Samuel Pepys.

The diary of Samuel Pepys : with selections from his correspondence (Volume 4) online

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models of ships; wliich, when the Council, some of
them, had said they wished that the Dutch had had
them instead of the King's ships, he answered, he did
believe the Dutch would have made more advantage of
the models than of the ships, and that the King had had
greater loss thereby ; this they all laughed at. After
having heard him for an hour or more, they bid him
withdraw. He being gone, they caused Sir Richard
Browne to read over his minutes ; and then my Lord
Arlington moved that they might be put into my
hands to put into form, I being more acquainted with
such business ; and they were so. So I away back
with my books and papers ; and when I got out into the
court it was pretty to see how people gazed upon me,
that I thought myself obliged to salute people and to


smile, lest they should think I was a prisoner too ; but
afterwards I found that most did take me to be there
to bear evidence against P. Pett; but my fear was
such, at my going in, of the success of the day,
that I did think fit to give T. Hater, whom I took
with me, to wait the event, my closet-key and directions
where to find 500 and more in silver and gold, and
my tallies, to remove in case of any misfortune to me.
Home, and after being there a little, my wife come and
two of her fellow-travellers with her, with whom we
drank ; a couple of merchant-like men, I think, but
have friends in our country. They being gone, my
wife did give so bad an account of her and my father's
method in burying of our gold, that made me mad;
and she herself is not pleased with it, she believing
that my sister knows of it. My father and she did it
on Sunday, when they were gone to church, in open
daylight, in the midst of the garden, where, for aught
they knew, many eyes might see them ; which put me
into trouble, and I presently cast about how to have it
back again to secure it here, the times being a little
better now.

20th. Mr. Barber told me that all the discourse
yesterday, about that part of the town where he was,
was that Mr. Pett and I were in the Tower, and I did
hear the same before. Busy all the afternoon ; in the
evening did treat with, and in the end agree, but by
some kind of compulsion, with the owners of six


merchant ships, to serve the King as men-of-war. But,
Lord ! to see how against the ha'r it is with these men
and everybody to trust us and the King ; and how xin-
reasonable it is to expect they should be willing to lend
their ships, and lay out 200 or 300 a man to fit their
ships for the new voyages, when we have uot paid
them half of what we owe them for their old services !
I did write so to Sir ~W. Coventry this night.

21st. My wife shows me a letter from her father,
who is going over sea, and this afternoon would take
his leave of her. I sent him by her three Jacobuses in
gold, having real pity for him and her. This day
comes news from Harwich that the Dutch fleet are all
in sight, near 100 sail great and small, they think,
coming towards them ; where, they think, they shall
be able to oppose them ; but do cry out of the falling
back of the seamen, few standing by them, and those
with much faintness. The like they write from
Portsmouth, and their letters this post are worth
reading. Sir H. Cholmly come to me this day, and
tells me the Court is as mad as ever; and that the
night the Dutch burned our ships the King did sup
with my Lady Castlemaine, at the Duchess of Mou-
mouth's, and there were all mad in hunting of a poor
moth. All the Court afraid of a Parliament, but he
thinks nothing can save us but the King's giving up
all to a Parliament.

22nd. In the evening come Captain Hart and

44 PEPTS'S DIABT. [June,

Hay wood to me about the six merchant ships now taken
up for men-of-war ; and in talk they told me about the
taking of the Royal Charles; that nothing but care-
lessness lost the ship, for they might have saved her
the very tide that the Dutch come up, if they would
have but used means and had but boats ; and that the
want of boats plainly lost all the other ships. That the
Dutch did take her with a boat of nine men, who found
not a man on board her, and her laying so near them
was a main temptation to them to come on ; and
presently a man went up and struck a flag and jack,
and a trumpeter sounded upon her " Joan's placket is
torn ; " that they did carry her down at a time, both
for tides and wind, when the best pilot in Chatham
would not have undertaken it, they heeling her on one
side to make her draw little water, and so carried her
away safe. They being gone, by-and-by conies Sir W.
Pen, who hath been at Court ; and in the first place, I
hear the Duke of Cambridge is dead ; which is a great
loss to the nation, having, I think, never an heir male
now of the King's or Duke's to succeed to the crown.
He tells me that they do begin already to damn the
Dutch, and call them cowards at "Whitehall, and
think of them and their business no better than they
used to do ; which is very sad. The King did tell him
himself, which is so, I was told here in the City, that
the City hath lent him 10,000 to be laid out towards
securing of the river of Thames j which, methinks, is

1667.] PEPYS'S DIARY. 45

a very poor thing, that we should be induced to borrow
by such mean sums. He tells me that it is most
manifest that one great thing making it impossible for
us to have set out a fleet this year, if we could have
done it for money or stores, was the liberty given
the beginning of the year for the setting out of
merchantmen, which did take up, as is said, above ten
if not fifteen thousand seamen ; and this appears in the
council books.

