Samuel Pepys.

The diary of Samuel Pepys : with selections from his correspondence (Volume 3) online

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dinner the bookbinder came, and I send by him some
more books to gild.

5th. The Sub-committee have made their report to
the Grand Committee, and in pretty kind terms. Cap-
tain Cocke told me of a wild motion made in the House
of Lords, by the Duke of Buckingham, for all men
that have cheated the King to be declared traitors and

1666.J PEPYS'8 DIAEY. 173

felons ; and that my Lord Sandwich was named. This
had put me into great pain : so the Yice- Chamberlain,
who had heard nothing of it, having been all day in
the City, away with me to Whitehall, and there told
me that, upon my Lord Ashley's asking their direction
whether, being a peer, he should bring in his accounts
to the Commons, which they did give way to, the Duke
of Buckingham did move that, for the time to come,
what I have written above might be declared by some
fuller law than heretofore. Lord Ashley answered,
that it was not the fault of present laws, but want of
proper ones ; and the Lord Chancellor said, tl a L a
better law he thought might be made : so, the House
laughing, did refer it to him to bring in a Bill for that
purpose. Mr. Kirton's kinsman, my bookseller, came
in my way, and so I am told by him that Mr. Kirton
is utterly undone, and made 2,000 or 3,000 worse than
nothing, from being worth 7,000 or 8,000. That the
goods laid in the churchyard fired through the windows
those in St. Faith's Church, and those coming to the
warehouses' doors fired them, and burned all the books
and pillars of the church, so as the roof, falling down,
broke quite down, which it did not do in the other
places of the church, which is alike pillared, which I
knew not before; but, being not burned, they stood
still. He believes there is above 150,000 of books
burned ; all the great booksellers almost undone : not
only these, but their warehouses at their Hall and

174 PEPYS'S DIARY. [October,

under Christ Church, and elsewhere, being all burned.
A great want, therefore, there will be of books,
especially Latin books and foreign books ; and, among
others, the Polyglots and new Bible, which he be-
lieves will be presently worth 40 apiece.

6th. Sir W. Coventry and I discoursed of our sad con-
dition by want of a Comptroller, and it was his words, that
he believes, besides all the shame and trouble he hath
brought on the office, the King had better have given
100,000 than ever have had him there. He did dis-
course about some of these discontented Parliament-
men, and says that Birch is a false rogue, but that
Garraway is a man that hath not been well used by the
Court, though very stout to death, and hath suffered all
that is possible for the King from the beginning. But,
discontented as he is, yet he never knew a Session of
Parliament but that he hath done some good deed for
the King before it rose. I told him the passage Cocke
told me of his having begged a brace of bucks of the
Lord Arlington for him, and, when they came to him,
he sent them back again. Sir W. Coventry told me, it
is much to be pitied that the King should lose the
service of a man so able and faithful, and that he
ought to be brought over, but that it is always observed,
that, by bringing over one discontented man, you raise
up three in his room, which is a state lesson I never
knew before. But when others discover your fear, and
that discontent procures fear, they will be discontented

1666. J PEPYS'S DIABT. 175

too, and impose on you. This morning my wife told
me of a fine gentlewoman my Lady Pen tells her of,
for 20 per annum, that sings, dances, plays on four or
five instruments, and many other fine things, which
pleases me mightily, and she sent to have her see her,
which she did this afternoon, but sings basely, and is a
tawdry wench that would take 8 but (neither) my
wife nor I think her fit to come.

7th. (Lord's day.) To Whitehall, where met by Sir
W. Batten and Lord Brouncker, to attend the King
and Duke of York at the Cabinet, but nobody had
determined what to speak of, but only in general to ask
for money. So I was forced immediately to prepare
in my mind a method of discoursing. And anon we
were called into the Green Room, where the King,
Duke of York, Prince Rupert, Lord Chancellor, Lord
Treasurer, Duke of Albemarle, Sirs G. Carteret, W.
Coventry, Morrice. Nobody beginning, I did, and
made a current, and I thought, a good speech, laying
open the ill state of the Navy, by the greatness of the
debt, greatness of the work to do against next year,
the time and materials it would take, and our in-
capacity through a total want of money. I had no
sooner done, but Prince Rupert rose up, and told the
King, in a heat, that whatever the gentleman had said,
he had brought home his fleet in as good a condition as
ever any fleet was brought home ; that twenty boats
would be as many as the fleet would want; and all


