Samuel W Durant.

History of Oneida County, New York : with illustrations and biographical sketches of some of its prominent men and pioneers online

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Online LibrarySamuel W DurantHistory of Oneida County, New York : with illustrations and biographical sketches of some of its prominent men and pioneers → online text (page 65 of 192)
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86


1849




69


1850




61


1851




24









Teahs.




■a


If-


•11
•it

n


■g-d.

It-


11'
II


IJ


■3
P


1862......


390
424
. 390
276
242
235
333
312
337
295
287
287
319
366
388
401
382
463
481
616
399
410
368
432
436
460


400
403
386

. 278
236
245
282
295
339
280
305
267
289
305

. 362
439
415
430'
441
576
447
365
376

■ 369
606
444


826

849

836

726

697

606

784

814

866

812

819

801

863

920

1003

1042

985

1033

1084

1159

982

,946

948

1004

1071

1026


155
169
164
128
100

95
114
114
106

83
196

80
■ 109
113
164
169
16-7
166'
153
168
142
. 122
123
132
142
148


53
66
42
15
33
25
33
' 67
66
58
51
38.
44"
35
39
58
85,^
85

■ 72
. 85

73
42,
53,

■ 37
53
61


152

129

115

79

65

83

99

86

133

104

115

101

84

91

106

164

105

117

134

245

166

141

138

1.34

237

160




39


1853?.....




39


1884




65


1856

1856

1857

1858

1859..:...

1860

iS61

1862

1863

1864

1866

1866

1867

1868......

1869

1870......

1871

1872:

1873

1874

1876

1876

1877


16

8

10

5

3

3

4

3

6

4

9

9

7

10

8

7

17

14

11

14

5

13

15


32
30
32
31
35
42
31
30
42
48
67
44
61
68
64
75
61
62-
49
48
61
60
60



Table showing the percentage of recoveries on the average
population and admissions for' thirty-Jive years.





On Average Population. '


On Admibbioxs.


Yeakb.


Avemge
Popula-
tion:


Recov-
ered.


Percent-
age.


Admit-
ted.


Recov-
ered.


Percent-
age.


1843


106
236
266
283
415
474
464
433
440
441
423
444
467
454
463
489
609
616
619
526
528
560
691
643
610
689
600
629
605
688
563
581
695
616
607


53
132
136
133
187
174
203
171
112
156
169
164
128
100

95
114
114
105

83
106

80
109
113
164
159
157
156
153
168
142
122
123
132
142
148


48.62

56.93

50.94

46.99

46.06

36,70

44.71 '

39,49

23.45

35.37

39.95

37.16

27.40

22.24'

20.62

23.31

22.40'

20.33

16.99

20.16

15.15

19.46

18.95

26.60

26.00

26.65

26.00

24.32

27.76

24.00

21.67

21.17

22.17

23.09

24.38


276
275
293
337
428
405
362
367
366
390
424
390
275
242
235
333
312
337
295
287
282
319
356
388
401
382
463
481
616
399
410
. 368
432
436
460


53
132
135
133-
187
174
203
171
112
-166
169
164
128
100

95
114
114
106

83
106

80,
109
113
164
159
167
156
1.53
168
142
122
123
132
142
148


19 20


1844


48.80


1846.


46 07


1846


39.46


1847

1848


43.60
42.96


1849


56.07


1850


46.59


1851


36.60


1852


40.00


1853

1854


39.85
42.05


1855


46.54


1856


41.73


1867


40.42


1868


34.23


1859


36.54


1860


31.15


1861


27.46


1862...


36.93


1863

1864


27.87
31.02


1865


31.74


1866


42.26


1867


40.25


1868


41.78


1869


34.61


1870


32.48


1871


33.40


1872


37.22


1873 ;


30.78


1874.


34.22


1875


31.35


1876


33.67


1877


33.26









The whole number of patients at the commencement of
the year 1877 was 566,-304 men and 262 women. Re^
ceived during the year, 460,-234 men and 226 women.
Whole number treated, 1026,-538 men and 488 women.
Daily average under treatment, 608.



HISTORY OP ONEIDA COUNTY, NEW YORK.



231:



Men. Women. Total.

Discharged recovered 71 77 148

- " improved 28 33 61

" unimproved 100 60 160

" not insane 15 ... 15

Died 37 23 60

251 193 444

Remaining Nov. 30, 1877 287 295 682

Of the 160 discharged unimproved 36 were transferred
to the Willard Asylum for Chronic Insane, 73 were placed
in charge of county officers, and by them removed to county
asylums or the Willard Asylum, and 50 were returned to
their homes under care of their friends.