23rd. (Lord's day.) To my chamber, and there all
the morning reading in my Lord Coke's pleas of the
Crown, very fine and noble reacting. To Woolwich,
and there called on Mr. Bodham : and he and I to see
the batteries newly raised; which, indeed, are good
works to command the river below the ships that are
sunk, but not above them. It is a sad sight to see so
many good ships there sunk in the river, while we
would be thought to be masters of the sea. Cocke
says the bankers cannot, till peace returns, ever hope
to have credit again; so that they can pay no more
money, but people must be contented to take public
security such as they can give them ; and if so, and
they do live to receive the money thereupon, the
bankers will be happy men. Fenn read me an order
of Council passed the 17th instant, directing all the
Treasurers of any part of the King's revenue to make
no payments but such as shall be approved by the pre-
sent Lords Commissioners; which will, I think, spoil

46 PEPYS'S DIAKY. [June,

the credit of all his Majesty's service, when people
cannot depend upon payment anywhere. But the
King's declaration in behalf of the bankers, to make
good their assignments for money, is very good, and
will, I hope, secure me. Cocke says that he hears it is
come to it now that the King will try what he can
soon do for a peace ; and if he cannot, that then he
will cast all upon the Parliament to do as they see fit :
and in doing so, perhaps, he may save us all. The
King of France, it is believed, is engaged for this
year, so that we shall be safe as to him. The great
misery the City and Kingdom is like to suffer for want
of coals in a little time is very visible, and, is feared,
will breed a mutiny ; for we are not in any prospect
to command the sea for our colliers to come, but
rather, it is feared, the Dutch may go and burn all our
colliers at Newcastle ; though others do say that they
lie safe enough there. No news at all of late from
Bredah what our Treaters do. In the evening comes
Mr. Povy about business ; and he and I to walk in the
garden an hour or two, and to talk of State matters.
He tells me his opinion that it is out of possibility for
us to escape being undone, there being nothing in our
power to do that is necessary for the saving us ; a lazy
Prince, no Council, no money, no reputation at home
or abroad. He says that to this day the King do
follow the women as much as ever he did ; that the
Duke of York hath not got Mrs. Middleton, as I

1667J tEPYS'S DIARY. 47

was told the other day : but says that he wants not
her, for he hath others, and hath always had, and
that he [Povy] hath known them brought through
the Matted Gallery at Whitehall into his [the Duke's]
closet; that Mr. Brouncker is not the only pimp,
but that the whole family are of the same strain, and
will do anything to please him; that besides the
death of the two Princes lately, the family is in
horrible disorder by being in debt by spending above
60,000 per annum, when he hath not 40,000; that
the Duchess is not only the proudest woman in the
world, but the most expenseful ; and that the Duke of
York's marriage with her hath undone the kingdom,
by making the Chancellor so great above reach, who
otherwise would have been bat an ordinary man, to
have been dealt with by other people ; and he would
have been careful of managing things well, for fear of
being called to account; whereas now he is secure,
and hath let things run to rack, as they now appear.
That at a certain time Mr. Povy did carry him an
account of the state of the Duke of York's estate,
showing in faithfulness how he spent more than his
estate would bear, by above 20,000 per annum, and
asked my Lord's opinion to it; to which he answered,
that no man that loved the King or kiugdom durst
own the writing of that paper; at whicli. Povy was
startled, and reckoned himself undone for this good
service, and found it necessary then to show it to the


