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Richard III for life (i Ric. Ill), ib, vi. 338.

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1628] The King's Speech 73

of their duty, both to your Majesty and their country, save
only to make thi&^ humble declaration, * That ^ the receiving
of ionnage and Poiwadftge^^andjatbe^^mgositioBifi,^^
by PaxUament, is a breajQlji^of tfae.. fawdaipentalliEerties of
this kingdom, and contrary to your Majesty's royal answer
to the said Petitipn"' of TcUgH7]^"'Xnr^Sb^^ they do most
hujsbljL^seech yoijr Majesty to forbear any further receiv-
ing. ^oLih^'^Mne, and not to take it in itr't)^^ from those of
your Majesty's loving subjects, w^^sEalEj-eluse^ make payment
of any sucF cBafges,*wi!hout warranF^aw demanded.

And as by this forbearance, your Most Excellent Majesty
shall manifest unto the world your royal justice in the obser-
vation of your laws : so they doubt not, but hereafter, at the
time appointed for their coming again, they shall have occasion
to express their great desire to advance your Majesty's honour
and profit.

12. The King's Speech at the Pborogation of Pabliament

at the end of the session of 1628.
[June a6, i6a8. Lordi JotMmaU, iii. 879. See Hist, of Engl, vi 334.]

It may seem strange, that I come so suddenly to end this
Session ; wherefore before I give my assent to the Bills, I will
tell you the cause, though I must avow, that I^owe an account
QLiPJ Lftctions to none bu t to^Go^jiJone. It is known ^ every
one, that a while ago the Iiau8€LfiLjCommonf,^ave me a Re-
monstrancjg/, how acceptable every man may judge; and for
the merit of it, I will not call that in question, for I am sure no
wise man can justify it.

Now since I am certainly informed, that & second Remon-
stra»«^iai,£reparing^forjme to take away my profit of Tonnage
au^^^^omidage, "one of the chief maintenances of my Crown,
by alleging^ have given away my right thereof by my answer
to your Petition; this is so prejudicial unto me, that I am
forced to end this Session some few hours before I meant it,

^ A general remonstrance on the misgovemment of the kingdom, in
which Buckingham was named as the author of abuses, had been presented
to the King on June 17.

* See No. II.

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74 Constitutional Documents [i6a8

being willing not to receive any more Remonstrances, to which
I must give a harsh answer.

And since I see that even the House of Commons begins
already to make false constructions of what I granted in your
Petition, lest it might be worse interpreted in the country,
I will now make a declaration concerning the true meaning
thereof :

The profession of both Houses, in time of hammering this
Petition, was no ways to intrench upon my Prerogative, saying,
they had neither intention nor power to hurt it. There-
fore it must needs be conceived that I have granted no new,
but only confirmed the ancient liberties of my subjects: yet
to show the clearness of my intentions, that I neither repent,
nor mean to recede from anything I have promised you, I do
here declare, that those things which have been done, whereby
men had some cause to suspect the liberties of the subjects
to be trenched upon, — which indeed was the first and true
ground of the Petition, — shall not hereafter be drawn into
example for your prejudice ; and in time to come, on the word
of a king, you shall not have the like cause to complain.

But as for Tonnage and Poundage, it is a thing I cannot
want, and was never intended by you to ask, nor meant —
I am sure — by me to grant.

To conclude, I command you all that are here to take
notice of what I have spoken at this time, to be the true
intent and meaning of what I granted you in your Petition ;
but especially, you my Lords the Judges, for to you only
under me belongs the interpretation of laws; for none of the
Honse of Commons, joint or separate, (what new doctrine
soever may be raised) have any power either to make or
declare a law without my consent ^

^ The last clause of this paragraph is corrected from Pari. But, ii 434.

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1628] The King's Declaration 75

13. The King's Declabation prefixed to the Articles
OF Religion.

[November, 1628. Commonly printed with the Book of Common
Prayer. See Hitt of Engl, vii. 20.]

