful_;" such
expressions show the facility, with which the mind can accommodate the
properties of living creatures to things that are inanimate.

The following are fine examples of this figure:

"Cheer'd with the grateful smell, old _Ocean smiles_;"

"The wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad for them; and
the desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose."

7. AN APOSTROPHE is an address to some person, either absent or dead, as
if he were present and listening to us. The address is frequently made
to a personified object; as, "Death is swallowed up in victory. O
_death!_ where is thy sting? O _grave!_ where is thy victory?"

"Weep on the rock of roaring winds, O _maid_ of Inistore; bend thy
fair head over the waves, thou fairer than the ghost of the hills,
when it moves in a sun-beam at noon over the silence of Morveu."

8. ANTITHESIS. Comparison is founded on the resemblance, antithesis, on
the contrast or opposition, of two objects.

_Example._ "If you wish to enrich a person, study not to _increase_ his
_stores_, but to _diminish_ his _desires."_

9. HYPERBOLE or EXAGGERATION consists in magnifying an object beyond its
natural bounds. "As swift as the wind; as white as the snow; as slow as
a snail;" and the like, are extravagant hyperboles.

"I saw their chief, tall as a rock of ice; his spear, the blasted
fir; his shield, the rising moon; he sat on the shore, like a cloud
of mist on the bills."

10. VISION is produced, when, in relating something that is past, we use
the present tense, and describe it as actually, passing before our eyes.

11. INTERROGATION. The literal use of an interrogation, is to ask a
question; but when men are strongly moved, whatever they would affirm or
deny with great earnestness, they naturally put in the form of a

Thus Balaam expressed himself to Balak: "The Lord is not man, that he
should lie, nor the son of man, that he should repeat. Hath he said it?
and shall he not do it? Hath he spoken it? and shall he not make it
good?" "Hast thou an arm like God? or canst thou thunder with a voice
like him?"

12. EXCLAMATIONS are the effect of strong emotions, such a surprise,
admiration, joy, grief, and the like.

"O that I had in the wilderness a lodging place of way-faring men!"
"O that I had wings like a dove! for then would I fly away, and be
at rest!"

13. IRONY is expressing ourselves in a manner contrary to our thoughts;
not with a view to deceive, but to add force to our remarks. We can
reprove one for his negligence, by saying, "You have taken great care,

The prophet Elijah adopted this figure, when he challenged the priests
of Baal to prove the truth of their deity. "He mocked them, and said.
Cry aloud for he is a god: either he is talking, or he is pursuing, or
he is on a journey, or, peradventure, he sleepeth, and must be waked."

14. AMPLIFICATION or CLIMAX consists in heightening all the
circumstances of an object or action, which we desire to place in a
strong light.

Cicero gives a lively instance of this figure, when he says, "It is a
crime to put a Roman citizen in bonds: it is the height of guilt to
scourge him; little less than parricide to put him to death: what name,
then, shall I give to the act of crucifying him?"


_Corrections of the False Syntax arranged under the Rules and Notes_.

RULE 4. Frequent commission of sin _hardens_ men in it. Great pains
_have_ been taken, &c. - _is_ seldom found. The sincere _are_, &c. - _is_
happy. What _avail_, &c. - Disappointments _sink_ - the renewal of hope
_gives_, &c. - _is_ without limit, _has_ been conferred upon us. - Thou
_canst_ not heal - but thou _mayst_ do, &c. - _consists_ the happiness,
&c. - Who _touchedst_, or _didst touch_ Isaiah's hallowed lips with fire.

_Note 1._ And _wilt thou_ never be to Heaven resigned? - And _who_ had
great abilities, &c.

_Note 2._ Are peace and honor. - _was_ controversy.

RULE 7. _Them_ that you visited. - _him_ that was mentioned. - _he_ who
preached repentance, &c. - _they_ who died. - _he_ who succeeded.

RULE 8. Time and tide _wait,_ &c. - _remove_ mountains. - _are_ both
uncertain. - _dwell_ with, &c. - _affect_ the mind, &c. - What _signify_
the counsel and care, &c. - _are_ now perished. - Why _are_ whiteness and
coldness, &c. - bind _them_ continually, &c. - render _their_ possessor,
&c. - There _are_ error and discrepance - which _show_, &c.