Duke of York's Commissioners ; who read, examined,
and approved of it, so as to cause it to be put into
form, and signed it, and gave it to the Duke. Now
the end of the Chancellor was, for fear that his
daughter's ill housewifery should be condemned. He
[Povy] tells me that the other day, upon this ill news
of the Dutch being upon us, Whitehall was shut up,
and the Council called and sat close ; and by the way,
he do assure me, from the mouth of some Privy Coun-
cillors, that at this day the Privy Council in general
do know no more what the state of the kingdom as
to peace and war is, than he or I ; nor who manages it,
nor upon whom it depends ; and there my Lord Chan-
cellor did make a speech to them, saying that they
knew well that he was n:> friend to the war from the
beginning, and therefore had concerned himself little
in, nor could say much to it ; and a great deal of that
kind, to discharge himself of the fault of the war.
Upon which my Lord Anglesey rose up, and told his
Majesty that he thought their coming now together
was not to inquire who was, or was not, the cause of
the war, but to inquire what was, or could be, done in
the business of making a peace, and in whose hands
that was, and where it was stopped or forwarded ; and
went on very highly to have all made open to them :
and, by the way, I remember that Captain Cocke did
the other day tell me that this Lord Anglesey hath
said, witliin few days, that he would willingly give

1667.] PEPYS'S DIARY. 49

10,000 of his estate that he was well secured of the
rest, such apprehensions he hath of the sequel of
things, as giving all over for lost. He tells me,
speaking of the horrid effeminacy of the King, that
the King hath taken ten times more care and pains in
making friends between my Lady Castlemaine and
Mrs. Stewart, when they have fallen out, than ever he
did to save his kingdom ; nay, that upon any falling
out between my Lady Castlemaine's nurse and her
woman, my Lady hath often said she would make the
King to make them friends, and they would be friends
and be quiet ; which the King hath been fain to do :
that the King is, at this day, every night in Hyde
Park with the Duchess of Monmouth, or with my
Lady Castlemaine: that he [Povy] is concerned of
late by my Lord Arlington in the looking after some
buildings that he is about in Norfolk, where my Lord
is laying out a great deal of money ; and that he [Mr.
Povy], considering the unsafcness of laying out money
at such a time as this, and, besides, the enviousness of
the particular county, as well as all the kingdom, to
find him building and employing workmen, while all
the ordinary people of the country are carried down to
the sea-sides for securing the land, he thought it be-
coming him to go to my Lord Arlington (Sir Thomas
Clifford by), and give it as his advice to hold his
hands a little ; but my Lord would not, but would
have him go on, and so Sir Thomas Clifford advised

50 PEPYS'S DIAEY. [June,

also, which one would think, if he were a statesman,
should be a sign of his foreseeing that all should do
well. He tells me that there is not so great confidence
between any two men of power in the nation at this
day, that he knows of, as between my Lord Arlington
and Sir Thomas Clifford ; and that it arises by acci-
dent only, there being no relation nor acquaintance
between them, but only Sir Thomas Clifford's coming
to him, and applying himself to him for faTOurs.
when he came first up to town to be a Parliament

24th. Troubled a little at a letter from my father,
which tells me of an idle companion, one Coleman,
who went down with him and my wife in the coach,
and came up again with my wife, a pensioner of the
King's guard, and one that my wife indeed made the
feast for on Saturday last, though he did not come ;
but, if he knows nothing of our money, I will prevent
any other inconvenience.

25th. Up, and with Sir W. Pen in his new chariot,
which indeed is plain, but pretty and more fashionable
in shape than any coach he hath, and yet do not cost
him, harness and all, above 32, to Whitehall, where
stayed a very little ; and thence to St. James's to Sir
W. Coventry, whom I have not seen since before the
coming of the Dutch into the river, nor did indeed
know how well to go to see him, for shame either to him
or me, or both of us, to find ourselves in so much misery.

1667.] PEPTS'S DIAttY. 61

I find that he and his fellow-treasurers are in the
utmost want of money, and do find fault with Sir G.
Carteret, that, having kept the mystery of borrowing
money to himself so long, to the ruin of the nation, as
Sir W. Coventry said in words to Sir W. Pen and me,
he should now lay it aside and come to them for money
for every penny he hath, declaring that he can raise no
more, which, I confess, do appear to me the most like
ill-will of anything that I have observed of Sir W.
Coventry, when he himself did tell us, on another
occasion at the same time, that the bankers who used
to furnish them money are not able to lend a farthing,
and he knows well enough that that was all the
mystery Sir G. Carteret did use, that is, only his credit
with them. He told us the masters and owners of the
two ships that I had complained of for not readily
setting forth their ships, which we had taken up to
make men-of-war, had been yesterday with the King
and Council, and had made their case so well under-
stood, that the King did owe them for what they had
earned the last year, and that they could not set them
out again without some money or stores out of the
King's yard ; the latter of which Sir W. Coventry
said must be done, for that they were not able to raise
money for them, though it was but 200 a ship : which
do show us our condition to be so bad, that I am in a
total despair of ever having the nation do well. After
that talking awhile, and all out of heart with stories of