Being by God's ordinance, according to our just title,
Defender of the Faith, and Supreme Governor of the Church,
within these our dominions, we hold it most agreeable to
this our kingly office, and our own religious zeal, to conserve
and maintain the Church committed to our charge, in the
unity of true religion, and in the bond of peace ; and not to
suffer unnecessary disputations, altercations, or questions to be
raised, which may nourish faction both in the Church and
Commonwealth. We have therefore, upon mature deliberation,
and with the advice of so many of our Bishops as might con-
veniently be called together, thought fit to make this declaration
following :

That the Articles of the Church of England (which have
been allowed and authorised heretofore, and which our clergy
generally have subscribed unto) do contain the true doctrine
of the Church of England agreeable to God's Word : which we
do therefore ratify and confirm, requiring all our loving
subjects to continue in the uniform profession thereof, and
prohibiting the least difference from the said Articles ; which
to that end we command to be new printed, and this our
declaration to be published therewith:

That we are supreme Governor of the Church of England :
and that if any difference arise about the external policy,
concerning the injunctions, canons, and other constitutions
whatsoever thereto belonging, the Clergy in their Convo-
cation is to order and settle them, having first obtained leave
under our broad seal so to do : and we approving their said
ordinances and constitutions; providing that none be made
contrary to the laws and customs of the land.

That out of our princely care that the churchmen may
do the work which is proper unto them, the Bishops and
Clergy, from time to time in Convocation, upon their humble
desire, shall have license under our broad seal to deliberate

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^6 Constitutional Documents [i6a8

of, and to do all such things as, being made plain by them,
and assented unto by us, shall concern the settled con-
tinuance of the doctrine and discipline of the Church of
England now established; from which we will not endure
any varying or departing in the least degree.

That for the present, though some differences have been ill
raised, yet we take comfort in this, that all clergymen within
our realm have always most willingly subscribed to the Articles
established; which is an argument to us, that they all agree
in the true, usual, literal meaning of the said Articles; and
that even in those curious points, in which the present differences
lie, men of all sorts take the Articles of the Church of England
to be for them; which is an argument again, that none of them
intend any desertion of the Articles established.

That therefore in these both curious and unhappy differ-
ences, which have for so many hundred years, in different times
and places, exercised the Church of Christ, we will, that all
further curious search be laid aside, and these disputes shut
up in God's promises, as they be generally set forth to us in
the holy scriptures, and the general meaning of the Articles
of the Church of England according to them. And tha t^ng
man l)^eaftec 4ihall either print, or preachy t^.4.I!^ ^^® Ai-ticle
aside any way, but shall submil ta ituisj^he^plam and full
meaning thereof : and shall not put his own sense or comment
f n ]^ fVitf> ]npftiiing Qf the Article, but shall take irin the literal
and grammatical sense.

That if any public Eeader in either of our Universities,
or any Head or. Master Of a College, or any oflier person
respectively in either of them, shall a£Bx any new sense to any
Article, or shall publicly read, determine, or hold any public
disputation, or suffer any such to be held either way, in either
the Universities or Colleges respectively ; or if any divine in
the Universities shall preach or print any thing either way,
other than is already established in Convocation with our royal
assent; he, or they the offenders, s hall be lia ble to our dis-
pleasure, and the Church's censure in our comrnisSion ecclesi-
astical, as well as any other : and we will see there shall be
due execution upon them.

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i6fl8-9] Resolutions on Religion 77

14. Resolutions on Religion drawn bt a Sub-Committee
OP THE House of Commons.

[February 24, 1628-9. Cobbett's Parliamentary History, ii. col. 483.
See HUt of JSngl vii. 65.]

Heads of Articles to be insisted on, and agreed upon, at
a Sub-Committee for Religion.

I. That we call to mind, how that, in the last Session of
this Parliament, we presented to His Majesty an humble
declaration of the great danger threatened to this Church
and State, by divers courses and practices tending to the change
and innovation of religion.

II. That what we then feared, we do now sensibly feel ; and
therefore have just cause to renew our former complaints

III. That, yet nevertheless, we do, with all thankfulness,
acknowledge the great blessing we have received from Almighty
God j in settinjg a king over us, of whose constancy in the
profession^ and practice of the true"^ religion here established,
we rest full assured'; as likewise of his most pious zeal and
careful endeavour for the maintenance and propagation thereof ;
being so far from having the least doubt of His Majesty's
remissness therein, that we, next under God, ascribe unto his
own princely wisdom and goodness,' that our holy religion hath
yet any countenance at all amongst us.

lY. And for that the pious intention and endeavours, even
of the best and wisest princes, are often frustrated through the
unfaithfulness and carelessness of their ministers ; and that we
find a great unhappiness to have befallen His Majesty this way ;
we think, that being now assembled in Parliament to advise of
the weighty and important affairs concerning Church and
State ; we cannot do a work more acceptable than, in the first
place, according to the dignity of the matter, and necessity of
the present occasions, faithfully and freely to make known,
wh^t we conceive may conduce to the preservation of God's
religion, in great peril now to be lost; and, therewithal, the
safety and tranquillity of His Majesty and his kingdoms now
threatened with certain dangers. For the clearer proceedings

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78 Constitutional Documents [1628-9

therein, we shall declare, i. What those dangers and incon-
veniences are. 2. Whence they arise. 3. In some sort, how
they may be redressed.

