Samuel Sloan.

Sloan's constructive architecture : a guide to the practical builder and mechanic. In which is contained a series of designs for domes, roofs and spires, with a number of plates showing the interior construction and finish of bays, window shutters, sliding doors, etc., designed expressly for the joi online

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Online LibrarySamuel SloanSloan's constructive architecture : a guide to the practical builder and mechanic. In which is contained a series of designs for domes, roofs and spires, with a number of plates showing the interior construction and finish of bays, window shutters, sliding doors, etc., designed expressly for the joi → online text (page 8 of 13)
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of the height of the column, as in the other orders ; which is a trifle less than in any of the
ancient examples. The base is Attic, as it is in most of the Roman antiques, and the shaft of
the column may be cither plain or fluted, with twenty-four or twenty flutings only, the plan of
which flutings should be a trifle more than semicircular ; because, when so executed, they arc
more distinctly marked. The fillets, or intervals between the flutes, should not be much broader
than one -third of their width, nor narrower than one-quarter. The ornaments of the capital
should correspond with the flutes of the shaft ; and there should be an ove or dart, according
to the strict rules of the Romans, over the middle of each flute.

The three parts of the Ionic entablature, as represented in this plate, bear the same propor-
tion to each other, as in the Tuscan order; the frieze is plain, as being the most suitable to the
simplicity of the rest of the composition ; and the coimice is almost an exact copy — without the
enrichments — from Vignola's design, in which there is a purity of form, a grandeur of style, and
a close conformity to the most approved specimens of the ancients, not to be equaled in any of
the profiles of his competitors.

If it be requisite to reduce the Ionic entablature to two-ninths of the height of the column,
which in most cases is preferable to that of one-quarter, it may easily be accomplished by making
the module of the entablature less, by one-ninth, than the semi-diameter of the column ; after-
wards dividing it as usual, and strictly observing the same dimensions as are figured on the plate.
The distribution of the dentil-band will, in such case, answer very nearly in all the regular inter-
columniations, and in the extreme angle there will be a dentil, as there is in the best examples
of the antique.

In the decorations of the interior of all apartments, when much delicacy is requisite, and
the eye has to contemplate diminutive objects, the height of the entablature may be reduced
even to one-fifth of the column, by observing the same method, and making the module only four-
fifths of the semi-diameter.

(80)



THE FIVPJ ORDKRH OF ARCHITECTURE. 81



ROMAN CORINTHIAN ORDER.

Although the Romans in all probability borrowed the idea of this order from the
Greeks, and cannot therefore rightly lay claim to its invention, they are fully entitled
to the praise due to its perfection; the order, as far as we know it, is rather Roman
than Greek. We cannot be said to know of more than three examples in Greece,
and these are the Tower of the Winds, the Monument of Lysicrates, and the Temple
of Jupiter at Olympia; there are others, it is true, as the Temple of Jupiter Olym-
pius at Athens, but this was erected long after the order had been practised by the
Romans. The principal Italian specimens are the Temple of Jupiter Stater, three
columns of which remain in the Campo, Rome ; the Pantheon ; the Temple of Vesta,
or the Sibyl, at Tivoli; the temples of Mars Ultor, Jupiter Capitolinus, Vesta at
Rome, Antonius and Faustina, and of Jupiter Tonans. Among all the specimens
which have come to our knowledge there are not two alike; they all vary in detail,
and some very much so; some fragments bear evidence of the introduction of figures
of animals, etc.

The Romans, in borrowing their architecture from the Greeks, appear to have
indiscriminately employed the Corinthian order, which they found possessed of an
ornamental character adapted to the splendor and magnificence of their taste, in the
same manner that the early Greeks used the Doric, and the lonians the order which
bears their name.

The orders of Architecture appear to be altogether national; thus the numerous
temples of Greece and its Sicilian colonies are Doric, and bear one general character;
the Ionian cities present the best, the most elegant, and chaste examples of the Ionic
order; while Italy, Balbec, and Palmyra, exhibit the Corinthian almost to the exclu-
sion of any other.