the anchors and cables left in the storm might be
taken up again. This arose from my saying, among
other things we had to do, that the fleet was come in
the greatest fleet that ever his Majesty had yet
together, and that in as bad condition as the enemy
or weather could put it ; and to use Sir W. Pen's words,
who is upon the place taking a survey, he dreads the
report he is to receive from the surveyors of its defects.
I therefore did only answer, that I was sorry for his
Higlmess's offence, but that what I said was but the
report we received from those entrusted in the fleet
to inform us. He muttered and repeated what he had
said, and so, after a long silence on all hands, nobody,
not so much as the Duke of Albemarle, seconding the
Prince, nor taking notice of what he said, we withdrew.
I was not a little troubled at this passage, and the
more when speaking with Jack Fenn about it, lie told
me that the Prince will be asking who this Pepys is,
and find him to be a creature of my Lord Sandwich's,
and therefore this was done only to disparage him.
Anon they broke up, and Sir W. Coventry came out ;
so I asked his advice. He told me he had said some-
thing to salve it, which was, that his Highness had, he
believed, rightly informed the King that the fleet is
come in good condition to have stayed out yet longer,
and have fought the enemy, but yet that Mr. Pepys'
meaning might be that, though in so good a con-
dition, if they should come in and lie all the winter

1666.] PEPYS'S DIARY. 177

we shall be very loth to send them to sea for another
year's service without great repairs. He said it would
be no hurt if I went to him, and showed him the re-
port himself brought up from the fleet, where every
ship, by the Commander's report, do need more or less,
and not to mention more of Sir W. Pen for doing him
a mischief. So I said I would, but do not think that
all this will redound to my heart, because the truth of
what I said will soon appear. Thence having been in-
formed that after all this pains the King hath found out
how to supply us with 5,000 or 6,000, when 100,000
were at this time but absolutely necessary, and we
mention 50,000. This is every day a greater and
greater omen of ruin. God fit us for it ! I made my
brother, in his cassock, to say his grace this day, but
I like his voice so ill that I begin to be sorry he hath
taken Orders.

8th. Towards noon by water to "Westminster Hall
and there by several hear that the Parliament do re-
solve to do something to retrench Sir G-. Carteret's
great salary, but cannot hear of anything bad they
can lay to his charge. The House did this day order
to be engrossed the Bill against importing Irish cattle,
a thing, it seems, carried on by the "Western Parlia-
ment-men, wholly against the sense of most of the rest
of the House, who think, if you do this, you give the
Irish again cause to rebel. Mr. Pierce says the Duke
of York and Duke of Albemarle do not agree. The

178 PEPYSS DIAfcT. LOctober,

Duke of York is wholly given up to Ms Lady Denham.
The Duke of Albemarle and Prince Rupert do less
agree. The King hath yesterday, in Council, declared
his resolution of setting a fashion for clothes, which
he will never alter. It will be a vest, I know not well
how : but it is to teach the nobility thrift, and will do
good. By-and-by comes down from the Committee Sir
W. Coventry, and I find him troubled at several things
happened this afternoon, which vexes me also, our
businesses looking worse and worse, and our work
growing on our hands. Time spending and no
money to set anything in hand with ; the end thereof
must be speedy ruin. The Dutch insult and have
taken off Bruant's head, which they had not dared do
though found guilty of the fault he did die for, of
something of the Prince of Orange's faction, till just
now, which speaks more confidence in our being worse
than before. Alderman Maynell, I hear, is dead.
Thence returned in the dark by coach all alone, full of
thoughts of the consequences of this ill complexion
of affairs, and how to save the little I have, which,
if I can do, I have cause to bless God that I am
so well, and shall be well contented to retreat to
Brampton, and spend the rest of my days there. To
my office, and finished my Journal, with resolutions,
if God bless me, to apply myself soberly to settle
all matters myself, and expect the event of all with

1666.] PEPYS'S DIARY. 179

9th. To the office, where we sat the first day since
the fire, I think. Home, and my uncle Thomas was
there, and dined with my brother and I.