The products of the farm as returned by the steward
amounted in the gross to a cash value of $14,981.16, and
the matron reports the number of articles s>{ clothing, etc.,
made In the female department at 8811, without giving an
estimate of their value; and number mended, 27,069.
Total value of stock on hand and slaughtered during the
year, $2844.39. Cost of same, $2708.05 ; net increase,
$136.34. Total expense of the institution for the year,
including additions, alterations, etc., $220,577.50. The-
atrical and musical entertainments are given occasionally
by friends of the institution.

Officers-^Dr. Brigham acted as superintendent until
Sept. 8, 1849, when he died, and on the 3d of November
following, Dr. Nathan D. Benedict, of Blockley Hospital,
Philadelphia, was appointed, and entered upon his duties
December 8, of the same year. Dr. George Cook, first as-
sistant physician, was acting superintendent in the interim
between Drs. Brigham and Benedict. Dr. Benedict was
taken sick in June, 1853, and was granted leave of absence
in consequence for one year. He never returned to the
institution. Dr. John P. Gray, the present incumbent,
then assistant physician, was temporarily assigned to the
position^ and regularly appointed superintendent in July,
1854, and has exercised its duties with great acceptability
to the present time, a period of twenty-four years.

During all these years he has constantly given his time
and valuable experience for the good of the institution, and
has had the satisfaction of seeing it grow up from small
beginnings, and imperfect construction and arrangements,
to its present mammoth proportions and perfection of ar-
rangement and detail, placing it in the foremost rank among
the great public charities of the Union and the world.

The institution from its inception to the present time has
had only two different individuals as treasurers, to wit: Mr.
Edmund A. Wetmore, from 1843 to 1873, and Mr. Thomas
W. Seward, the present incumbent.

The following are the present officers : Managers, Samuel
Campbell, New York Mills; Francis Kernan, Utica; S. 0.
Vanderpoel, M.D., Stapleton ; Alexander S. Johnson,*
Utica; Theodore Pomeroy, Utica ; James McQuade, New
York,; George B. Anderson, Hawkinsville ; Peter Clogher,
Utica; Arthur M. Beardsley, Utica; Treasurer, Thomas
W. Seward, Utica; Resident Officers, John P. Gray, M.D.,
LL.D., Superintendent and Physician ; Judson B. Andrews,
M.D., First Assistant Physician; Willis E. Ford, M.D.,
Second Assistant Physician ; Alfred T. Livingston, M.D.,
Third Assistant Physician; Timothy F. Kenrick, M.D.,

* Since deceased.



Fourth Assistant Physician ; Theodore Deecke, Special
Pathologist; Horatio N. Dryer, Steward; Emma Barker,
Matron ; Chaplain, Rev. William T. Gibson, D.D., Utica.

CENTRAL NEW YORK INSTITUTE FOR DEAF AND DUMB^f

The number of the deaf, or defectives, as scientists are fond
of calling them, in the State of New York is simply appalling.-
There are at present under instruction fully 1100, and there
are nearly a quarter as many more not as yet in school.

The Central New York Institution for Deaf Mutes was
established March 22, 1875, and at once took its place
among the schools of the land as a remarkably successful-
institution. So great was its reputation, in fact, that parents
from distant States sought admission for their deaf children,
but its benefits, chiefly on account of its limited accommo-
dations for pupils, have never been allowed to extend be-
yond the borders of the Empire State. The applications
for admission have always been larger than the capacity of
the school, and they are steadily increasing. In so great a
degree, in truth, that when the contemplated new structure
is erected, it is problematical if all applicants can even then be
taken. However that may be, the mission of the school is to
supply the pressing wants of the deaf of Central New York,
and to furnish them a means of instruction under systems
and modes the best in the land, and to prepare them for
citizenship as useful and honest, certainly, if not as brilliant
and renowned, as that which marks the paths of the grad-
uates of most of our colleges.

The institution receives direct support from the State
and the counties from which its pupils come; on a per
capita basis, which is fixed at a sum sufficient for proper
support and education and no more; Hence, when it is
proposed to build a structure adapted to the ever-pressing
needs of this peculiar class, the financial part of the work
becouies a problem at once grave and difficult.

The per capita State support, without which it could not
exist, takes the institution at once out of the line of general
public charity, at least to the extent of giving it a building,
and makes it a semi-Stat« institution. Economy of struc-
ture and plainness, with no sacrificing to elegance, but
everything to convenience, appropriate to the work and to
the substantial, are the characteristics of the plans the in-
stitution has drawn for an edifice of brick, capable of
accommodating over 200 pupils and their officers. A local
builder stands ready to put up the necessary pile exactly as
called for in the contract, and throw in additional heating
apparatus and boiler conveniences, for the remarkably small
sum of $60,000.

