Samuel Pepys.

The diary of Samuel Pepys : with selections from his correspondence (Volume 4) online

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down the house with me. But I do find, by my Lady,
that they are reduced to great straits for money, having
been forced to sell her plate, 800 or 900 worth ; and
she is now going to sell a suite of her best hangings, of
which I could almost wish to buy a piece or two, if the

192 PEPYS'S DIARY. [October, 1667.

pieces will be broke. But the house is most excellently
furnished, and brave rooms and good pictures, so that
it do please me infinitely beyond Audley End. Home,
and there Mr. Shepley stayed with us and supped.
Supper done, we all to bed, only I a little troubled that
my father tells me that he is troubled that my wife
shows my sister no countenance, and him but very
little, but is as a stranger in the house ; and I do
observe she do carry herself very high ; but I perceive
there was some great falling out when she was here
last, but the reason I have no mind to inquire after,
for vexing myself, being desirous to pass my time
with as much mirth as I can while I am abroad.
My wife and I in the high bed in our chamber, and
Willet in the trundle bed, which she desired to lie in,
by us.


From October, 1667, to March, 1668.


THE period of English history illustrated by Pepys's
Diary from October, 1667, to March, 1668, was active
with the searching of the Parliament into abuses of the
Government and public offices, and its bitter attack
upon the fallen Clarendon. The search into corruption
was unflinching ; day after day, and all day long, the
members satisfying Nature only, as Pepys tells us,
with an occasional biscuit and glass of wine, com-
mittees of the House were inquiring into the mis-
carriages that led to the disgraceful close of the Dutch
war. With corruption everywhere about him and
himself, in a discreet way, accepting gifts of plate and
money from men who considered that in his official
capacity he had done them, or might do them, a good
turn Pepys stood out as the one man concerned in
Admiralty affairs who had done his duty to the public,
as one said of him, " of the old way of taking pains."
It was he only who knew what had been done in his
office, and in a time of scrutiny that threatened ruin to
many of his friends he was able to stand forward and
give a just account of his stewardship.


Pepys's Diary shows how anxious a time this was for
all Government servants. At the beginning of this
volume we find him digging up at night the gold he
had hidden underground in his father's garden at
Brompton. But he seems to have missed a pot of
silver that was found in 1842 when removing the
foundations of an old house, always regarded as
having been that of the Pepys family ; it was an iron
pot that was too much corroded to hold longer
together, and it contained chiefly half-crowns of the
reigns of Elizabeth, James I., and Charles I. He
carries his gold home with fear and trembling, one
fear being that the heavy bags will break their way
out through the bottom of the coach. Pepys had a
streak of timidity in his character, as we find in his
account of the night terror produced in him by the
noise of a sweep in his neighbour's chimney, that
suggested the entrance into his own house (where the
gold was) of an army of housebreakers. But this
section of his Diary ends with a vindication of himself
and his office before the Committee of Miscarriages
that proved to the full how strong he was in "the old
way of taking pains." It was a critical day. He had
been unable to sleep the night before, and got his wife
to talk to him and soothe him. At Westminster he
found it necessary to screw up his courage with half-
a-pint of mulled sack, and then with a dram of brandy.
But, thanks to this preparation, and to his complete


knowledge of all the facts on which he was to speak,
he spoke for four hours as easily as if at home, fixing
attention throughout, and earned praise and honour
from the king and parliament alike. For the next
nine days his speech was a wonder of the political and
social world.

In this part of the Diary (November 16th, 1667) we
have, perhaps, the first use of the word Cabinet in
literature, as representing the Council of the King,
and the preceding word " Cabal " is used (December
21st, 1667) as it had been used in an entry of the 14th
of October, 1665, before it could be explained as
formed of the initials of Clifford, Ashley, Bucking-
ham, Arlington, and Lauderdale.