Some writers suppose that the Corinthian arose naturally out of the Doric order,
while most modern writers are of opinion that the capital was invented by the Egyp-
tians; yet, although many bell-formed capitals are to be found among the ruins of
Egypt, the Corinthian is superior to anything yet discovered there; and even in the
present day, this capital exhibits the utmost elegance, beauty, and richness, that have
ever been attained in architectural composition, though many attempts have been
made to excel it.

L



PLATE XXXV.

Is a finished elevation of tlic Corinthian base, capital, and entablature, with the proportions of the
members figured in minutes.

The example here chosen is from the three famed columns in the Campo Vaccine at Rome,
supposed to be the remains of the Temple of Jupiter Stater, and certainly one of the most perfect
and elegant remains of this order that antiquity can produce.

It may be well, in lieu of a more extended notice of the example, to append a general
description of the standard form of this order, for the details vary to a considerable extent in
different examples : The average height of the column, inclusive of capital and base, taking a mean
proportional between those of the Pantheon .and the Temple of Jupiter Stater, is ten diameters, the
shaft containing eight, and the remaining two being made up in the capital and base. The shaft
in the ancient examples was almost invariably fluted, and the flutes occasionally filled to about one-
third of their height with cabling; the number of the flutes is generally twenty-four, as in the
Ionic order, and arranged in the same manner. The capital is separated from the shaft by an
astragal and cinctm-e, and is in the shape of an inverted bell, ornamented as follows : Imme-
diately above the astragal are two rows of acanthus, or olive leaves, one above the other, each
row consisting of eight leaves ; the upper row is arranged in such a manner as to have one leaf
immediately in the centre of each side of and beneath the abacus, and one under each corner of
the abacus, which, altogether, one in the centre of each side, and one at each angle of the capital,
will make up the eight leaves. The leaves of the lower range are disposed so as to alternate
with those of the upper, or, in other words, the upper leaves rise between the divisions of the lower
ones. Between every two of the leaves of the upper, or second series, rises a stalk, out of which
springs a bunch of foliage, consisting of two leaves, one of which branches toward the centre of the
abacus, and the other toward the angle. Out of each of the leaves, at the angles, proceeds
diagonally a volute, the two at each angle meeting under the abacus, which they support; two
smaller ones, emerging from the central leaves, meet under the centre of the abacus, and are sur-
mounted by a small flower, called the flower of the capital. The abacus is square in its general
plan, with concave sides, curving out toward the angles, which are cut off. The mouldings
consist of a cavetto, fillet, and echinus, the first and last of which are sometimes enriched. The
proper Corinthian base differs from the Ionic or Attic, in having two smaller scotia, separated by
two astragals; both bases, however, arc used indiscriminately, and perhaps the Attic is more gene-
rally employed.

(82)



THE B^IVE OKDERS OP ARCHITECTURE. 83

THE FIVE ORDERS ARRANGED IN PARTS.

In the six preceding plates are contained some of the best and most celebrated
examples of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders, with their several proportions
correctly figured in modules and minutes. And in order still more fully to elucidate
and simplify the arrangement of this important department of our work, and to com-
press within restricted limits all that will be likely to prove most useful and inte-
resting, we here propose to give what may be termed a continuation of the ti'eatment
of the orders, which consists of an arrangement of all of their princij)al parts in
detail, accompanied by simple descriptions. Interspersed with these will be found
the opinions of some of the most eminent among ancient and modern architects on
the " Proportions of the Orders," etc., collected from standard authorities and ar-
ranged with perspicuity.



THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE TUSCAN ORDER.

Divide the given height for this whole order into ten parts, of which take two
for that of the pedestal; and then divide the remaining eight parts into five, giving
one of these to the altitude of the entablature, and the other four to the length of
the column, inclusive of the base and capital ; by these means the entablature is made
one-fourth of the length of the column.

The entablature is divided into seven parts, of which two are given to the archi-
trave, two to the frieze, and three to the cornice. Observe, also, that four of these
parts are equal to the diameter of the column, and that seven of these diameters
form its height. The altitude of the pedestal is divided into six parts, two being
for the base and plinth, three for the height of the dado, and one for that of the cap.
In order to find the breadth of the dado, the diameter of the column is divided into
five parts, and seven such proportional parts form the breadth, and also determine
the projection of the base of the column.