The dangers may appear partly from the consideration of
the state of religion abroad; and partly from the condition
thereof within His Majesty's own dominions, and especially
within this kingdom of England.

From abroad we make these observations : i. By the mighty
and prevalent party, by which true religion is actually opposed,
and the contrary maintained. 2. Their combined counsels,
forces, attempts, and practices, together with a most diligent
pursuit of their designs, aiming at the subversion of all the
Protestant Churches in Christendom. 3. The weak resistance
that is made against them. 4. Their victorious and successful
enterprises, whereby the Churches of Germany, France, and
other places, are in a great part already ruined, and the rest
in the most weak and miserable condition.

In His Majesty's own dominions, these: i. In Scotland, the
stirs lately raised and insolences committed by the Popish party,
have already not a little disquieted that famous Church; of
which, with comfort we take notice, His Majesty hath expressed
himself exceeding sensible; and hath accordingly given most
royal and prudent directions therein. 2. L;eland ig now almost
wholly overspread withJEopBry, swarming with Mars, priests,
and Jesuits, and^Vther superstitious persons of all sorts ; whose
practice is daily to seduce His Majesty's subjects from their
allegiance, and to cause them to adhere to his enemies. That
even in the city of Dublin, in the view of the State, where not
many years since, as we have been credibly informed, there
were few or none that refused to come to church, there are
lately restored and erected for friars, Jesuits, and idolatrous
mass-priests, thirteen houses, being more in number than the
parish churches within that city; besides many more likewise
erected in the best parts of the kingdom; and the people,
almost wholly, revolted from our religion, to the open exercise
of Popish superstition. The danger from hence is further
increased, by reason of the intercourse which the subjects, of all
sorts, in that kingdom, have into Spain, and the Archduchess's
country; and that, of late, divers principal persons being

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i6a8-9] Resolutions on Religion 79

Papists are trusted with the command of soldiers ; and great

numbers of the Irish are acquainted with the exercise of armiS

and martial discipline; which, heretofore, hath not been

permitted, even in times of greatest security. 3. Lastly, here

in England we observe an extraordinary growth of JPojpary,

insomuch that in some counties, where in Queen Elizabeth's

time there were few or none known Becusants, now there are

above 2000, and all the rest generally apt to revolt. A bold

and open allowance of their religion, by frequent and public

resort to mass, in multitudes, without control, and that even to

the Queen's Court; to the great scandal of His Majesty's

government. Their extraordinary insolence; for instance,

the late erecting of a College of Jesuits in Clerkenwell, and

the strange proceedings thereupon used in favour of them.

The subtle and pernicious spj^ding of the Arminian faction ;

wherfeby they have kindled such a fire of division in the very

bowels of the State, as if not speedily extinguished, it is of

itself sufficient to ruin our religion ; by dividing us from the

Reformed Churches abroad, and separating amongst ourselves

at home, by casting doubts upon the religion professed and

established ; which, if faulty or questionable in three or four

Articles, will be rendered suspicious to unstable minds, in all

the rest, and incline them to Popery, to which those tenets, in

their own nature, do prepare the way : so that if our religion

be suppressed and destroyed abroad, disturbed in Scotland,

lost in Ireland, undermined and almost outdared in England,

it is manifest that our danger is very great and imminent.

The causes of which danger here, amongst divers others, we

conceive to be chiefly these instanced in : i. The suspension or

negligence in execution of the laws against Popery. 2. The

late proceedings against the College of Jesuits^. 3. Divers

letters sent by Sir Robert Heath, His Majesty's Attorney,

into the country, for stay of proceedings against Recusants.

4. The publisWng and defending points of Popery in sermons

and BSOlTBT'without punishment ; instance Bishop Montague's

three books, viz. * The Gag ^' 'Invocation of Saints',' and his

^ Hwt of Engl. vi. 338?'"'"'