H. M.


October 10th, 1667. Brampton. Up, to walk up and
down in the garden with my father, to talk of all our
concernments : about a husband for my sister, whereof
there is at present no appearance ; but we must endea-
vour to find her one now, for she grows old and ugly :
then for my brother, and resolve he shall stay here this
winter, and then 1 will either send him to Cambridge
for a year, till I get him some church promotion, or
send him to sea as a chaplain, where he may study and
earn his living. Then walked round about our green,
to see whether, in case I cannot buy out my uncle
Thomas and his son's right in this house, that I can
buy another place as good thereabouts to build on, and
I do not see that I can. But this, with new building,
may be made an excellent pretty thing, and I resolve
to look after it as soon as I can, and Goody Gorum
dies. By coach round the town of Brampton, to ob-
serve any other place as good as ours, and find none ;
and so back with great pleasure, and thence went all
of us, my sister and brother, and W. Hewer, to dinner
to Hinchingbroke, where we had a good plain country
dinner, but most Kindly used; and here dined the

10 fEPYs's DIABf . [October,

minister of Brampton and his wife, who is reported a
very good but poor man. Here I spent alone with my
lady after dinner the most of the afternoon, and anon
the two twins were sent for from school at Mr.
Taylor's to come to see me, and I took them into the
garden, and there in one of the summer-houses did
examine them, and do find them so well advanced in
their learning that I am amazed at it : they repeating
a whole ode without book out of Horace, and did
give me a very good account of anything almost, and did
make me very readily very good Latin, and did give
me good account of their Greek grammar beyond all
possible expectation ; and so grave and manly as I
never saw, I confess, nor could have believed, so that
they will be fit to go to Cambridge in two years at
most. They are both little, but very like one another,
and well-looked children. Took leave for a great
while again, but with extraordinary kindness from my
lady, who looks upon me like one of her own family
and interest. Thence I walked over the park with
Mr. Shepley and through the grove, which is mighty
pretty as is imaginable, and so over their drawbridge
to Nun's Bridge, and so to my father's, and there sat
and drank and talked a little, and then parted. And
he being gone, and what company there was, my
father and I with a dark lantern, it being now night,
into the garden with my wife, and there went about
our great work to dig up my gold. But, Lord ! what

1667.] PEPYS'S DIABT. 11

a toss I was for some time in, that they could not
justly tell where it was ; that I began heartily to sweat
and be angry that they should not agree better upon
the place, and at last to fear that it was gone : but by
and by poking with a spit we found it, and then began
with a spud to lift up the ground. But, good God !
to see how sillily they did it, not half a foot under-
ground, and in the sight of the world from a hundred
places, if anybody by accident were near hand, and
within sight of a neighbour's window, only my father
says that he saw them all gone to church before he
began the work, when he laid the money. But I was
out of my wits almost, and the more from that, upon
my lifting up the earth with the spud, I did discern
that I had scattered the pieces of gold round about the
ground among the grass and loose earth ; and taking
up the iron head-pieces wherein they were put, I per-
ceived the earth was got among the gold, and wet, so
that the bags were all rotten, and all the notes, that I
could not tell what in the world to say to it, not
knowing how to judge what was wanting, or what had
been lost by Gibson in his coming down, which all
put together did make me mad : and at last I was
forced to take up the head-pieces, dirt and all, and as
many of the scattered pieces as I could with the dirt
discern by candle-light, and carry them up into my
brother's chamber, and there lock them up till I had eat
a little supper, and then, all people going to bed,

12 PEPYS'S DIARY. (.October,

W. Hewer and I did all alone, with several pails of
water and besoms, at last wash the dirt off the pieces,
and parted the pieces and the dirt, and then began to
tell them by a note which I had of the value of the
whole in my pocket ; and do find that there was short
above a hundred pieces, which did make me mad ; and
considering that the neighbour's house was so near
that we could not possibly speak one to another in the
garden at that place where the gold lay especially my
father being deaf but they must know what we had
been doing, I feared that they might in the night
come and gather some pieces and prevent us the
next morning ; so W. Hewer and I out again about
midnight, for it was now grown so late, and there by
candle-light did make shift to gather forty-five pieces
more. And so in, and to cleanse them : and by this
time it was past two in the morning, and so to bed,
with my mind pretty quiet to think that I have re-
covered so many. I lay in the trundle-bed, the girl
having gone to bed to my wife, and there lay in some
disquiet all night, telling of the clock till it was day-

llth. And then W. Hewer and I, with pails and a
sieve, did lock ourselves into the garden, and there
gather all the earth about the place into pails, and then
sift those pails in one of the summer-houses, just as
they do for diamonds in other parts of the world ; and
there to our great content, did by nine o'clock make

