Samuel Rawson Gardiner.

The constitutional documents of the Puritan revolution 1625-1660 online

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demnation in the day of the Lord Jesus.

We therefore, willing to take away all suspicion of hypocrisy,
and of such double dealing with €k)d and His Kirk, protest
and call the Se arch er of all hgactg^for witness, that pur minds
a^dhearts do full y agree w i th this our co nfes8ion> promise, oath,
andTub'BCripfion : so that we are not moved for any worldly
respect, but are persuaded only in our consciences, tlu*ough the
knowledge and love of God's trucTeligion printed in our hearts
tiy the Holy Spirit, ag we shall ttOAwe; jE6_ Him in the day when
the^ Meiets of all hearts shall Jbie disclosed, ^ndl^ecause we

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1638] The Scottish National Covenant 127

perceive that the qnietnesB and stability of our religion and
Kirk doth depend upon the safety and good behaviour of the
King's Majesty, as upon a comfortable instrument of God's
mercy granted to this country for the maintenance of His Kirk,
and ministration of justice among us, we protest and promise
with our hearts under the same oath, hand-writ, and pains,
that we shall defend his person and authority with our goods,
bodies, and lives, in the defence of Christ His evangel, liberties
of our country, ministration of justice, and punishment of
iniquity, against all enemies within this realm or without, as
we desire our Ood to be a strong and merciful defender to us in
the day of oui* death, and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ ;
to Whom, with the Father and the Holy Spiiit, be all honour
and glory eternally.

Like as many Acts of Parliament not only in general do
abrogate, annul, and rescind all laws, statutes, acts, consti-
tutions, canons civil or municipal, with all other ordinances
and practick penalties whatsoever, made in prejudice of the true
religion, and professors thereof, or of the true Kirk discipline,
jurisdiction, and freedom thereof; or in favours of idolatry and
superstition ; or of the papistical kirk (as Act 3. Act 31. Pari. i.
Act 23. Pari. II. Act 114. Pari. 12, of K. James VI), that
papistry and superstition may be utterly suppressed, according
to the intention of the Acts of Parliament reported in Act 5.
Pari. 20. K. James YI. And to that end tliey ordained all
papists and priests to be punished by manifold civil and ec-
clesiastical pains, as adversaries to God's true religion preached,
and by law established within this realm (Act. 24. Pari. 11.
K. James VI) as common enemies to all Chiistian government
(Act 18. Pari. 16. K. James VI), as rebellers and gainstanders
of our Sovereign Lord's authority (Act 47. Pari. 3. K. James
VI), and as idolaters (Act 104. Pari. 7. K. James VI), but also
in particular (by and attour the confession of faith) do abolish
and condemn the Pope's authority and jurisdiction out of this
land, and ordains the maintainors thereof to be puQished (Act 2.
Pari. I. Act. 51. Pari. 3. Act 106. Pftrl. 7. Act 114. Pari. 12. of
K. James VI) ; do condemn the Pope's erroneous doctrine, or
any other erroneous doctrine repugnant to any of the Articles
of the ti'ue and Chiistian religion publicly preached, and by

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128 Constitutional Documents [1638

law established in this realm; and ordains the spreaders or makers
of books or libels, or letters or writs of that nature, to be punished
(Act 46. Pari. 3. Act 106. Pari. 7. Act 24. Pari. 11. K. James VI);
do condemn all baptism conform to the Pope's kirk, and the
idolatry of the Mass; and ordains all sayers, wilful hearers,
and concealers of the Mass, the maintainers and resetters of
the Priests, Jesuits, trafficking Papists, to be punished without
exception or restriction (Act 5. Pari. i. Act 120. Pari. 12. Act
164. Pari. 13. Act 193. Pari. 14. Act. i. Pari. 19. Act 5. Pari. 20
K. James VI); do condemn all erroneous books and writs
containing erroneous doctrine against the religion presently
professed, or containing superstitious rights and ceremonies
papistical, whereby the people are greatly abused ; and ordains
the home-bringers of them to be punished (Act 25. Pari. 11.
K. James VI) ; do condemn the monuments and dregs of bygone
idolatry, as going to crosses, observing the festival days of saints,
and such other superstitious and papistical rites, to the dis-
honour of God, contempt of true religion, and fostering of great
errors among the people, and ordains the users of them to be
punished for the second fault as idolaters (Act 104. Pari. 7.
K. James VI).

