Samuel Penhallow.

Penhallow's Indian wars; a facsimile reprint of the first edition, printed in Boston in 1726, with the notes of earlier editors and additions from the original manuscript online

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Online LibrarySamuel PenhallowPenhallow's Indian wars; a facsimile reprint of the first edition, printed in Boston in 1726, with the notes of earlier editors and additions from the original manuscript → online text (page 1 of 15)
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A Facsimile Reprint

of the

First Edition, Printed in Boston in 1726

With the Notes of Earlier Editors

and Additions from the

Original Manuscript

Notes, Index and Introduction





The edition of this reprint is
limited to 250 copies


Penhallow's History of the Indian Wars is one
of the rarest books of its class. When it first
appeared it doubtless was read by some who
may have been able to recall the setting up of
the first printing press in New England; to
most of its early readers the impressions of that
first press were familiar objects. Though we
may thus associate the book with the earliest
of New England imprints, its age alone does
not account for the scarcity of surviving copies,
for many older books are more common. Its
disappearance seems better explained by the
fact that matters concerning the Indians were,
excepting possibly religious controversies, of the
greatest interest to the readers of that time and
that such books as these were literally read to
pieces; they were issued moreover in only small
editions for relatively few readers, as there were
probably not 175,000 people in the New England
Colonies in 1726.

Here, moreover, the facilities for the preserva-
tion of printed matter were in general poor; too
often in the outlying settlements the leaky cup-
board was the library and the hearth with its
flickering pine knot was the study. At the
writer's elbow lies a copy of Penhallow's rare
History, the mutilated survivor of a fireplace


accident. The reader of long ago, tiring of
the story of the atrocities of the red Indian,
or the white man, fell asleep and dropped the
book beside him. A live coal now fell upon
the little volum.e and, beginning in the very
center of the cover, burned through the first
thirty pages, when presumably, the fumes of
burning leather awoke J. Hempsted, or the
reader of ''J. Hempsted, His Book, 1728.''

To the New England colonist the depreda-
tions of his Indian neighbors were of literally
vital interest. The pioneer in the new settle-
ments de-forested his land, tilled his fields, gath-
ered his harvest and, on the Lord's Day, walked
to his meeting-house, at all times armed with
his flint-lock for self defence against the native
whom he had armed at a sinister profit with
musket, powder and lead. When at last, Anglo-
Saxon determination had conquered and the In-
dian was eliminated from the problem of pion-
eer existence, the growing generation of New
England boys and girls read into fragments the
''Narratives," ''Captivities" and "Histories" of
those of their forebears who providentially had
escaped the enemy, or redeem.ed after "capti-
vation" had lived to print the tale.

Never before the colonization of America had
the English come into continued and intimate
contact with savages and in the contest for
suprem.acy that followed, they were but poorly
prepared with their incomprehension of primi-
tive society and their ill-conceived policies of
fanatical proselytism. On the other hand the
Indian of the Al tan tic coast had experienced little


in his acquaintance with the early explorers,
English or others , that had prejudiced him fav-
orably toward white men. These had kidnapped
him to exhibit him as a curiosity in Europe or
to sell him into slavery; they had shot him in
little else than wantonness or for petty thiev-
ery. When colonization began and the Indian
himself had furnished the valuable food-plant
without which permanent settlements at that
time would probably have failed, he saw his
own planting places overrun by cattle, his game
driven away, his fisheries ruined by mills and
mill-dams, his people destroyed by the firearms,
diseases, vices, fire-water, indeed by the very
religion of the whites. He was human. Natur-
ally enough, before he was overwhelmed, he de-
vastated outl>ang settlements and decimated the
colonists; during the half century preceding the
publication of this History, more than eight
thousand New England settlers lost their lives
and few families there were who mourned no
relative or friend. In such a community the
interest in Indian affairs was predominant.