10th. (Fast-day for the fire.) With Sir W. Batten,
by water to "Whitehall, and anon had a meeting before
the Duke of York, where pretty to see how Sir W.
Batten, that carried the surveys of all the fleet with
him, to show their ill condition to the Duke of York,
when he found the Prince there, did not speak one
word, though the meeting was of his asking, for no-
thing else ; and when I asked him, he told me he knew
the Prince too well to anger him, so that he was afraid
to do it. Thence with him to Westminster, to the
parish church, where the Parliament-men ; and
Stillingfleet in the pulpit. So full, no standing
there ; so he and I to eat herrings at the " Dog "
Tavern ; and then to church again, and there was Mr.
Frampton in the pulpit, whom they cry up so much, a
young man, and of a mighty ready tongue. I heard a
little of his sermon, and liked it, but the crowd so
great I could not stay. Captain Cocke, who is mighty
conversant with Garraway and those people, tells me
what they object as to the mal-administration of
things as to money. But that they mean well, and
will do well ; but their reckonings are very good, and
show great faults, as I will insert here. They say the
King hath had towards this war expressly thus
much :

180 PEPTS'S DIARY. [October,

Royal aid 2,450,000

More 1,250,000

Three months' tax given the King by a power
of raising a month's tax of 70,000 every

year for three years 210,000

Costumes, out of which the King did promise
to pay 240,000, which, for two years, come

to 480,000

Prizes, which they moderately reckon at . 300,000
A debt declared by the navy, by us . 900,000


The whole charge of the navy, as we state it
for two years and a month, hath been but . 3,200,000

So what has become of all this sum ? 2,390,000

He and I did bemoan our public condition. He tells
me the Duke of Albemarle is under a cloud, and they
have a mind at Court to lay him aside. This I know
not, but all things are not right with him, and I am
glad of it, but sorry for the time. So home to supper,
it being my wedding night, but how many years I
cannot tell, but my wife says ten.

llth. Memorandum. I had taken my Journal,
during the fire, and the disorders following, in loose
papers, until this very day, and could not get time to
enter them in my book till January 18, in the morning,
having made my eyes sore by frequent attempts this
winter to do it. But now it is done : for which I thank
God ! and pray never the like occasion may happen.

12th. Taking leave of my poor father, who is setting

1666.J PEPYS'S DIABY. 181

out this day for Brampton, in the Cambridge coach, he
having taken a journey to see the City burned, and to
bring my brother to town. To St. James's, and there,
from Sir W. Coventry, do hear how the House have
cut us off 150,000 of our wear and tear, for that which
was saved by the King while the fleet lay in harbour
in winter. However, he seems pleased, and so am I,
that they have abated no more ; and do intend to allow
of 28,000 men for the next year ; and this day have ap-
pointed to declare the sum they will give the King,
and to propose the way of raising it, so that this is
likely to be the great day.

13th. To Whitehall, and there the Duke of York
who is gone over to all his pleasures again, and leaves
off care of business, what with his woman, my
Lady Denham,~and his hunting three times a week
was just come in from hunting. So I stood and saw
him dress himself, and try on his vest, which is the
King's new fashion, and he will be in it for good and
all on Monday next, and the whole Court; it is a
fashion, the King says, he will never change. He
being ready, he and my Lord Chancellor, and Duke of
Albemarle, and Prince Rupert, Lord Bellassis, Sir H.
Cholmly, Povy, and myself, met at a Committee for
Tangier. My Lord Bellassis's propositions were read
and discoursed of, about reducing the garrison to less
charge ; and, indeed, I am mad in love with my Lord
Chancellor, for he comprehends and speaks out well,

182 PBPTS'S DIABY. [October

and with the greatest easiness and authority that ever I
saw man in my life. I did never observe how much easier
a man does speak, when he knows all the company to
be below him, than in him ; for though he spoke, in-
deed, excellently well, yet his manner and freedom of
doing it, as if he played with it, and was informing
only all the rest of the company, was mighty pretty.
He did call again and again upon Mr. Povy for his
accounts. I did think fit to make the solemn tender of
my accounts that I intended. I said something that
was liked, touching the want of money, and the bad
credit of our tallies. My Lord Chancellor moved that,
without any trouble to any of the rest of the Lords, I
might alone attend the King, when he was with
his private Council, and open the state of the
garrison's want of credit ; and all that could be done,
should. Most things moved were referred to Com-
mittees, and so we broke up ; and, at the end, Sir W.
Coventry came ; so I away with him, and he discoursed
with me something of the Parliament's business.
They have voted giving the King for the next year
1,800,000; which, were it not for his debts, were a
great sum.