The proportion of the base of the pedestal may be found by dividing the two
parts allotted for the base and plinth into three, and giving one of these to the base
and the remaining two to the plinth ; the projection of the base and cap of the pedestal
is equal to the height of the former.



PLATE XXXVI. «

THE TUSCAN PEDESTAL, WITH PART OP THE SHAFT OP THE COLUMN

AND ITS BASE.

The altitude of the base of the column is half a diameter; this is divided into two equal
parts, one of which is given to the plinth ; the remaining part is again divided into four, of which
one is given to the fillet, and three to the torus.

The whole projection is equal to one-fifth of the diameter of the column; and the projection
of the fillet equals its height.

The altitude of the base, plinth, and cap of the pedestal has been already shown, but in
order to find the pi'oportions of the several members, the base is divided into three parts, of which
one is given to the fillet, and two to the hollow.

The altitude of the cap is divided into four parts, of which one is allowed to the ogee, two to
the corona, and one to the band at the top. In regard to the projections, they both equal the
altitude of the base; and being each divided into three parts, the projection of the several mem-
bers may readily be obtained.

(84)



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^TUE FIVE ORDERS OF ARC UITECTURE. 85



GENERxVL REMARKS ON THE TUSCAN ORDER.

The Tuscan is the simplest and most solid of the orders. It is composed of
few and large parts, and is of a construction so massive that it seems capable of sup-
porting the heaviest burdens; whence it is by Sir Henry Wotton compared to a sturdy
laborer, dressed in homely apparel.

This order will not admit of ornaments of any kind; on the contrary, it is some-
times customary to represent in the shaft of its column rustic cinctures, as at the
Luxembourg in Paris, and in many buildings of considerable note in London. This
practice, though frequent and to be met with in many of the works of distinguished
architects, is not always excusable, and should be indulged in with great caution, as
it is calculated to hide the robust, characteristic, and truly rustic, but manly figure of
the column, and also alters the proportions and aflfects the simplicity of the entire
composition. Few examples of these bandages are to be found in ancient remains;
and, in general, it is advisable to avoid them in all large designs, reserving the rustic
work for the rntercolumniating, where it may be employed with great propriety, and
will serve to produce such a contrast as at once renders the aspect of the entire com-
position perfect, distinct, and striking.

But in smaller works, where the parts are few and easily comprehended, rustic
cinctm'es may be sometimes introduced and sanctioned, as they serve to diversify the
forms, produce strong and impressive contrasts, and contribute most essentially to the
bold and masculine effect of the composition.



PLATE XXXVII.

THE TUSCAN ENTABLATURE AND CAPITAL.

The -ivliolc altitude of the entablature being equal to one and three-fourths of a diameter, and
the principal heights of the architrave, frieze, and cornice having been set off, the architrave is
next divided into six parts, of which two are given to the first face, three to the second, and one
to the band at the top.

The projection of the band is equal to its altitude, and that of the second face is one-third
of the foregoing.

The altitude of the cornice is divided into nine parts, (or rather each principal third into
three,) and of these one and a half are given to the hollow ; one-half to the fillet ; one and a half
to the ovolo; two to the corona; one-half to the fillet; two to the cyma-recta; and one to the
upper fillet.

The projection of the cornice is equal to its altitude, and is similarly divided; and the pro-
jections of the several members are thus made so apparent on the plate, as to render further
description unnecessary.

The capital is half a diameter in height, and is divided into three parts, of which one is
given to the frieze of the capital ; another to the ovolo and fillet, of which the latter has one-
fourth; and the remaining part to the abacus. To find the projection of the capital, divide the
diameter of the column at the top into six equal parts, and give one of these to each side of the
abacus; the whole of which will thus form eight parts, as described.

The astragal or collarino is equal to one-third of the frieze of the capital in height, and that
of the fillet is equal to one-half of the astragal; the projection of each of these equals their
height. It may be remarked, that the proportions for this moulding serve for those in all the
other orders.

(86)



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THE FIVE ORDERS OP ARCHITECTURE. 87



THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE DORIC ORDER.