52 PEPYS'S DIABT. [June,

want of seamen and seamen's running away, and their
demanding a month's advance, and our being forced to
give seamen three shillings a day to go hence to work
at Chatham, and other things that show nothing but
destruction upon us ; for it is certain that, as it now is,
the seamen of England, in my conscience, would, if
they could, go over and serve the King of France or
Holland rather than us. Up to the Duke of York to
his chamber, where he seems to be pretty easy, and
now and then merry ; but yet one may perceive in all
their minds there is something of trouble and care,
and with good reason. Thence to Whitehall with Sir
W. Pen by chariot, and there in the court met with my
Lord Anglesey ; and he to talk with Sir "W. Pen, and
told him of the masters of the ships being with the
Council yesterday, and that we were not in condition,
though the men were willing, to furnish them with
200 of money, already due to them as earned by
them the last year, to enable them to set out their
ships again this year for the King, which he is
amazed at ; and when I told him, " My Lord, this is a
sad instance of the condition we are in," he answered
that it was so indeed, and sighed, and so parted ; and
he up to the Council chamber, where I perceive they
sit every morning. It is worth noting that the King
and Council, in their order of the 23rd instant, for un-
loading three merchant ships taken up for the King's
service for men-of-war, do call the late coming of the

1667.] PEPYS'S DIARY. 53

Dutch " an invasion." I was told yesterday that Mr.
Oldenburg, our secretary at Gresham College, is put
into the Tower for writing news to a virtuoso in
France, with whom he constantly corresponds in
philosophical matters, which makes it very unsafe at
this time to write or almost do anything. Several
captains come to the office yesterday and to-day, com-
plaining that their men come and go when they will,
and will not be commanded, though they are paid every
night, or may be. Nay, this afternoon comes Harry
Russell from Gravesend, telling us that the money
carried down yesterday for the Chest at Chatham had
like to have been seized upon yesterday, in the barge
there, by seamen, who did beat our watermen, and
what men should these be but the boat's crew of Sir
Fretcheville Hollis, who used to brag so much of the
goodness and order of his men, and his command over
them. Sir H. Cholmly tells me great news ; that this
day in Council the King hath declared that he will
call his Parliament in thirty days, which is the best
news I have heard a great while, and will, if anything,
save the kingdom. How the King come to be advised
to this I know not, but he tells me that it was against
the Duke of York's mind flatly, who did rather advise
the King to raise money as he pleased, and against the
Chancellor's, who told the King that Queen Elizabeth
did do all her business in eighty-eight without calling
a Parliament, and so might he do, for anything he

54 PEPYS'S DIARY. [June,

saw. But, blessed be God ! it is done ; and pray God
it may hold, though some of us must surely go to the
pot, for all must be flung up to them, or nothing will
be done.

26th. The Parliament is ordered to meet the 25th of
July, being, as they say, St. James's Day; which
every creature is glad of. Walking to the Old Swan,
I met Sir Thomas Harvy, whom, asking the news of
the Parliament's meeting, he told me it was true, and
they would certainly make a great rout among us. I
answered, I did not care for my part, though I was
ruined, so that the Commonwealth might escape ruin
by it. He answered, " That is a good one, in faith ;
for you know yourself to be secure, in being necessary
to the office ; but for my part," says he, " I must look
to be removed ; but then," says he, " I doubt not
but I shall have amends made me ; for all the world
knows upon what terms I came in ; " which is a saying
that a wise man would not unnecessarily have said, I
think, to anybody, meaning his buying his place of
my Lord Barkely [of Stratton]. Colonel Reymes tells
me of a letter come last night, or the day before, from
my Lord St. Albans, out of France, wherein he says
that the King of France did lately fall out with him,
giving him ill names, saying that he had belied him
to our King, by saying that he had promised to assist
our King and to forward the peace; saying that,
indeed, he had offered to forward the peace at such