Like as many Acts of Parliament are conceived for main-
tenance of God's true and Christian religion, and the purity
thereof in doctrine and sacraments of the true Church of God,
the liberty and freedom thereof in her national synodal assem-
blies, presbyteries, sessions, policy, discipline, and jurisdiction
thereof, as that purity of religion and liberty of the Church was
used, professed, exercised, preached, and confessed according to
the reformation of religion in this realm. (As for instance:
Act 99. Pari. 7. Act 23. Pari ii. Act 114. Pari. 12. Act i6o»
Pari. 13. K. James VI, ratified by Act 4. K. Charles.) So that
Act 6. Pari. i. and Act 68. Pari. 6. of K. James VI, in the
year of Gk)d 1579, declares the ministers of the blessed evangel,
whom God of His mercy had raised up or hereafter should raise,
agreeing with them that then lived in doctrine and administra-
tion of the sacraments, and the people that professed Christ,
as He was then offered in the evangel, and doth communicate
with the holy sacraments (as in the reformed Kirka of thia
realm they were presently administered) according to the con.^

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1638] The Scottish National Covenant 129

fession of faith to be the true and holy Kirk of Christ Jesus
within this realm, and discerns and declares all and sundry,
who either gainsays the word of the evangel, received and
approved as the heads of the confession of faith, professed
in Parliament in the year of God 1560, specified also in the
first Parliament of K. James YI, and ratified in this present
Parliament, more particularly do specify; or that refases the
administration of the holy sacraments as they were then minis-
trated, to be no members of the said Kirk within this realm
and true religion presently professed, so long as they keep
themselves so divided from the society of Christ's body. And
the subsequent Act 69. Pari. 6. K. James YI, declares that
there is no other face of Kirk, nor other face of religion than
was presently at that time by the favour of God established
within this realm, which therefore is ever styled God*s true
religion^ Christ's true religion, the true and Christian religion,
and a perfect religion, which by manifold Acts of Parliament
all within this realm are bound to profess to subscribe the
Articles thereof, the confession of faith, to recant all doctrine
and errors repugnant to any of the said Articles (Act 4 and 9.
Pari. I. Act 45. 46. 47. Pari. 3. Act 71. Pari. 6. Act io6. Pari. 7.
Act 24. Pari. II. Act 123. Pari. 12. Act 194 and 197. Pari. 14
of K. James YI). And all magistrates, sheriffs, &c., on the
one part, ave ordained to searph, apprehend, and punish all
contraveners (for instance, Act 5. Pari, i. Act 104. Pari. 7.
Act2 5. Pari. II. E. James YI). And that, notwithstanding of
the King's Majesty's licences on the contrary, which are dis-
charged and declared to be of no force, in so far as they tend
in any ways to the prejudice and hindrance of the execution
of the Acts of Parliament against Papists and adversaries of
the true religion (Act 106. Pari. 7. K. James YI). On the
other part, in Act 47. Pari. 3. K. James YI, it is declared
and ordained, seeing thfl^agse. of God's, tnie rjaligion and His
^^hg^ffffi'" ftlTtihV^'^y ^^*^ "^ joined as thft hurfc^pf the one is
common to b oth ; ajjjdthatnone shall be reputed as loyal and
fftifMnl flijjgfl,^^^** to our BovefBfgu Lor3r*6r ^£!l authority, but
b e punishable asjre bellers^afl^^ gainstanSers' of the «ame, who

^liftll nnf ffivft |.|y^jrjnnnf<>pftion ft.n/^"^tHAtfi;> pfttfflRHinn of the Said

true religion ; and that they, who after defection shall'give the

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130 ConsHtuHonal Documents [1638

I confession of their faith of new, th«xjhftll££^^P^8^ ^^ continue
I therein in fjTnA nQj^ijjj^j-/x jp^f^iTd-^in ^tiT^^TtmiFuijrfr Lord's

j aothonty, and at the uttermost of their power to fortify, assist,
* ftnd maj yi tain^th^ true pr^&oLeiB a nd Dfulessors of Christ's
religion, against whatsoever enemes and gainstanders of the
same r and namely^ against all such of whatsoever nation, estate,
or degree they be of, that have joined or bound themselves, or
have assisted or assists to set forward and execute the cruel
decrees of Trent, contrary to the preachers and true professors
of the Word of God, which is repeated word by word in the
Articles of Pacification at Perth, the 23rd of Feb., 1572, approved
by Parliament the last of April 1573, ratified in Parliament
1578, and related Act 123. Pari. 12. of K. James VI, with this
addition, that they are bound to resist all treasonable uproars
and hostilities raised against the true religion, the King's
Majesty and the true professors.