16b7.J PEPYS'8 DIABY. 13

the last night's forty-five up seventy-nine, so that we
are come to about twenty or thirty of what 1 think the
true number should be, and perhaps within less, and
of them I may reasonably think that Mr. Gibson might
lose some : so that I am pretty well satisfied that my
loss is not great, and do .bless God that place is so well.
So do leave my father to make a second examination
of the dirt ; and my mind at rest in it, being but an
accident ; and so gives me some kind of content to
remember how painful it is sometimes to keep money,
as well as to get it, and how doubtful I was to keep it
all night, and how to secure it to London, so got all
my gold put up in bags. We to breakfast, and about
ten o'clock took coach, my wife and I, and Willett,
and W. Hewer, and Murford and Bowles, whom my
lady lent me to go along with me my journey, not
telling her the reason, but it was only to secure my
gold, and my brother John on horseback, and with these
four I thought myself pretty safe. But before we
went out, the Huntingdon music came to me and
played, and it was better than that of Cambridge.
Here I took leave of my father, and did give my
sister 20s. She cried at my going ; but whether it was
at her unwillingness for my going, or any unkindness
of my wife's, or no, I know not ; but God forgive me !
I take her to be so cunning and ill-natured, that I have
no great love for her ; but only [she] is my sister and
must be provided for. My gold I put into a basket

14 PEPYS'S DIABT. [October,

and sat under one of the seats ; and so my work every
quarter of an hour was to look to see whether all was
well, and I did ride in great fear all the day. Mr.
Shepley saw me beyond St. Neots, and there parted,
and we straight to Stevenage through Bald Lanes,
which are already very bad;, and at Stevenage we
came well before night, and all sat, and there with
great care I got the gold up to my chamber, my wife
carrying one bag and the girl another, and W. Hewer
the rest in a basket, and set it all under a bed in our
chamber, and then sat down to talk, and were very
pleasant, satisfying myself, among other things, from
John Bowles, in some terms of hunting, and about
deer, bucks, and does. Brecocke alive still, and the
best host I know almost.

12th. Up, and eat our breakfast, and set out about
nine o'clock, and so to Barnet, where we baited. By
five o'clock got home, where I find all well ; and did
bring my gold to my heart's content very safe, having
not this day carried it in a basket, but in our hands ;
the girl took care of one, and my wife another bag, and
I the rest, I being afraid of the bottom of the coach
lest it should break. At home we find that Sir W.
Batten's body was to-day carried from hence with a
hundred or two of coaches to Walthamstow, and there
buried. The Parliament met on Thursday last, and
adjourned to Monday next. The King did make
them a very kind speech, promising them to leave all

1667.J PEPYS'S DIARY. 15

to them to do, and call to account what and whom they
pleased ; and declared by my Lord Keeper how many
(thirty-six) acts he had done since he saw them ; among
others, disbanding the army, and patting all Papists
out of employment, and displacing persons that
had managed their business ill. The Parliament is
mightily pleased with the King's speech, and voted
giving him thanks for what he said and hath done ;
and, among things, would by name thank him for dis-
placing my Lord Chancellor, for which a great many
did speak in the House ; but it was opposed by some,
and particularly Harry Coventry, who got that it
should be put to a Committee to consider what par-
ticulars to mention in their thanks to the King, saying
that it was too soon to give thanks for the displacing
of a man, before they knew or had examined what
was the cause of his displacing: and so it rested;
but this do show that they are and will be very high ;
and Mr. Pierce do tell me that he fears, and do hear,
that it hath been said among them, that they will move
for the calling my Lord Sandwich home, to bring him
to account, which do trouble me mightily ; but I trust
it will not be so. Anon comes home Sir W. Pen from
the burial; and he says that Lady Batten and her
children-in-law are all broke in pieces, and that there
is but 800 found in the world of money ; and it is in
great doubt what we shall do towards doing ourselves
right with them about the prize-money. With Sir W.

15 PEPYS'S DIARY. [October

Pen to my Lady Batten, whom I had not seen since
she was a widow, which she took unkindly, but I did
excuse it ; and the house being full of company, and
of several factions, she against the children, and they
against one another and her, I away.