• A gag for the new gospel I No I a new gag for an old goose. 1624.
^ Immediate address unto Ood alone . . . enlarged to a just treatise of
invocation of saints, 1634.

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8o Constiiutional Documents [1698-9

* Appeal ^ ; ' also Dr. Cosin*s * Horary ' ' and the Bishop of Glou-
cester's Sermons '. 5. The bold and unwarranted introducing,
practising, and defending of sundry new ceremonies, and laying
of injunctions upon men by governor^ ot the Cturch and others,
without authority, in conformity to the Church of Rome ; as, for
example, in some places erecting of altars, in others changing
the usual and prescribed manner of placing the communion
table, and setting it at the upper end of the chancel, north and
south, in imitation of the High Altar; by which they, also,
call it, and adorn it with candlesticks, which, by the injunctions,
10 Eliz., were to be taken away; %r}(^ t\<^ ^^ ^ftKfl ^]yiaftTif>A

ibybowing thereunto, c ommanding naen to st and up at Gloria
J^ri; bringing men to qu estion and troubl e for n ot obeying
that comnSanf Tor which lfi6re is no authoyi^ ; eigoining that
no woman be cTiurcbeSTwKEouf iTverf; setting up of pictures,
lights, and images in churches ; pi^pg tnwii^ff tbfl yiafj cross-
ing^ (zd omnem motum et geshim. 6. The &lse and counterfeit
conformity of Papists, whereby they do not only evade the law,
but obtain places of trust and authority : instance Mr. Browne
of Oxford, and his treatise written to that purpose ; the Bishop
of Gloucester; and the now Bishop of Durham, 7. The
suppressing and restraint of the orthodox doctrine, contained
in the Articles of Beligion, confirmed in Parliament, 13 Eliz.,
according to the sense which hath been received publicly, and
taught as the doctrine of the Church of England in those
points, wherein the Arminians differ from us and other the
Eeformed Churches; wherein the essence of our Articles, in
those controverted points, is known and proved. 8. The
publishing of books, and preaching of sermons, contrary to the
former orthodox doctrine, and suppressing books written in
defence thereof: instance Bishop Montague's 'Gag' and
' Appeal,' Mr. Jackson's ' Book of the Essence and Attributes of
God,' Dr. White's two sermons preached at Court, one upon the
5th of November, the other on Christmas Day last : and for
orthodox books suppressed, instance in all that have been

^ Appello Caesarem, 1635.

• A collection of private devotions . . . called the Hours of Prayer, 1627.

* Probably the Fall of Man, by Godfrey Goodman, published in i6i6.
He was now Bishop of Gloucester. A new edition was issued in 1639
against his wish.

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i6a8-9] Resolutions on Religion 8i

written against Bishop Montague and Cosin, yea even Bishop
Carleton's book. 9. That these persons who have published
and maintained such Papistical, Arminian, and superstitious
opinions and practices, who are known to be unsound in
religion, are countenanced, £sivoured, and preferred: instance,
Mr. Montague made Bishop of Chichester; also the late
Bishop of Carlisle^, since his last Arminian sermon preached
at Court, advanced to the bishopric of Norwich; a known
Arminian' made Bishop of Ely; the Bishop of Oxford ^
a long-suspected Papist, advanced to t he bish opric of Durham ;
Mr, Oosin, advanced to dignity and a great living ; Dr. Wren,
made Dean of Windsor, and one of the High Commission
Court. lo. That some prelates near the King, having gotten
the chief administration of ecclesiastical affairs under His
Majesty, discountenance and hinder the preferment of those
that are orthodox, and favour such as are contrary : instance,
the Bishops of Winchester * and London \ in divers particulars.
The points wherein the Arminians differ from us and other
the Reformed Churches, in the sense of the Articles confirmed
in Parliament, 13 Eliz., may be known and proved in these
controverted points, viz.: i. By the Common Prayer, established
in Parliament. 2. By the book of Homilies, confirmed by
the acts of religion. 3. By the Catechism concerning the points
printed in the Bible, and read in churches, and divers other
impressions published by authority. 4. Bishop Jewel's works,
commanded to be kept in all churches, that every parish may
have one of them. 5. The public determination of divinity
professors^ published by authority. 6. The public determina-
tion of divines in both the Universities. 7. The Resolution
of the Archbishop of Canterbury and other rev. bishops and
divines assembled at Lambeth, for this very purpose, to declare
their opinions concerning those points, anno 1595, unto which
the Archbishop of York and all his province did likewise agree.
8. The Articles of L'eland, though framed by the Convoca-
tion there, yet allowed by liie Clergy and State here. 9. The
suffrage of the British divines, sent by King James, to the Synod
of Dort. 10. The uniform consent of our writers published by

^ Francis White. ^ John Back«ridge. ^ John Howson.