14th. (Lord's day.) I met with Sir Stephen Fox, who
told me how much right I had done myself, and how
well it is represented by the Committee to the House my
readiness to give them satisfaction in everything, when
they were at the office. 1 was glad of this. He did

1666.] PEPTS'S DIAJtT. 183

further discourse of Sir W. Coventry's great abilities,
and how necessary it was that I was of the House to
assist him. I did not own it, but do myself think it
was not unnecessary, if either he should die, or be re-
moved to the Lords, or anything happen to hinder his
doing the like service the next trial ; which makes me
think that it was not a thing very unfit; but I will
not move in it.

15th. This day the King begins to put on his vest,
and I did see several persons of the House of Lords
and Commons too, great courtiers, who are in it; being
a long cassock close to the body of black cloth, and
pinked with white silk under it, and a coat over it, and
the legs ruffled with black riband like a pigeon's leg ;
and, upou the whole, I wish the ETing may keep it,
for it is a very fine and handsome garment. I fear
that Pen will be Comptroller, which I shall grudge a
little. The Duke of Buckingham called Sir W.
Coventry aside, and spoke a good while with him. I
did presently fear it might be to discourse something
of his design to blemish my Lord of Sandwich, in
pursuance of the wild motion he made the other day
in the House. Sir W. Coventry, when he came to me
again, told me that he had wrought a miracle, which
was the convincing the Duke of Buckingham that
something, he did not name what, that he had intended
to do was not fit to be done, and that the Duke is gone
away of that opinion. By-and-by the House rose:

184 PEPTS'S DIAKT. (.October,

and then I, with Sir G. Carteret, and walked in the
Exchequer Court. I observing to him how friendly
Sir W. Coventry carried himself to him in these late
inquiries, when, if he had borne him a spleen, he could
have had what occasion he pleased offered him, he did
confess he found the same thing, and would thank him
for it. Away with him to his lodgings at Whitehall
to dinner, where my Lady Carteret is, and mighty
kind, both of them, to me. Their son and my Lady
Jemima will be here very speedily. She tells me
the ladies are to go into a new fashion shortly, and
that is to wear short coats above their ankles ; which
she and I do not like, but conclude this long train to
be mighty graceful. But she cries out of the vices of
the Court, and how they are going to set up plays
already; and how, the next day after the late great
fast, the Duchess of York did give the King and
Queen a play. Nay, she told me that they have here-
tofore had plays at Court, the very nights before the
fast for the death of the late King. She do much cry
out upon these things, and that which she believes will
undo the whole nation ; and I fear so too. This day
the great debate was in Parliament, the manner of
raising the 1,800,000 they voted the King on Friday;
and, at last, after many proposals, one moved that the
chimney-money might be taken from the King, and an
equal revenue of something else might be found for
the King ; and people be enjoined to buy off this tax

160S.J PEPYS'S DIAitY. 185

of chimney-money for ever at eight years' purchase,
which will raise present money, as they think,
1,600,000, and the State be eased of an ill burthen,
and the King be supplied of something as good or
better for his use. The House seems, to like this, and
put off the debate to to-morrow.

17th. The Court is all full of vests, only my Lord
St. Albans not pinked, but plain black ; and they say
the King says the pinking upon whites makes them
look too much like magpies, and, therefore, hath be-
spoken one of plain velvet.

18th. To Lovett's house, where I stood godfather.
But it was pretty, that, being a Protestant, a man
stood by and was my proxy to answer for me. A priest
christened it, and the boy's name is Samuel. The
ceremonies many, and some foolish. The priest in a
gentleman's dress, more than my own ; but is a Capu-
chin, one of the Queen-mother's priests. He did give
my proxy and the woman proxy my Lady Bills, ab-
sent, had a proxy also good advice to bring up the
child, and, at the end, that he ought never to marry
the child nor the godmother, nor the godmother the
child or the godfather ; but, which is strange, they say
the mother of the child and the godfather may
marry. By-and-by the Lady Bills comes in, a well-
bred but crooked woman. The poor people of the
house had good wine, and a good cake, and she a
pretty woman in her lying-in dress. It cost me near

186 PEPTS'S DIAKT. [October

40s. the whole christening. To midwife 20s., nurse
10s., maid 2s. 6d., and the coach 5s. The business of
buying off the chimney -money is passed in the House,
and so the King to be satisfied some other way, and
the King supplied with the money raised by this pur-
chasing off of the chimnies.