The institution at present occupies nine buildings, sit-
uated on Madison Street, — one, a commodious school-house
with a chapel on the second floor, is its own building, hav
ing been erected in the summer of 1877. Excepting the
hospital, which takes up all of one building, and is properly
isolated, all the rest .are used for general living purposes.
Of course, there cannot be that system that would exist
were all under one roof; but each pupil has a comfortable
bed and warm rooms in winter. The table is always sub-
stantial, as the health of the school, remarkable for a col-

t By Prof. B. B. Nelson, Principal.



238.



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY, NEW YORK.:



lection of; deaf mutes, all more or less predisposed to
disease,, bears ample testimony. One building is ^occupied
for laundry uses, and a small one is utilized as a general
repair-, shoe-, and carpenter's shop, in which the few pupils
that can be employed show themselves good masters of the
ti'ades, Tl^e attendance during the past year was 110.
Arrangemeiits will be made to take a few additional at the
Gommencement of the next ; but, as before indicated, the
institution can hardly begin to accommodate all that apply.
The other statistiqs of the institution are a board of fifteen
trjistees,, a principal, six instructors, a matron, two assistant
matrons, a housekeeper, a nurse, a, care-taker,, a supervisor,
and about fifteen common servants. The expenses for the
year at its fiscal closej Sept. 30, 1878, will beaboutJSO^OOO.

', " '\ RELIGIOUS. ',,'■'

The French Jesuits were the earliest propagators of
Christianity, in this region. Their first missionary, the
Rev. Father James Bruyas, came among the Muhawlcs,
OueidaSy and., Oiwndaffas in 1667, and labored for some
time, but with indifferent success, In 1671 he was suc-
ceeded by Rev.. Father Milet. But though the Catholic
missionaries practiced the most wonderful self-denial, and
braved danger and death in their efforts to Christianize the
savages, they really made very little impression upon them.
- The earliest permanent Protestant attempt to establish
religious instruction among the Indians, of this section was
made by Rev. Samuel Kirkland, whp located at (?a-Ho-a-Zo'-
Jiale, or /Oneida Castloj in July, 1766, about one hundred
years after the advent of the first Catholic missionary. He
was reasonably successful, and remained, with the, exception
of a few intervals, until the time of his death in 1808..

The earliest congregations gathered among the white, set-.
tiers were in the towns of New Hartford and Kirkland in
the summer of 1791, though there had been preaching in
the latter town by Rev. Samuel Eells in 1788.

The Rev. Jonathan Edwards visited. this region in 1791
and organized churches of the Presbyterian and Congrega-
tional denominations at Clinton and New Hartford.

, The Presbyterians organized churches in various parts
of the county at an early day. Whitestown and old Fort
Schuyler, as Utica was then called, united and formed a
society in 1793-94; Westmoreland in 1792 ; Trenton (at
Holland Patent) in 1797 ; Bridgewater in 1798.

The Congregationalists organized in Sangerfield in 1795-
96 ; in Augusta, Lee, and Marshall about 1797 ; in Cam-
den, 1798; in Roine, 1800 ; in Vernon, 1801 ; in Verona,
1803 ; and in Boonville, 1805. The Welsh organized in
1801, in Utica.

The Methodist Episcopal denomination had preachers in
the county as early as 1794. In 1799 a class was foi'med
in Rome, and in Westmoreland as early as 1795-98. The
first Methodist society organized in Utica in 1808.

The Baptists were also here at a very early date. A
church was organized in Whitestown in 1796 ; one in
Paris in 1797;, in Deerfield, Sangerfield, Western, and
Rome in 1798; the Welsh Baptists in Utica in 179^,
1800 ; and in Floyd and Vernon in 1807.

Episcopal. — Trinity Church was organized in Utica in
1798.



GathoUc. — From the time of the Jesuits until 1819
there was probably no Catholic organization within tha
bounds of Oneida Connty. In the latter year St, John's
Church was organized at Utica, and was tlie fijst in Central or
Western New York.'- This denomination has increased quite
rapidly, and is now strong in numbers and discipline, with
some of the finest church and school property in the county.

iTiiiversalist. — The earliest organfzation of this denomi-
nation' was in Clinton in 1820. Tliis was the parent of
the Universalist Churches in Oneida County, and also of
ttie Clinton Liberal Institute, which has grown up under its
fostering care. The first Universalist, society in Utica was
organized in November, 1825. A society was also gathered
in Bridgewater in 1834.

The lleformed Dutch Church was organized in Utica in
October, 'lS30. ' " ' ' ' ' '' ' '' ' ''[

These were the earliest church organizations in the county.
Other denominations have established churches at a later
date, and many additional ones have sprung' from those first
planted.. The, following general statistics, of churches in
Oneida County are from the census returns. ' For addi-
tional matters, seer histories of the various tqwns and cities.