1667. J PEPiTa'S DIARY. 55

& time, but it was not accepted of, and so lie thinks
himself not obliged, and would do what was fit for
him ; aiid so made him to go out of his sight in great
displeasure, aiid he hath given this account to the
King, which, Colonel Reymes tells me, puts them into
new melancholy at Court, and he believes hath
forwarded the resolution of calling the Parliament.
At Whitehall spied Mr. Povy, who tells me, as a great
secret, which none knows but himself, that Sir G.
Carteret hath parted with his place of treasurer of the
Navy, by consent, to my Lord Anglesey, and is to be
treasurer of Ireland in his stead ; but upon what terms
it is I know not, and that it is in his power to bring
me to as great a friendship and confidence in my Lord
Anglesey as ever I was with Sir W. Coventry. Such
is the want already of coals, and the despair of having
any supply, by reason of the enemy's being abroad,
and 110 fleet of ours to secure them, that they are
come this day to 5 10s. per chaldron.

27th. "Wakened this morning about three o'clock,
by a letter from Sir "W. Coventry to "W. Penn,
that the Dutch are come up to the Nore again, and
he knows not whether farther or no. Horrible trouble
with the backwardness of the merchants to let us have
their ships, and seamen's running away, and not to be
got or kept without money. Proclamations come out
this day for the Parliament to meet the 25th of next
month, for which God be praised! and another to

56 PEPYS'S DIABY. [June,

invite seamen to bring in their complaints, of their
being ill-used in the getting their tickets and money.
Pierce tells me that he hears for certain fresh at
Court that France and we shall agree ; and more, that
yesterday was damned at the Council, the Canary
Company ; and also that my Lord Mordaunt hath laid
down his commission. Pierce tells me that all the
town do cry out of our office for a pack of fools ; but
says that everybody speaks either well, or at least the
best of me. But he tells me how Matt. Wren should
say that he was told that I should say that W. Coventry
was guilty of the miscarriage at Chatham, though I
myself, as he confesses, did tell him otherwise, and
that it was wholly Pett's fault. He hath rectified
Wren in his belief of this, and so all is well. News
this time that about eighty sail of the Dutch, great
and small, were seen coming up the river this
morning ; and this some of them to the upper end of
the Hope.

28th. Sir W. Batten is come to town: I to see
him ; he is very ill of his fever, and come only for
advice. Sir J. Miuues, I hear also, is very ill all this
night, worse than before. We find the Duke of York
and Sir W. Coventry gone this morning, by two
o'clock, to Chatham, to come home to-night ; and it is
fine to observe how both the King and Duke of York
have, in their several late journeys to and again,
done them in the night, for coolness. To Sir Gr.

1C67.] PEPYS'S DIABT. 57

Carteret, and I dined with my Lady and good com-
pany, and good dinner. My Lady and the family in very
good humour upon this business of his parting with
his place of Treasurer of the Navy, which I perceive
they do own. They tell me that the Duke of Bucking-
ham hath surrendered himself to Secretary Morrice,
and is going to the Tower. Mr. Fenn, at the table,
says that he hath been taken by the watch two or
three times of late, at unseasonable hours, but so
disguised that they could not know him : and when I
come home by-and-by, Mr. Lowther tells me that
the Duke of Buckingham do dine publicly this day
at "Wadlow's, at the Sun Tavern ; and is mighty
merry, and sent word to the Lieutenant of the Tower
that he would come to him as soon as he had dined.
Now, how sad a thing it is, when we come to make
sport of proclaiming men traitors, and banishing them,
and putting them out of their offices, and Privy
Council, and of sending to and going to the Tower :
God have mercy on us ! At table my Lady and Sir
Philip Carteret have great and good discourse of the
greatness of the present King of France what great
things he hath done, that a man may pass, at any hour
of the night, all over that wild city [Paris], with a
purse in his hand and no danger : that there is not a
beggar to be seen in it, nor dirt lying in it ; that he
hath married two of Colbert's daughters to two of the
greatest princes of France, and given them portions

58 PEPYS'S DIARY. ("June,

bought the greatest dukedom in France, and given it
to Colbert ; and ne'er a prince in France dare whisper
against it, whereas here our King cannot do any such

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