A specific instance of this interest is seen in
the practice of making Indian affairs the chief
topic in the published serm.on — the newspaper
of that day. Whatever the occasion, this dis-
course afforded the opportunity for publishing,
with appropriate comments, the latest news of
important events — conflagrations, m^arine dis-
asters, earthquakes and the always important
accounts of depredations and massacres in the
frontier settlements. Our author, for instance,
acknowledges his indebtedness for the latest de-


tails in his narrative of LovewelFs fight (p. 115)
to such a sermon by the ''ingenious Mr. Synames."
He, the minister at Bradford, seems to have
secured, by reason of his proximity to the scene
of that memorable encounter, ''exclusive informa-
tion" as it would be called in modern journal-
istic speech and to have hastened its early pub-

Aside from all this, Penhallow's Indian Wars
seems to have been predestined to become a
scarce book. Its author was a public man and
perhaps the best known officer of New Hamp-
shire. The various brief biographical sketches
of him in books of reference are chiefly abstracts
from Nathaniel Adams' Memoir, prefixed to the
Reprint of the Indian Wars in the Collections
of the New Hampshire Historical Societ^^, Vol.
I, pp. 9-13.

Samuel Penhallow was born in St. Mabon,
Cornwall, England, July 2, 1665. In his youth
he was a student in the school of the silenced
dissenting minister, Charles Morton, at New-
ington-Green and with Morton, in 1686, he came
to New England. It is circumstantially stated
that in leaving England, Penhallow had in mind
a continuation of his studies under Morton, and,
finally, a preparation for missionary labors amxong
the Indians, but his biographer does not seem
to have known that his entrance into Harvard
College was contemplated. This we learn from
a note that some former owner of the Field
copy laid into that book. It recites that the
Rev. Increase Mather, President of Harvard,
received in 1685 a letter from his brother Na-


thaniel, written "in behalf of this gentleman, ye
bearer his kinsman, Mr. Penhallow of Falmouth,
in Cornwall, who designs to spend a year or
two in New England, in your colledge, for ye
prfecting his learning." (Field Catalogue, p.255.)
With Morton, he remained some time in Charles-
town, but we hear no more of his preparation
for missionary labors. The political troubles
about that time are alleged as the cause of his

He next removed to Portsmouth, New Hamp-
shire, where he began a prosperous career in
business and poHtical life. Here he m^arried a
wealthy heiress, Mary, the daughter of President
Cutt, part of whose patrimony was valuable
land in Portsmouth. He accumulated what in
those times was described as a great estate,
but many details of his life have been lost owing
in part to the destruction of his diary m the
great fire of 1802. He was elected the Speaker
of the House, August 7, 1699, and held office
for three years. From 1702 to the time of his
death, he was an influential member of the
Royal Council, holding concurrently the offices
of Treasurer of the Provmce and of Recorder
of Deeds. As Councilor, he won popular ap-
plause through his controversy with Lieut.-Gov-
emor George Vaughan. At that time he was
suspended by Vaughan, who was himself soon
removed from office by Samuel Shute, the Colo-
nial Governor of Massachusetts and New Hamp-
shire. Penhallow resumed his place and by vir-
tue of his office, took part in the ratification of
the treaties with the Indians, of which he has


given us a descripticn in this history. He was
appointed to the Superior Court of Judicature
in 1714; of this Court he was Chief -justice when
he died December 2, 1726.

He is said to have Hved in a style superior
to that of most of his fellow townsmen in his
brick house at the head of the pier, entertain-
ing every stranger of distinction. His biographer
thus describes him as '* given to hospitality/'
wherefore the following Order, found in the Pro-
vincial Papers of New Hampshire may be of
interest, bearing as it does upon the am.enities
of official life two centuries ago. This directs

"Mr. Treasurer Penhallow take care to provide for the
Gentlemen Commrs . . . who are going- to Casco fort to the
Eastward to publish the Articles of Ratification of peace
with the Indians, with all such provisions, wines. Liquors
and other necessaries as may be proper ..." [July 14, 1713.]

Of thirteen children, one son. Captain John
Penhallow was an early proprietor of Phipsburg
(Georgetown,) Maine, Governor of Arrowsick
and a prominent officer of the militia under
Col. Thomas Westbrook.

Our author's prominence in official and busi-
ness life must have stimulated his attention to
the Indian affairs of his time and the resulting
personal familiarity with his subject is perhaps
his strongest claim to authority as a writer of
his book. In the pubHcation of this work, he
secured a sponsor, if that was needful, in one of
the most popular of Boston ministers. Dr. Ben-
jamin Colman, of the Brattle Street Church.