RULE 9. _Is_ the same in idea. - _is_ in the porphyry. - _is_ remarkable,
&c. - which _moves_ merely as _it is_ moved. - _affects_ us, &c. - Man's
happiness or misery _is_, in a great measure, &c. - for _it_ may be,
&c. - _was_ blameworthy.

RULE 10. The nation _is_ powerful. - The fleet _was_ seen, &c. - The
church _has_, &c. - _is_, or ought to be, the _object_, &c. - _it_ is

RULE 11. My people _do_, &c. - The multitude eagerly _pursue_ pleasure as
_their_, &c. - _were_ divided in _their_ sentiments, and _they have_
referred, &c. - The people _rejoice_ - give _them_ sorrow.

RULE 12. _Homer's_ works are, &c. - _Asa's_ heart. _James Hart's_ book.

_Note 1._ It was the _men_, _women_, and children's lot, &c. or, _It was
the lot of_ the men, women, and children. - _Peter_, _John_, and
Andrew's, &c.

_Note 2._ This is _Campbell_ the poet's production; or, _The production
of Campbell, &c._ - The silk was purchased at Brown's the _mercer_ and

_Note_ 4. The _pupil's_ composing, &c. - _rule's_ being observed. - of the
_president's_ neglecting to lay it before the council.

RULE 13. Of _his_ audience. - put _it_ on Jacob. - sprinkle _them_ - and
they shall, &c. - of _his_ reputation.

_Note_. You were blamed; you _were_ worthy. - where _were_ you? - how fat
_were_ you?

RULE 14. Who _hast_ been, &c. - _who is_ the sixth _that has_ lost _his
life_ by this means.

Who all my sense _confinedst;_ or, _didst confine_.

_Note_. And _who broughtest_ him forth out of Ur.

RULE 15, _Who_ shall be sent, &c. - This is the man _who_, &c.

RULE 16. They _to whom_ much is given, &c. - _with whom_ you associate
&c. - _whom_ I greatly respect, &c. - _whom_ we ought to love, and _to
whom_, &c - They _whom_ conscience, &c. - With _whom_ did you
walk? - _Whom_ did you see? - To _whom_ did you give the book?

RULE 17. Who gave John those books? _We_. - _him_ who lives in Pearl
street - My brother and _he_. - _She_ and _I_.

RULE 18: _Note_ 2. Thirty _tuns_. - twenty _feet_ - one hundred _fathoms_.

_Note_ 6. He bought a pair of _new_ shoes - piece of _elegant_
furniture. - pair of _fine_ horses - tract of _poor_ land.

_Note_ 7. Are still more _difficult to be comprehended_. - most
_doubtful_, or _precarious_ way, &c. - _This model comes nearer
perfection than any I_, &c.

RULE 19: _Note. That_ sort. - _these_ two hours. - _This_ kind, &c. - He
saw one _person_, or more _than one_, enter the garden.

_Note_ 2. Better than _himself_. - _is_ so small. - _his_ station may be,
_is_ bound by the laws.

_Note_ 3. On _each_ side, &c. - took _each_ his censer.

RULE 20. _Whom_ did they, &c. - They _whom_ opulence, - _whom_ luxury,
&c. - _Him_ and _them_ we know, &c. - _Her_ that is negligent, &c. - my
brother and _me_ &c. - _Whom_ did they send, &c. - _Them whom_ he, &c.

RULE 21. It is _I_. - If I were _he_. - it is _he_, indeed. - _Whom_ do
you, &c. - _Who_ do men say, &c. - and _who_ say ye, &c. - _whom_ do you
imagine it to have been? - it was _I_; but you knew that it was _he_.

RULE 25. Bid him _come_ - durst not _do_ it. - Hear him _read,_ &c. - makes
us _approve_ and _reject_, &c. - better _to_ live - than _to_ outlive,
&c. - _to_ wrestle.

RULE 26: _Note_. The taking _of_ pains: or, without taking pains,
&c. - The changing _of_ times, - the removing and setting up _of_ kings.

RULE 28: _Note_ 3. He _did_ me - I had _written_ - he _came_
home. - _befallen_ my cousin - he would have _gone_. - already _risen_. - is
_begun_. - is _spoken_. - would have _written_ - had they _written_, &c.