13th. (Lord's day.) To St. James's ; and there to the
Duke of York's chamber: and there he was dressing;
and many Lords and Parliament-men come to kiss his
hands, they being newly come to town. And there
the Duke of York did of himself call me to him, and
tell me that he had spoken to the King, and that the
King had granted me the ship I asked for ; and did,
moreover, say that he was mightily pleased with my
service, and that he would be willing to do anything
that was in his power for me, which he said with
mighty kindness ; which I did return him thanks for,
and departed with mighty joy, more than I did expect.
And so walked over the park to Whitehall, and there
met Sir H. Cholmly, who walked with me, and told
me most of the news I heard last night of the Parlia-
ment ; and thinks they will do all things very well,
only they will be revenged of my Lord Chancellor ;
and says, however, that he thinks there will be but
two things proved on him ; and that one is, that he
may have said to the King, and to others, words to
breed in the King an ill opinion of the Parliament
that they were factious, and that it was better to dis-
them ; and this, he thinks, they will be able to

1667.] PEPYS'S DIARY. 17

prove; but what this will amount to he knows not.
And next, that he hath taken money for several bar-
gains that have been made with the Crown, and did
instance one that is already complained of : but there
are so many more involved in it, that, should they
unravel things of this sort, everybody almost will
be more or less concerned. But these are the two
great points which he thinks they will insist on and
prove against him. Walked with Sir W. Pen, and
told him what the Duke of York told me to-day about
the ship I begged ; and he was knave enough of his
own accord, but, to be sure in order to his own advan-
tage, to offer me to send for the master of the vessel,
the MayboU Gallioit, and bid him to get her furnished
as for a long voyage, and I to take no notice of it, that
she might be the more worth to me : so that here is
a very knave to the King, and I doubt not his being
the same to me on occasion. Evened with W. Hewer
for my expenses upon the road this last journey, and
do think that the whole journey will cost me little
less than 18 or 20 one way or other; but I am
well pleased with it.

14th. To Mr. Wren's ; and he told me that my business
was done about my warrant on the MayboU Oalliott ;
which I did see, and thought it was not so full in the
reciting of my services as the other was in that of Sir
W. Pen's; yet I was well pleased with it, and do
intend to fetch it away anon. With Sir Thomas Allen,

18 PEPYS'S DIARY. [October,

in a little sorry coach that he hath set up of late, and
Sir Jeremy Smith, to Whitehall, and there hear that
the House is this day again upon the business of giving
the King the thanks of the House for his speech, and,
among other things, for laying aside of my Lord
Chancellor. To visit Sir G-. Carteret ; and from him
do understand that the King himself, but this he told
me as a great secret, is satisfied that these thanks
which he expects from the House, for the laying aside
of my Lord Chancellor, are a thing irregular; but,
since it is come into the House, he do think it necessary
to carry it on, and will have it, and hath made his mind
known to be so to some of the House. But Sir G-.
Carteret do say he knows nothing of what my Lord
Brouncker told us to-day, that the King was angry
with the Duke of York yesterday, and advised him not
to hinder what he had a mind to have done touching
this business, which is news very bad, if true. He
tells me also that the King will have the thanks of
the House go on : and commends my Lord Keeper's
speech for all but what he was forced to say, about
the reason of the King's sending away the House so
soon the last time when they were met. Walked with
Mr. Scowen, who tells me that it is at last carried in
the House that the thanks shall be given to the King
among other things, particularly for the removal of
my Lord Chancellor ; but he tells me that it is a strange
act, and that which he thinks would never have been, but

1667.] PEPYS'S DIARY. 19

that the King did insist upon it, that, since it come
into the Housa it might not be let fall. To the Duke
of York's house, and there went in for nothing into
the pit, at the last act, to see Sir Martin Marall, and
met my wife, who was there, and my brother, and
W. Hewer and Willett, and carried them home, and
there do find that John Bowles has not yet come
thither. I suppose he is playing the good fellow in
the town.