Lij^e as all lieges ar^bound to maintain the King's Majesty's
r(^al perjBon[a»dTiuthority, the auTEorityoTParliaments, without
which neither any ISws or lawful judicatories can be established
(Act 130. Act 131. Pari. 8. K. James VI), and the subjects'
liberties, who ought only to live and be governed by the King's
laws, the common laws of this realm allanerly (Act 48. Pari. 3.
K. James I, Act 79. Pari. 6. K. James VI, repeated in Act 131.
Pari. 8. K. James VI), which if they be innovated or prejudged
the commission anent the union of the two kingdoms of Scot-
land and England, which is the sole Act of 17 Pari. James VI,
declares such confusion would ensue as this realm could be no
more a free monarchy; because by the fundamental laws, ancient
privileges, offices, and liberties of this kingdom, not only the
princely authority of His Majesty's royal descent hath been
these many ages maintained, also the people's security of their
lands, livings, rights, offices, liberties and dignities preserved.
And therefore for the preservation of the said true religion, laws
and liberties of this kingdom, it is statute by Act 8. Pari. i.
repeated in Act 99. Pari. 7. ratified in Act 23. Pari. 11 and 14.
Act of K. James VI and 4 Act of £. Charles, that all Kings
and Princes at their coronation and reception of their princely
authority, shall make their faithful promise bj^ their solemn
^aUi^in the presence of the Eteraal GoS^ ihaf during the whole

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1638] The Scottish National Covenant 131

timeoftheir lives they shall serve the same Eternal God to the
utnaoflt ofTE^ir power^a^rding as^e^ath ifiguired in His
n\Qgt^ Holy Word, containe3^in ^e OlT'aiid New Testaments,
and according to the same Word shall maintain the true religion
of Christ Jesus, the preaching of His Holy Word, the due and
right ministration of the sacraments now received and preached
within this realm (according to the confession of faith immedi-
ately preceding); and shall aholish and gainstand all false
religion contrary to the same ; and shall rule the people com-
mitted to their charge according to the will and commandment
of God revealed in His foresaid Word, and according to the
bwable laws and constitutions received in this realm, no ways
repugnant to the said will of the Eternal God ; and shall pro-
cure to the utmost of their power, to the Kirk of God, and whole
Christian people, true and perfect peace in all time coming ;
and that they shall be careful to root out of their Empire all
heretics and enemies to the true worship of God, who shall be
convicted by the true Kirk of God of the aforesaid crimes.
Which was also observed by His Majesty at his Coronation in
Edinburgh, 1633, as may be seen in the Order of the Coronation.
In obedience to the commands of God, conform to the prac-
tice of the godly in former times, and according to the laudable
example of our worthy and religious progenitors, and of many
yet living amongst us, which was warranted also by act of
council, commanding a general band to be made and subscribed
by His Majesty's subjects of all ranks for two causes : one was,
for defending the true religion, as it was then reformed, and is
expressed in the confession of faith above written, and a former
large confession established by sundry acts of lawful general
assemblies and of Parliament, unto which it hath relation, set
down in public catechisms, and which had been for many years
with a blessing from heaven preached and professed in this Kirk
and kingdom, as God's undoubted truth grounded only upon
His written Word. The other cause was for maintaining the
King's Majesty, his person and estate ; the trufi^'worship of God
and the King!? authority being bo straitly joined, a» that they
had the same friends and common enemies, and did stand and
fall together. And finally, being convinced in our minds, and
confessing with our mouths, that the present and succeeding

K 2

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132 Constitutional Documents [1638

generations in this land are bound to keep the aforesaid national
oath and subscription inviolable : —