RULE 29: _Note_ 1. It cannot, _therefore_, be, &c. - he was _not often_
pleasing. - should _never_ be separated. - We may live _happily_, &c.

RULE 30: _Note_. I don't know _any thing_; or, I _know_ nothing, &c. - I
did not see _anybody_; or, I saw _nobody_, &c. - Nothing ever _affects_
her. - _and_ take no shape _or_ semblance, &c. - There _can_ be nothing,
&c. - _Neither_ precept _nor_ discipline is so forcible as example.

RULE 31. For _himself_. - among _themselves_. - _with whom_ he is,
&c. - _With whom_ did, &c. - _From whom_ did you receive instruction?

RULE 33. My brother and _he_, &c. - You and _I_, &c. _He_ and I - John and
_he_, &c. - Between you and _me_, &c.

RULE 34. And _entreat_ me, &c. - and _acting_ differently, &c.

_Note_ 1. But _he_ may return - but _he_ will write no more.

_Note_ 2. Unless it _rain_. - If he _acquire_ riches, &c.

RULE 35. Than _I_ - as well as _he_, than _they_. - but _he_. - but _he_
and _I_. - but _them_ who had gone astray.

_Promiscuous Examples_. - _Him_ who is from eternity, &c. - _depends_ all
the happiness, - which _exists_, &c. - the enemies _whom_, &c. - Is it _I_
or _he whom_ you requested? - Though great _have_ been, - sincerely
_acknowledge_. - There _was_, in the metropolis. - exercising our
memories. - _was_ consumed. - Affluence _may_ give - but _it_ will not. - of
this world often choke. - _Them_ that honor, - and _they_ that despise. - I
intended _to call_ last week. - the fields look _fresh_ and _gay_. - very
_neatly, finely woven_ paper. - where I _saw_ Gen. Andrew Jackson, _him_
who. - Take the _first two_, - _last three_. - thirty _feet_ high. - _a_
union, - _a_ hypothesis. - I have _seen_ him _to whom_ you wrote, he would
have _come_ back, or _returned_. - _understands_ the nature, - he
_rejects_. - If thou _study_, - thou _wilt_ become. - is not _properly_
attended to. - He _knew_. - therefore, to _have_ done it, - _than_ the
title. - very _independently_. - duty to _do_. - my _friend's_
entering. - is the _best_ specimen, or it _comes nearer_ perfection _than
any_, &c. - blow _them_, will go, &c. - _Each of those two authors has
his_ merit. - _Reason's_ whole, - _lie_ in. - _strikes_ the mind, - than if
_the parts had been adjusted_, - with _perfect_ symmetry.

Satire _does_ not carry in _it_. - _composes_ the triangle. - _persons'_
opportunities were _ever_. - It _has been_ reported. - should _never_
be. - situation _in which_. - _is_ thoroughly versed in _his_. - _are_ the
soul, - _follows_ little. - An army _presents_. - _are_ the _duties_ of a
christian. - happier than _he_. - _always_ have _inclined_, and _which
always_ will incline him to offend. - which _require_ great. - _Them_ that
honor me, will I. - _has_ opinions peculiar to _itself_. - that _it may_
be said _he attained_ monarchical. - _hast_ permitted, - _wilt_
deliver. - _was_ formerly propagated. - the measure _is_, - unworthy
your. - _were_ faithless. - After I _had_ visited. - nor shall _I_,
consent. - Yesterday I intended to _walk_ out, but _was_. - _make_ or
_are_ thirteen, - _leave_ three. - If he _go_, - make _the eighth time_
that he _will have_ visited. - _is_ nobler. - was possessed, or _that
ever_ can be. - one great _edifice_, - smaller _ones_. - honesty _is_. - it
to _be_. - _will_ follow me, - I _shall_ dwell. - _is_ gone astray. - he
could, not _have done_. - _feeling_ a propensity.



_Corrections of the Exercises in Punctuation_.

RULE 1. Idleness is the great fomenter of all corruptions in the human
heart. The friend of order has made half his way to virtue. All finery
is a sign of littleness.

RULE 2. The indulgence of a harsh disposition, is the introduction to
future misery. To be totally indifferent to praise or censure, is a real
defect in character. The intermixture of evil in human society, serves
to exercise the suffering graces and virtues of the good.