Dr. Colman looms larger in the enterprise, than
at first appears; he ends his Preface after the
manner of his profession with the moral that
the tale should teach^ having begun it by group-
ing the historians of New England into two
classes, ''honest and worthy Persons and some
learned" — an allusion now obscure, but as he speci-
fically mentions another Indian history, the
Decennium Luctuosum, by the Rev. Cotton
Mather — so often designated as the ''learned"
Dr. Mather, — we may suspect that he had in
mind some attribute of his clerical contemporary.
Time may have softened many of the asperities
of professional life in the Boston of thirteen
thousand inhabitants. Dr. Colman was at the
height of his popularity; he had declined the
presidency of Harv^ard College and had published
twenty-five of the fifty printed sermons Hsted by
Thomas Prince.

The success of our author's first — and last —
literary venture may have been promoted like-
wise by the reputation of his pubhshers, Samuel
Gerrish and Col. Daniel Henchman, asso-
ciated in the venture as was common practice
of the time. Samuel Gerrish began his business
in 1704. He was a member of a prominent
family, a son-in-law of Samuel Sewall and a
successful publisher. More than fifty books by
well-known writers of the day bear his imprint.
The last is the Chronological History (1736', by
Thomas Prince. The first catalogue of books
to be sold by auction, so far as known, in this
country (1717) was published by him and so
likewise the first music-book. Bibliographically


his imprints are interesting: "at his Shop in
Cornhill/' ''at the Sign of the Buck over against
the South Meeting House'' (1711), ''lower end
of Cornhill," "near the Old Meeting House"
(1707), "near the Brick Meeting House," "over
against the North side of the Town House in
King Street" (1714). In 1712 he was made
Fourth Sergeant of the Artillery Company which
he had joined in 1709; he was a prominent mem-
ber of the Old South Church, for several years
the Register of Deeds of Suffolk County and
for seven years after 1733, the Town Clerk of

The other pubHsher, Colonel Daniel Hench-
man, the most eminent Boston bookseller of
his time opened shop, on the south corner of
State and Washington Streets, in 1713. To him
the Penhallow book must have seemed a small
affair indeed, for that year with Benjamm Eliot,
he was pubHshing in folio, the largest book
printed till then in Boston. This, A Compleat
Body of Divinity, by the "Reverend and Learned
Samuel Willard," contains more than eleven hun-
dred pages (pagination defective), and its truly
imposing list of subscribers accounts for the sale
of about seven hundred and fifty copies. It is
a nice question whether the size of the edition
of such a monumental work may be used as a
possible clue to the number of copies of our
Indian Wars offered for sale the same year.
Probably not but we have no other means of
knowing. In the case of some other rare little
items, variations on the title-page show that re-
issues were sometimes made to meet unexpected


demands. In this instance the first edition seems
to have been the last. Col. Henchman established
the first paper mill in New England, in company
with his son-in-law Thomas Hancock and others.
His property went to Hancock by will and
from him, one of the wealthiest men in the
Province, a nephew, John Hancock the states-
man, inherited a large property.

The name of the printer Thomas Fleet, ap-
pears on the title-page in keeping with a cus-
tom ending with the century. Originally a
London printer, he settled in Boston shortly
before 1714, dying in 1758. Many books issued
from his press and though ''a good man, of
great industry, just and benevolent," accord-
ing to Allen, he was not a good printer, when
judged even by the standards of his time. The
Indian Wars abounds in unskilful and incon-
sistent typography; misleadmg errors are plenti-
ful. The much worn type that he used in the
book was short of the letter w, yet when he
had set out his font, he repeatedly proceeded
with a wrong font character, as on page 19,
regardless of the appearance of his page.

The book was printed quarto, on a sm.all
sheet of English paper. In the middle of each
is a fine large heraldic water-mark; careful exam-
ination, after unbinding a copy, discloses an
escutcheon supported by lions rampant-gardant.
Bearing: a pale, charged lozenge. Crest: a large
crown. Trimmed to a narrow margin, the book
measures about six and seven-sixteenths by four
and one-eighth, though the dimension of one
copy (Brinley Catalogue, No. 415) is given as


nearly one-half inch taller. It is bound in sheep,
sometimes mistaken for calf, over thin boards.
It is finished in carelessly executed blind tool-
ing with two filets about the edges and the back
divided into four panels in the same way. It
bore no label; the sheets were fastened by two
leather strips passed through incisions near the