Wenoblemen, Kftrnmy^ gnnflftmnw^ hnygAaflAfl mJTi|afA»p^ g.^^

cox^mons un^er iiuS scribing. considering divers time s before, and
ftRpftfimTly^Rr i^EiaTtime, th e daager of the true reformed religion,
of the King's honour, and of the public peace of the kingdom,
by the manifold innovations and evils generally contained and
particularly mentioned in our late supplications, complaints,
and protestations, do^hereby profess, 8^d before God, His angels
and the world, solemnly~declare, that 'vniF'our whole hearts we
agree and resolve jdiihfi.ilakj:g9f our life conste^tly to adhere
unto and to defend the aforesaid true religionH^nd forbearing
the jracticfiLjotalLnpyations alreadylntroduced in the matters
of the worship of God, or approbation of the corruptions of the
public government of the Kirk, or civil places and power of
kirkmen, till they be tried and allowed in free assemblies and
in Parliaments, to labour by all means lawful to recover the
purity and liberty of the Gospel as it was established and pro-
fessed before the aforesaid novations; and because, after due
examination, we plainly perceive and undoubtedly believe that
the innovations and evils contained in our supplications, com-
plaints, and protestations have no warrant of the Word of God,
are contrary to the articles of the aforesaid confessions, to the
intention and meaning of the blessed reformers of religion in
this land, to the above-written Acts of Parliament, and do
sensibly tend to the re-establishing of the popish religion and
tyranny, and to the subversion and ruin of the true reformed
religion, and of our liberties, laws and estates ; we also declare
that the aforesaid confessions are to be interpreted, and ought
to be understood of the aforesaid novations and evils, no less
than if every one of them had been expressed in the aforesaid
confessions ; and that we are obliged to detest and abhor them,
amongst other particular heads of papistry abjured therein ;
and therefore from the knowledge and conscience of our duty
to God, to our King and country, without any worldly respect
or inducement so far as human infirmity will suffer, wishing
a further measure of the grace of God for this effect, we promise
and swear by the great name of the Lord our Gk)d, to continue
in the profession and obedience of the aforesaid religion ; that

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we shall defend the same, and resist all these contrary errors
and conniptions according to our yocation, and to the utmost
of that power that Gk)d hath put into our hands, all the days of
our life. And in like manner, with the same heart we declare
before God and men, that we have no intention or desire to
attempt anything that may turn to the dishonour of God or the
diminution of the King's greatness and authority; but on
the contrary we promise and swear that we shall to the utmost
of our j^YitT^^if^!h^^SXSCDSes^^ stand to the defence

qf^xmr-dread. Sovereign theTCing^sTJaJeityT'his person and
^uthodty, in the defence and preservation of the aforesaid true
religion, liberties and laws of the kingdom; as also to the
mutual defence and assistance every one of us of another, in the
same cause of maintaining the true religion and His Majesty's
authority, with our best counsels, our bodies, means and whole
power, against all sorts of persons whatsoever ; so that what-
soever shall be done to the least of us for that cause shall be
taken as done to us all in general, and to every one of us in
particular ; and that we shall neither directly or indirectly suffer
ourselves to be divided or withdrawn by whatsoever suggestion,
combination, allurement or terror from this blessed and loyal
conjunction ; nor shall cast in any let or impediment that may
stay or hinder any such resolution as by common consent shall
be found to conduce for so good ends; but on the contrary
shall by all lawful means labour to further and promote the
same ; and if any such dangerous and divisive motion be made
to us by word or writ, we and every one of us shall either
suppress it or (if need be) shall incontinently make the same
known, that it may be timously obviated. Neither do we fear
the foul aspersions of rebellion, combination or what else our
adversaries from their craft and malice would put upon us,
seeing what we do is so well warranted, and ariseth from an
unfeigned desire to maintain the true worship of God, the
majesty of our King, and the peace of the kingdom, for the
common happiness of ourselves and posterity. And because
we cannot look for a blessing from God upon our proceedings,
except with our profession and subscription, we join such a life
and conversation as beseemeth Christians who have renewed
their covenant with God ; we therefore &ithfully promise, for

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134 Constitutional Documents [1640

ourselves, our followers, and all other under us, both in public,
in our particular families and personal carriage, to endeavour
to keep ourselves within the bounds of Christian liberty, and to
be good examples to others of all godliness, soberness and
righteousness, and of every duty we owe to Goid and man;
and that this our union and conjunction may be observed without
violation we call the living God, the searcher of our hearts to
witness, who knoweth this to be our sincere desire and unfeigned
resolution, as we shall answer to Jesus Christ in the great day,
and under the pain of God's everlasting wrath, and of infamy,
and of loss of all honour and respect in this world; most humbly
beseeching the Lord to strengthen us by His Holy Spirit for
this end, and to bless our desires and proceedings with a happy
success, that religion and righteousness may flourish in the land,
to the glory of God, the honour of our King, and peace and
comfort of us all.

In witness whereof we have subscribed with our hands all
the premises, &c.

24. Petition of Twelve Peers for the summoning of a

NEW Parliament.

[August 28, 1640. State Papers, Charles I, Domestic, occdxy. i6.
See HiaL of Bngl. ix. 199.]

To the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
The humble Petition of your Majesty^ a most h^al and obedient
ml^ectSj whose names are here underwritten in behalf of
tliemselves and divers others.

Mpst^Gjacious Sovereign,
The..fiflnfia,of that duty and seryi^je^which^we owe to your
Sacred Majesty, ancPour earnest affection to the good and
welfare oTthis your realm of England, have moyed^us in all
humility to boo eee h yoiy Koyal Majesty t^^ive us leave to offer
unto jour princely wisdom the apprehension which we and
other your fait^ul^Twbjects have conceived of the great dis-
tempers and dangers now threatening the Church and State
and your Koyal person, and the fittest means by which they
may be removed and prevented.