19th. Nothing but distraction and confusion in the
affairs of the Navy, which makes me wish, with all my
heart, that I were well and quietly settled, with what
little I have got, at Brampton, where I might live
peaceably, and study, and pray for the go'od of the
King and my country.

20th. Commissioner Middleton says that the fleet
was in such a condition as to discipline as if the devil
had commanded it, so much wickedness of all sorts.
Inqiiiring how it came to pass that so many ships had
miscarried this year, he tells me that he inquired, and
the pilots do say that they dare not do nor go but as
the captains will have them ; and, if they offer to do
otherwise, the captains swear they will run them
through. He says that he heard Captain Digby, my
Lord of Bristol's son, a young fellow that never was
but one year, if that, in the fleet, say that he did hope
he should not see a tarpaulin have the command of
a ship within this twelve months. He observed, while
he was on board the Admiral, when the fleet was at
Portsmouth, that there was a faction there. Holmes
commanded all on the Prince's side, and Sir Jeremy

1666.1 PEPYS'S DIARf. 187

Smith on the Duke's, and everybody that .came did
apply themselves to one side or other ; and when the
Duke of Albemarle was gone away to come hither,
then Sir Jeremy Smith did hang his head, and walked
in the General's ship but like a private commander.
He says he was on board the Prince when the news
came of the burning of London, and all the Prince said
was that now Shipton's prophecy was out; and he
heard a young commander presently swear that a
citizen's wife that would not take under half-a-piece
before, would be contented with half-a-crown, and
made mighty sport of it. My Lord Chancellor, the
other day, did ask Sir G-. Carteret how it came to pass
that his friend Pepys does so much magnify the bad
condition of the fleet. Sir Gr. Carteret tells me that
he answered him that I was but the mouth of the rest,
and spoke what they have dictated to me ; which did,
as he says, presently take off his displeasure. They
talk that the Queen hath a great mind to alter her
fashion, and to have the feet seen ; which she loves

21st. (Lord's day.) Sir H. Cholmly tells me how
Mr. Williamson stood in a little place to have come
into the House of Commons, and they would not choose
him ; they said, " No courtier." And, which is worse,
Bab May went down in great state to Winchelsea with
the Duke of York's letters, not doubting to be chosen ;
and there the people chose a private gentleman in spite

188 PEPYSS DIABY. [October

of him, and cried out they would have no court pimp
to be their burgess ; which are things that bode very

24th. Holmes did last Sunday deliver in his articles
to the King and Cabinet against [Sir Jeremy] Smith,
and Smith hath given in his answer, and lays his not
accompanying the fleet to his pilot, who would not
undertake to carry the ship further, which the pilot
acknowledges. The thing is not accommodated, but
only taken up, and both sides commanded to be quiet,
but no peace like to be. The Duke of Albemarle is
Smith's friend, and hath publicly swore that he would
never go to sea again, unless Holmes's commission
were taken from him. I find by Hayes that they did
expect great glory in coming home in so good con-
dition as they did with the fleet ; and therefore I the
less wonder that the Prince was distasted with my dis-
course the other day about the sad state of the fleet.
But it pleases me to hear that he did expect great
thanks, and lays the fault of the want of it upon the
fire, which deadened everything, and the glory of his

25th. To Mrs. Pierce's, where she was making herself
mighty fine to go to a great ball to-night at Court,
being the Queen's birthday ; so the ladies for this one
day wear lace, but are to put them off again to-morrow.
To Mrs. Williams's, where we met Knipp. I was glad
to see the jade. Made her sing ; and she told us they

1666.] PEPYS'S DIABT. 189

begin at both houses to act on Monday next. But I
fear, after all this sorrow, their gains will be but little.
Mrs. Williams says the Duke's house will now be
much the better of the two, because of their women ;
which I was glad to hear.

27th. The two Houses begin to be troublesome ; the
Lords to have quarrels one with another. My Lord
Duke of Buckingham having said to the Lord Chan-
cellor, who is against the passing of the Bill for pro-
hibiting the bringing over of Irish cattle, that whoever
was against the Bill was there led to it by an Irish
interest, or an Irish understanding, which is as much
as to say he is a fool. This bred heat from my Lord
Chancellor, and something he [Buckingham] said did
offend my Lord of Ossory, my Lord Duke of Ormond's
son, and they two had hard words, upon which the
latter sends a challenge to the former, of which the
former complains to the House, and so the business is

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