Appreciating our author's contributions to the
history of his time and place, it is a bit discon-
certing to find the printed text of his book, so
widely read for nearly two centuries, so fre-
quently quoted by later historians and annalists
and so generally conceded to be the authorita-
tive account, differing in many particulars from
his original manuscript, apparently his printer's
copy. This, stitched into pamphlet form and
bearing the names of several descendants, was
found in the Manuscript Division of the
Library of Congress. It was earlier in the pos-
session of the historian Peter Force of Washing-
ton. The more important variations from the
printed text disclosed by a careful line by line
collation, are incorporated in the Notes of the
present reprint. But only the more important;
for so many and so various are the discrepancies,
that their transcription would require more
space than their interest warrants. Not only
are there some differing spellings of places and
persons, but many serious omissions of state-
ment of fact; conversely there are found a few
additions in the text seemingly added in proof-
reading, it may be by another hand. For it
is not unlikely, in view of Penhallow'^s distance


from Boston, or his inexperience in authorship,
that Dr. Colman may have seen the book through
the press; indeed, sentence structure where it
has been changed and the occasional substitu-
tion of words of classical derivation for homely
Anglo-Saxon, suggest the cultured Boston min-
ister rather than the forceful Portsmouth mer-

That the reader, if interested, may make the
comparison for himself, a page of this original
manuscript, selected more for its legibility than
for the importance of its variations from the
printed text, may be found reproduced in fac-
simile opposite page 38. It corresponds to that
and the preceding page; about fifteen variations
will be discovered. Whatever the explanation
for these discrepancies, this study of the manu-
script has revealed some hitherto unpublished
history quite as interesting and important as
that which got into the printed book.

Pehhallow's book was reprinted for the first
time in 1824, when the Publishing Committee
of the New Hampshire Historical Society selected
it for republication in the first volume of the
Society's Collections. Though the Indian Wars
had been printed only ninety-eight years pre-
viously, they noted the fact that it ''had become
so scarce, that it was with some trouble a com-
plete copy could be found." They therefore
sought the aid of ''one of the most distinguished
antiquaries of New England [Abiel Holmies,)"
who, finding his own copy, used in preparing
the Annals, imperfect, set about to secure a per-
fect copy. No one at the meeting of the Amen-


can Academy, held at that time, could assist
him to a copy. Harvard College Library had
none, but he finally found . one in the library
of the Massachusetts Historical Society — entire,
but "in great jeopardy,'' — with loose leaves and

More than likely this may have been the
very book used by Jeremy Belknap in the pre-
paration of his History of New Hampshire, for
in the year 1791, {Proceedings 1791, p. 21), he
had offered to give to the Society, in overpay-
ment of his life membership fee of $34, among
others, these three books — Penhallow's Indian
Wars, DooKttle's Narrative (1750) and Norton's
Redeemed Captive (1748), each today very scarce
and very valuable. The Committee in reprint-
ing, did not follow the old orthography or typo-
graphical style, but added "such notes as might
serve to increase the value of the text." These
excellent foot-notes also have been incorporated
in the Notes of the present reprint.

In 1859 there appeared another reprint, if it
may be so designated. It is a small quarto and its
title-page bears a transcription of the original,
not typographically faithful and with the fol-
lowing imprint: "Cincinnati:! Re-printed from
the Boston Edition of 1726, with a Memoir and
Notes, for W. Dodge, | by J. Harpel, corner Third |
& Vine Sts.| 1859." But this is most decidedly
not a reprint from the Boston edition of 1726.
It is in fact a reprint of the reprint in the New
Hampshire Collections of 1824. It has the typo-
graphical errors and, not invariably credited,
the notes of this last. About twenty notes have


been added. According to Allibone, this edition
was privately printed and consisted of 150 copies.
It has 129 pages, ending with Upham's poem
taken from Farmer and Moore's Collections, I,
p.35. Another form was issued, com.monly called
the second edition, preferred and m.ore often
seen, with a rubricated title-page but otherwise
as the first, excepting that it bears a device,
rubricated, (an Indian within a shield, with a
legend) and the imprint is amended to read,
''with a Memoir, Notes, and Appendix, for| Wm.
Dodge ..." In this issue, the 129 pages of the
other are extended to 138, by selections from
Fanner and Moore's Collections, Trumbull's In-
dian Wars, etc.; the added Appendix of 36 pages
contains Gardener's Pequot Wars, and other ex-

Examples of still another issue were found.
It has the rubricated title-page of the Cincinnati
issue, but bears the following imprint: ''Phila-
delphia:! |by Oscar H. Harpel, P. T., [Qy.