* Bichard N«il«. * William Laud.

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authority, ii. The censureB, recantations, punishments, and
Buhmissions, made, enjoined, and inflicted upon those that
taught contrary thereunto, as Barrow and Barrett in Cambridge,
and Bridges in Oxford.

The remedy of which abuses we conceive may be these:
I. Due execution of laws against Papists. 2. Exemplary
punishments to be inflicted upon teachers, publishers, and main-
tainers of Popish opinions, and practising of s uperstit ious cere-
I2^l^es, and some stricter laws in that case to be provided.
3. The orthodox doctrine of our Church, in these now contro-
verted points by the Arminian sect, may be established and
freely taught; according as it hath been hitherto generally
received, without any alteration or innovation; and severe
punishment, by the same laws to be provided against such as
shall, either by word or writing, publish anything contrary
thereunto. 4. That the said books of Bishop Montague and
Cosin may be burned. 5. That such as have been authors,
or abettors, of those Popish and Arminian innovations in
doctrine, may be condignly punished. 6. That some good order
may be taken for licensing books hereafter. 7. That_His
Majesty would-be ggtciously pleased to confer bishoprics, and
other eccIesTastical preferments, with advice of his Privy Council,
upon learned, pious, and orthodox men. 8. That bishops and
clergymen being well chosen, may reside upon their charge,
and with diligence and fidelity perform their several duties,
and that accordingly they may be countenanced and preferred.
9. That some course may, in this Parliament, be considered
of, for providing competent means to maintain a godly, able
minister in every parish church of this kingdom. 10. That
His Majesty would be graciously pleased to make a special
choice oi such persons, for the execution of his ecclesiastical
commissions, as are approved for integrity of life and soundness
of doctrine.

15. Pbotestation of thb House of Commons.

[March 2, 1628-9. Kushworth, i. 660. See HiH, of JSnffl. vii. 75.]

I. Whosoever shall bring in innovation of religion, or by
favour or countenance seek to extend or introduce Popery

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i6a8-9] The King^s Declaration 83

or Arminianisiu, or other opinion disagreeing from the true
and orthodox Church, shall be reputed a capital enemy to
this Kingdom and Commonwealth.

2. Whosoever shall counsel or advise the taking and levying
of the subsidies of Tonnage and Poundage, not being granted
by Parliament, or shall be an actor or instrument therein,
shall be likewise reputed an innovator in the Government, and
a capital enemy to the Kingdom and Commonwealth.

3, I f any m erchant or person whatsoever shall voluntarily
yield^ or pay {EeTai3'*suBsidres orTonnage and Poundagfe, not
being granted by Parliament, Ija^jife^lJ^ likewise be reputed a
betrayer of tl^e liberti^^ 9f En^ and, and an(enemv)to the same^.

16. The Kino's Declaration showing the causes of the
LATE Dissolution.

[March lo, i63|. Bushworth, i. App. i. See Sist, ofEngh yii. 78.]

Howsoever prince ^ are not bound to give account of their
a ction s, but to God jilone; yet. fii. jjie satisfaction of the
nunSs ^Aivl j|fections ofjoju^ loving^ su^ects, we have thought
good to set down thus much by way of declaration, that we
may appear to the world in the truth and sincerity of our
actions, and not in those colours in which we know some
turbulent and ill-affected spirits (to mask and disguise their
wicked intentions, dangerous to the State) would represent
us to the public view.

We assembled our Parliament the seventeenth day of March,
in the third year of our reign, for the safety of religion, for
securing our kingdoms and subjects at home, and our friends
and allies abroad; and therefore at the first sitting down of
it we declared the miserable afflicted estate of those of the
reformed religion, in Germany, France, and other parts of
Christendom; the distressed extremities of our dearest uncle,
the King of Denmark. ^ chased out of a great part of his
dominions ; the strength of that party which was united against

^ This protestation was recited bvHolles after the Speaker had been held
down in £i8 chair, as the King wasKppn&ohing to break open the door of

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