15th. My wife and I, and Willett, to the Duke of
York's house, where, after long stay, the King and
Duke of York came, and there saw The Coffee-house,
the most ridiculous insipid play that ever I saw in my
life, and glad we were that Betterton had no part in it.
But here, before the play begun, my wife begun to
complain to me of Willett's confidence in sitting cheek-
by- jowl by us, which was a poor thing ; but I perceive
she is already jealous of my kindness to her, so that I
begin to fear this girl is not likely to stay long with us.

16th. At home most of the morning with Sir H.
Cholmly about some accounts of his ; and for news he
tells me that the Commons and Lords have concurred,
and delivered the King their thanks, among other
things, for his removal of the Chancellor ; who took
their thanks very well, and, among other things,
promised them, in these words, never in any degree
to give the Chancellor any employment again. And he
tells me that it is very true, he hath it from one that was

20 PEPYS'S DIARY. (October,

by, that the King did give the Duke of York a sound
reprimand ; told him that he had lived with him with
more kindness than ever any other King lived with a
brother, and that he lived as much like a monarch as
himself, but advised him not cross him in his designs
about the Chancellor ; in which the Duke of York do
very wisely acquiesce, and will be quiet as the King
bade him, but presently commands all his friends to be
silent in the business of the Chancellor, and they were
so : but that the Chancellor had done all that is possible
to provoke the King, and to bring himself to lose his
head by enraging the people. To Whitehall, where
the Duke of York is now newly come for this winter,
and there did our usual business with him. To the
Duke of York's house ; and I was vexed to see Young,
who is but a bad actor at best, act Macbeth, in the room
of Betterton, who, poor man, is sick : but, Lord ! what a
prejudice it wrought in me against the whole play, and
everybody else agreed in disliking this fellow. Thence
home, and there find my wife gone home, because of
this fellow's acting of the part, she went out of the
house again.

17th. Sent for by my Lady Batten. I to her, and
there she found fault with my not seeing her since her
being a widow, which I excuse as well as I could,
though it is a fault, but it is my nature not to be for-
ward in visits. But here she told me her condition,
which is good enough, being sole executrix, to the dis-

1667.] PEPYS'S DIABT. 21

appointment of all her husband's children, and prayed
my friendship about the accounts of the prizes, which
I promised her. And here do see what creatures
widows are in weeping for their husbands, and then
presently leaving off ; but I cannot wonder at it, the
cares of the world taking place of all other passions.
Mr. John Andrews and his wife came and dined with
me, and pretty merry we were, only I out of humour
the greatest part of the dinner, by reason that my peo-
ple had forgot to get wine ready, I having none in the
house, which I cannot say now these almost three
years, I think without having two or three sorts, by
which we were fain to stay a great while while some
could be fetched. It was an odd, strange thing to ob-
serve of Mr. Andrews what a fancy he hath to raw
meat, that he eats it with no pleasure unless the blood
run about his chops, which it did now by a leg of mut-
ton that was not above half -boiled ; but, it seems, at
home all his meat is dressed so, and beef and all, and
[he] eats it so at nights also. The Parliament ran on
mighty furiously, having yesterday being almost all
the morning complaining against some high proceed-
ings of my Lord Chief Justice Keeling, that the
gentlemen of the country did complain against him in
the House, and run very high. It is the man that did
fall out with my cousin Roger Pepys once, at the
Assizes there, and would have laid him by the heels ;
but, it seems, a very able lawyer. This afternoon my

22 PEPYS'S DIAKT. [October,

Lord Anglesey tells us that the House of Commons have
this morning run into the inquiry in many things ;
as the sale of Dunkirk, the dividing of the fleet the last
year, the business of the prizes with my Lord Sand-
wich, and many other things ; so that now they begin
to fall close upon it, and God knows what will be the
end of it, but a committee they have chosen to inquire
into the miscarriages of the war.

18th. To "Whitehall, and there attended the Duke
of Tork ; but first we find him to spend above an hour
in private in his closet with "W. Coventry ; which I
was glad to see that there is so much confidence
between them. By-and-by we were called in. The
Duke of Tork considering that the King had a mind
for Spragg to command the Rupert, which would not
be well, by turning out Hubbert, who is a good man,
said he did not know whether he did so well conform,
as at this time to please the people and Parliament.
Sir W. Coventry answered, and the Duke of Tork
merrily agreed to it, that it was very hard to know
what it was that the Parliament would call conformity

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