RULE 3. Charity, like the sun, brightens all its objects. Gentleness is,
in truth, the great avenue to mutual enjoyment. You, too, have your
failings. Humility and knowledge, with poor apparel, excel pride and
ignorance, under costly attire. The best men often experience
disappointments. Advice should be seasonably administered. No assumed
behavior can always hide the real character.

RULE 4. Lord, thou hast been our dwelling place in all generations.
Continue, my dear child, to make virtue thy chief study. Canst thou
expect, thou betrayer of innocence, to escape the hand of vengeance?
Death, the king of terrors, chose a prime minister. Hope, the balm of
life, sooths us under every misfortune. Confucius, the great Chinese
philosopher, was eminently good, as well as wise. The patriarch Joseph
is an illustrious example of true piety.

RULE 5. Peace of mind being secured, we may smile at misfortune. To
enjoy present pleasure, he sacrificed his future ease and reputation.
His talents, formed for great enterprises, could not fail of rendering
him conspicuous. The path of piety and virtue, pursued with a firm and
constant spirit, will assuredly lead to happiness. All mankind compose
one family, assembled under the eye of one common Father.


RULE 6. We have no reason to complain of the lot of man, nor of the
mutability of the world. Sensuality contaminates the body, depresses the
understanding, deadens the moral feelings of the heart, and degrades man
from his rank in creation.

Self-conceit, presumption, and obstinacy, blast the prospect of many a
youth. He is alternately supported by his father, his uncle, and his
elder brother. The man of virtue and honor, will be trusted, relied
upon, and esteemed. Conscious guilt renders one mean-spirited, timorous,
and base. An upright mind will never be at a loss to discern what is
just and true, lovely, honest, and of good report. Habits of reading,
writing, and thinking, are the indispensable qualifications of a good
student. The great business of life is, to be employed in doing justly,
loving mercy, and walking humbly with our God. To live soberly,
righteously, and piously, comprehends the whole of our duty.

In our health, life, possessions, connexions, pleasures, there are
causes of decay imperceptibly working. Deliberate slowly, execute
promptly. An idle, trifling society, is near akin to such as is
corrupting. This unhappy person had been seriously, affectionately
admonished, but in vain.

RULE 7. How much better it is to get wisdom than gold. The friendships
of the world can exist no longer than interest cements them. Eat what is
set before you. They who excite envy, will easily incur censure. A man
who is of a detracting spirit, will misconstrue the most innocent words
that can be put together. Many of the evils which occasion our
complaints of the world, are wholly imaginary.

The gentle mind is like the smooth stream, which reflects every object
in its just proportion, and in its fairest colors. In that unaffected
civility which springs from a gentle mind, there is an incomparable
charm. The Lord, whom I serve, is eternal. This, is the man we saw

RULE 8. Idleness brings forward and nourishes many bad passions. True
friendship will, at all times, avoid a rough or careless behavior.
Health and peace, a moderate fortune, and a few friends, sum up all the
undoubted articles of temporal felicity. Truth is fair and artless,
simple and sincere, uniform and consistent. Intemperance destroys the
strength of our bodies and the vigor of our minds.

RULE 9. As a companion, he was severe and satirical; as a friend,
captious and dangerous. If the spring put forth no blossoms, in summer
there will be no beauty, and in autumn, no fruit. So, if youth be
trifled away without improvement, manhood will be contemptible, and old
age, miserable.

RULE 10. They believed he was dead. He did not know that I was the man.
I knew she was still alive. The greatest misery is, to be condemned by
our own hearts. The greatest misery that we can endure, is, to be
condemned by our own hearts.


RULE 1. The path of truth is a plain and safe path; that of falsehood is
a perplexing maze. Heaven is the region of gentleness and friendship;
hell, of fierceness and animosity. As there is a worldly happiness,
which God perceives to be no other than disguised misery; as there are
worldly honors, which, in his estimation, are a reproach; so, there is a
worldly wisdom, which, in his sight, is foolishness.

But all subsists by elemental strife;
And passions are the elements of life.


RULE 1. The three great enemies to tranquillity, are vice, superstition,
and idleness: vice, which poisons and disturbs the mind with bad
passions; superstition, which fills it with imaginary terrors; idleness,
which loads it with tediousness and disgust.

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Online LibrarySamuel KirkhamEnglish Grammar in Familiar Lectures → online text (page 27 of 27)