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t64o] Petition of Twelve Peers 135

The evils and dangers whereof your Majesty may be pleased
to take notice are these :

That your Majesty's sacred person is exposed to hazard and
danger in the present expedition against the Scottish army,
and by occasion of this war your reyenue is much wasted, your
subjects burdened with coat-and-conduct-money, billeting of
soldiers, and other military charges, and divers rapines and
disorders committed in several parts in this your realm, by the
soldiers raised for that service, and your whole kingdom become
fall of fear and discontents.

The sundry innovations in matters of religion, the oath and
canons lately imposed upon the clergy and other your Majesty's

The great increase of Popery, and employing of Popish Be-
cusants, and othe'rs ill-s3ected to the religion by law established
in places of power and trust, especially in commanding of men
and arms both in the field and in sundry counties of this your
realm, whereas by the laws they are not permitted to have
arms in their own houses.

Thft-fflsftftt mjachiftfa which may fall upon this kingdom if the
intentions which have been credibly reported, of bringing in
Irish and foreign forces, shall take effect.

The urging nf phinmnnry, and prosecution of some sheriffs
in the Star Chamberfbr not levying of it.

Th a heavy charg esof merchandise to the discouragement of
ti^^ade, the multitude oTmonopoIiei, "and otTier^ratents, whereby
the commodities and manufactures of the kingdom are much
burthened, to the great and universal grievance of your people.

The great grief of your subjects by the long intermission of
Parliaments, in the late and former dissolving of such as have
been called, without the hoped effects which otherwise they
might have procured.

•For remedy whereof, and prevention of the dangers that may
ensue to your royal persQ ia^and to the wjiiale-state, they do in all
KtrjpiUfy^^TwfToifKftiiTioqii b^sftp^^^"** "'""^' TT-^-z^AllAnf Majcsty
thatxfi}! vfOJiLdbe p leased to Bu mmop,aJKar?iament within some
short, aa^^Cftftyfifti^nOime, whereby the causes of these and other
great grievances which your people lie under may be taken
away, and the authors and counsellors of them may be there

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136 Constitutional Documents

brought to Buch legal trial and condign punishment as the nature
of the several offences shall require, and that the present war
may be composed by your Majesty's wisdom without bloodshed,
in such manner as may conduce to the honour and safety of your
Majesty's person, the comforts of your people, and the uniting
of boUi of your realms against the conmion enemies of the
reformed religion. And your Majesty's petitioners shall ever
pray, &c.

Butland. Bolingbroke.

Fra. Bedford. Mulgrave.

W. Hertford. W. Say and Sele.

Rob. Essex. Rob. Brooke.

Exeter. E. Mandeyille \

Warwick. Ed. Howard (of Esorick) •.

26. The King's Wbit summonino the Gbeat Council.

[September 7, 1640. Bashworth, iii. 1257. See^Sw^. of Engl, ix. aoi.]

Rex Reverendissimo in Christo Patri ac fideli consiliario nostro
Willielmo eadem gratia Cantuar. Archiepiscopo, totius Angliae
primati et Metropolitano salutem. Quia super quibusdam arduis
et urgentissimis negotiis nos et Regni nostri statum Coronaeque
nostrae Jura specialiter concementibus vobiscum et cum aliis
Praelatis, Magnatibus et Proceribus ipsius Regni apud civitatem
nostram Ebor. die Jovis, 24 die instantis mensis Septembris
colloquium habere volumus et tractatum, vobis in fide et dilectione
quibus nobis tenemini firmiter injungimus et mandamus, quod
cessante excusatione quacunque, dictis die et loco personaliter
intersitis nobiscum et cum Praelatis, Magnatibus et Proceribus
praedictis super dictis negotiis tractaturi yestrumque consilium
impensuri, et hoc sicut nos et honorem nostrum ac tranquillitatem
regni nostri juriumque nostrorum praedictomm diligitis, nulla-
tenus omittatis. Teste etc. 7 Sept.

* Baron Kimbolton in his own right.

* The signatures as here given are no doubt the correct ones, as the copy
on which tiiey appear has a note on it in Nicholas's hand. Other copies
with a different set of signatures were in circulation, one of which, contain-
ing several errors, appears in Bushworth. As the signatures are scattered
about the paper, I have placed them in order of precedence.

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^26. Thb Root akd Bbakoh Petition.

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