An altitude having been proposed for this whole order, divide it first into ten
parts, of which allow two to the pedestal, and make the remaining eight parts into
five ; then give four of these to the base, shaft, and capital of the column, and reserve
the other for the entablature, which must be again subdivided into four parts, of which
two will form the diameter of the column. Thus the column will be eight diameters
in height, and the entablature one-fourth of the length of the column. Of the four
divisions of the entablature, one is given to the architrave, one and a half to the
frieze, and one and a half to the cornice.

The architrave projects one-sixth of its height, and the projection of the cornice
equals the diameter of the column. The height of the pedestal is divided into seven
parts, of which two are given to the base and plinth, four to the dado, and one to
the cap.

The column diminishes one-sixth of its diameter in the upper two-thirds of the
length of the shaft. If the lower diameter of the shaft be divided into five parts,
and one of these added to each side, the whole will give the projection of the base,
and also the breadth of the dado of the pedestal, which thus forms a perfect square.

The base of the pedestal contains one-third of the two parts allotted for the base
and plinth; its projection equals its height; the cap projects four-fifths of its height.



PLATE XXXVIII.



THE DORIC PEDESTAL, WITH PART OP THE SHAFT OF THE COLUMN

AND ITS BASE.

The height of the base of column is half its diameter, and the projection gives the breadth of
the pedestal, -which is one diameter and two-fifths. The several heights of the jjlinth, base, and
cap of the pedestal are described on the preceding page. To find the proportions of the indi-
vidual members, divide the height of the base into six parts, of which three are given to the
torus; one to the fillet; and two to the hollow; the projections being figured in parts, are easily
obtained by a reference to the plate. The cap is divided into five parts, of which one is given
to the hollow ; half a part to the fillet ; one and a half to the ovolo ; one and a half to the
corona; and half a part to the fillet at the top. The whole projection of the cap equals four-
fifths of its height; and that of each particular member may be seen upon the plate.

The height of the base of the column has three divisions ; the lower one of these being
reserved for the plinth, the upper torus receives a half of the corresponding division ; and the
whole of the remainder, as will be seen by the plate, is divided equally between the lower torus
and the portion embracing the scotia and the fillets ; the half which contains these is again sub-
divided into six parts, of which the scotia receives four, and the fillets the remaining two. The
whole projection of the base is one-fifth of the diameter, and is divided into three parts, of which
one forms the projection of the upper fillet, and two are given to that of the upper torus. All of
these heights and projections are fully explained in the example.

On the lower part of the shaft is described the plan for fluting the column. The flutes
should be twenty in number, merely separated by an edge or arris. A and B denote different
methods of finding the form or depth of the flutes.

(88)



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THE FIVE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE. 89



GENERAL REMARKS ON THE DORIC ORDER.

The Doric order, next in strength to the Tuscan, and of a grave, robust, or
masculine aspect, is, by Scamozzi, called the Herculean. Being the most ancient of
all the orders it is more primitive in its form than any of the others, having triglyphs
in the frieze to represent the ends of joists, and mutules in its cornice to represent
rafters, with inclined soffits to express their direction in the originals, from which
they were imitated. The Doric columns are often seen in ancient works, executed
without bases, in imitation of trees ; and, in the primitive buildings, without any plinths
to raise them above the ground.

Freart de Cambrai, in speaking of this order, observes that dehcate ornaments
are repugnant to its characteristic soHdity, and that it succeeds best in the simple
regularity of its proportions. " Nosegays and garlands of flowers," says he, " grace
not a Hercules, who always appears more becomingly with a rough club and lion's
skin; for there are beauties of various sorts, and often so dissimilar in their natures,
that those which may be highly proper on one occasion may be quite the reverse,
even ridiculously absurd, in others."

In most of the antiques, the Doric column is found to have been executed without
a base; this is particularly observable in examining the remains of Grecian examples.
Vitruvius also makes it without one; the base, according to this author, having been
first employed in the Ionic order to imitate the sandal or covering of a woman's
foot. Scamozzi blames this practice, and most of the moderns have been of his
opinion; the Attic base is now generally employed in this order.

Chambers says, that the ancients employed the Doric in temples dedicated to
Minerva, to Mars, and to Hercules, whose grave and manly dispositions suited well
with its character; and Serlio remarks that it is proper for churches dedicated to
saints remarkable for their fortitude in exposing their lives, and suffering for the
Christian faith. It may be employed in private dwellings; and is particularly well
adapted for columns erected to the memory of brave men, or intended to commemorate
great victories or heroic actions.