Professor of Tj^Dography?] Chestnut Street,
1859." Only two copies of this were discovered
among eighty-five of the Cincinnati edition, of
which seemingly it is merely a "freak" variant.
So to, must be considered still another form
bearing the imprint: "Boston, 1859."

Any enumeration of the extant copies of a rare
book is necessarily tentative. One bibliographer
compiled a list of known copies of the Indian
Wars, a few years ago, in which appear the copy
of the Library Company of Philadelphia and
the one in the New York State Library, formerly
in the Warden collection. This last has since


been burned but the Philadelphia copy is known
to have been stolen more than a half century
ago. Such enumeration moreover should take
into account the condition as well as the loca-
tion of the book. It may be of interest to con-
sider now the result of a more ambitious attempt
to list the extant copies of the Indian Wars,
completed after an exhaustive search in about a
hundred American libraries most likely to con-
tain the book and the scrutiny of many of the
auction and sale catalogues issued during the
last half century. Many of the books thus
found have been examined carefully.

Imperfect copies re-bound. Of these about
a dozen are recorded. No more definite state-
ment can be made, as the term ''imperfect" is
a relative one. As to condition some are not so
very bad, — some are, — ^''title-page and last page
in facsimile," "title-page and last three leaves
m facsimile," "title-page mended and extended,
three leaves from a shorter copy and last leaf
in facsimile," "first twelve and last four leaves
in manuscript" — and so they shade down to
a few poor fragments, not worthy of consideration.
Some of the defective surviving examples of the
book started their circuit of the auction rooms
more than a half century ago; by the peculiarity
in the combination of their defects or of bind-
ing some may still be identified as they re-
appear catalogued from time to time. One,
emerging from its concealment sixty years ago
brought, in 1866, at its second sale, $35. After
changing ownerships it sold, on its last appear-
ance a few years ago for $600. Another imper-


feet copy, probably the one repeatedly offered
in sale catalogues twenty years ago for $165,
brought its owner, when it was last under the
hammer, $975.

Imperfect copies in original binding. Of
these, ten were found, four in public libraries.
Some are very imperfect. More than half of
all imperfect examples of the book mourn the
loss of the final leaf of Advertisement, for when
the early reader had corrected ''the great omis-
sion" on page 102, this nearly blank page served
for a bit of writing-paper.

Perfect copies re-bound. Of the seven in
this class, five are in public libraries, the sixth
may be, and the rem.aining one is owned by
the wealthiest of American book collectors and
no doubt is destinated to public ownership.
Several perfect and re-bound copies were offered
in important English sale catalogues of many
years ago. Some, if not all of these are most
likely the identical ones here listed. At least
they appear nowhere else.

Perfect copies in original binding. In
other words: ''collectors' copies.'' Five seems
to be their number, two of which are in public
libraries, two cannot be located, the remaining
one is privately owned.

Thirty-seven perfect and fragmentary copies
are thus accounted for. Of the twelve unmuti-
lated examples of the book, seven are now in
public libraries, five may or may not be here-
after purchasable.

In this reprint we have a well-executed photo-
lithographic facsimile of a well preserved ex-


ample of the book. The notes of the earlier
editors, as well as those based on recent his-
torical study and the addition of the more im-
portant unpublished material in the original man-
uscript, unknown to earlier students, appreciably
enlarge the contents of the book as originally
pubhshed. There has been added that which
was sadly wanting for nearly two centuries —
an important aid in the study of this source
book — an Index.





Wars of Ney^-England^
With the Eajlern Indians.

o R, A


Of their continued Perfidy and Cruelty,

from the loth of Augujly 1703.
To the Peace renewed 13 th of July^ 1713
And from the 25th of July^ 17%%.
To their Submiffion i^th Decemier^ ^7^S
Which was Ratified Auguft jth 1726.

By Samuel Tenhallow, Eiqr.

Nefcio tu qu'ihus eSy LeBor, Uciurus OctSis,
Hoc fcio, ejuod /iccf^,fcrihere non fotui*

Printed by T. Fleet, for S. Gerrijh at the lower

1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Online LibrarySamuel PenhallowPenhallow's Indian wars; a facsimile reprint of the first edition, printed in Boston in 1726, with the notes of earlier editors and additions from the original manuscript → online text (page 1 of 15)