PLATE XXXIX.

THE DORIC ENTABLATURE AND CAPITAL.

As previouslj mentioned, the whole height of this entablature, -which consists of two diameters,
is divided into four parts, of which the architrave receives one ; the frieze one and a half ; and
the cornice one and a half. To find the proportions of the several members, the architrave is
divided into six parts ; two of these are given to the first face, three to the second, and one to
the band at the top. The drops on the second face have one of its parts, of which their fillet
receives one-third; their projection also equals a part. The frieze is embellished with triglyphs,
which are half a diameter in breadth ; one of these must be placed over the centre of the column ;
and the space between each is termed the metope, which should be equal to the height of the
frieze. The triglyphs arc each divided into twelve parts, of which one is allowed to each half
channel, two to each whole channel, and two to each of the spaces between the channels ; the
projection is one aad a half of these parts. The height of the cornice is divided into three
parts, and the lower of these is subdivided into three smaller parts, one of which gives the height
of the cap of the triglyph ; another that of the hollow and fillet ; and the remaining one that of
the ovolo. The other two parts are divided into seven. Of these two are given to the mutule
and its cap ; two to the corona ; one to the cyma-reversa and its fillet ; and two to the cyma-
recta and its fillet. The smaller divisions are easily discovered on the plate. The projections
are divided into four parts proportional to the three which constitute the height; and the first
of these is again subdivided into three, of which one is given to the cap of the triglyph ; another
to the cavetto ; and the other to the ovolo. The other part is also subdivided into seven, which
regulate those of the cyma and corona, as may be seen on the plate.

The altitude of the capital is divided into three parts ; one of these gives the height of the
frieze ; another the fillets and ovolo ; and the third the abacus, cyma-reversa, and fillets. The
minor subdivisions are figured on the plate. The projection of the capital equals the height of
the frieze and fillet, and its subdivisions, which are four, designate the projections of the several
members, as will be seen by inspection.

(90)



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THE FIVE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE. 91



THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE IONIC ORDER.

Divide the whole given height for this order into ten parts, of which apportion
two for that of the pedestal; and then make the remaining eight parts into six, of
which five constitute the length of the column, (inclusive of the capital and base,)
and the one which remains is the height of the entablature. The length of the
column being divided into nine parts, one of these will form the diameter of the
column, by which the proportions of several of the smaller members are regulated.

The height of the entablature is divided into six parts, of which two are given
to the architrave, one and a half to the frieze, and two and a half to the cornice.
The projection of the architrave is one-fourth of its height; and that of the cornice
is equal to its height.

The height of the pedestal is divided into seven parts, of which two are given
to the base and plinth, four to the dado, and one to the cap.

The diameter of the column is diminished from a point taken at the commence-
ment of the second third of the shaft, in the same manner as that of the preceding
order; and the base of the column has a similar projection, which also gives a like
breadth to the dado of the pedestal.

The base of the pedestal forms one-third of the two parts allowed as the pro-
portion of the height for the base and plinth ; and its projection is equal to its height.
The projection of the cap is equal to three-fourths of its height.



PLATE XL.

THE IONIC PEDESTAL, WITH PART OF THE SHAFT OF THE COLUMN

AND ITS BASE.

The height of the base of the column in this order is equal to the half of its diameter; and
the projection is equal to one-fifth of the -whole. This also gives the breadth of the pedestal.

The heights of the plinth, base, and cap of the pedestal have been fully described in the
preceding page; but in order to apportion the heights of the several members, that of the base
is divided into four parts, of which one-half part is given to the fillet; two to the cyma; another
half to the fillet; and one to the hollow. The projection is equal to the height, and being simi-
larly divided into parts, the proportion of each member may be readily seen by reference to the


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Online LibrarySamuel SloanSloan's constructive architecture : a guide to the practical builder and mechanic. In which is contained a series of designs for domes, roofs and spires, with a number of plates showing the interior construction and finish of bays, window shutters, sliding doors, etc., designed expressly for the joi → online text (page 8 of 13)