STATISTICS OP DENOMINATIONS, ACCOKDING TO THE
STATE CENSUS OF 1875, ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED;

Biiptist. — Of this deiiomination tliere were in the county
29 organizations, witli 29 edifices, 10,635 sittings, arid a
membership of 2587. The value of all property belong-
ing to the same was $248,000, and the total annual amount
paid for salaries of clergy was $16,325.

Cahlinslic Me/hodtst. — Organizations 12, with 12 edi^
fices, 3625 sittings, and 625 members. 'Value of property,
118,550. Annual salaries paid, $3004.

Coiigregatwnal:- — Oi'ganizalions 24, with 24 church edi-
fices, 7-155 sittings, and 1851 members. Total value of
church property, $119,400._ Salaries paid, $11,425.

Evangelical Association. — Organization's 4, with 4 edi-
fices, 1150 sittings, and 131 members. Total value of
church property, $13,800. Salaries paid, $2600.

Evangelical Liitlieran. — Organizations 4, with 4 edifices,
1700 sittings, 670 members, and a valuation of $34,500.
Salaries paid, $2600.

Free-will Baptist. — Organization 1, with 1 edifice, 200
sittings, and 40 members. Value of property, $3000.
Salary paid, $600.

Methodist Episcopcd. — Organizations, 58; edifices, 56;
sittings, 19,970; luembership, 4818; value of property,
$408,850; salaries paid, $31,032.

Moravian. — One organization, with 1 edifice, 300 sit-
tings, 250 members, and a valuation of $13,000 ; amount
paid in salary, $500. -

Preshr/teriaii. — Organizations, 25 ; edifices, 25 ; sittings,
11,825; membership, 4186 ; value of property, $496,300;
salaries paid, $29,475.

Protestant Episcopal. — Organizations, 21 ; edifices, 21 ;
Sittings, 8800 ; membership, 2270 ; value of property.
$426,500 ; salaries paid, $18,780.

Reformed Dutch. — One organization, 1 edifice, 550 sit-
tings, 220 members, and a valuation of $88,500 ; salaries
paid, $2500.



HISTORY OF ONEIDA COUNTY, NEW Y OHM.



239



Roman Catholic. — Organizations, 17 ; edifices,' 17; sit-
tiags, 12,623; memberships 12,310 ; value of property,
$603,500 ; salaries paid, 822,420.

Seventh-Day Baptist. — Two organizations, 2 edifices^
525 ' sittings, 120 members, and a valuation of $5100;.
salaries paid, $533.

Union Church. — Organizations, 5; edifices, 5; sittings,
1550 ; members, 274; value of property, $14,600^ salaries
paid, $1500..

Unitarians. — Organizations, 2 ; edifices, 2; sittings,
600 ; members, 12 ;* value of property, $3500 ; salaries
paid, $800.

United Free Melhodikt. — Organizations, 3 ; edifices, 3 ;
sittings, 7-25; members, 165; value of property, $15,900;
salaries paid, $1700.

Universalist. — Organizations, 3 ; edifices, 3 ; sittings,
800 ; .members, 325'; value of property, $15,500 ; salaries
paid, $2080.

Wcdeyan Methodist. — One organization, 1 edifice, 100
sittings; membership not given ; value of property, $1000.



CHAPTER XIX.



STATISTICAL.



Popillatijn — Elections — Imlostry and AVealth — County Societies and
Associations — Valuations and Taxation,,

The population of the territory now constituting the
State of New York from the earliest period, not including
Indians, has been as follows: In 1(J47, the number of men
capable of bearing arms was returned at 300, which would
indicate a total population of 1500. In 1673 the people
■were reckoned at 6000. In 1698 they had increased to
18,007. In 1723 it was given at 40,504, of which Albany
County claimed about 8000, In 1731 it was 50,289, and
Albany County 8573. In 1737 it had risen to 60,437,
and Albany County to 10,681. In 1746 the colony num-
bered 61,589, exclusive of Albany County. In 1749 it
was 73,448. In 1771 it was 168,097, of which Albany
County had 42,706, and was the most populous county in
the colony. In 1774 the colony had 182,247. In 1790
the first State census showed 340,120, which indicated a
prodigious increase in 15 years. In 1800 it was 589,051,
showing a continuous rapid groTvth. In 1810 it stood at
959,049, indicating no falling off in the rate of increase.
A census was taken in 1814, which showed 1,035,910 in-
habitants, and indicated quite a falling off in the percentage
of increase. In 1820 the population was 1,372,812, In
1825 it was 1,616,458; in 1830, 1,918,608; in 1835,
2,174,517; in 1840, 2,428,921; in 1845, 2,604,495; in
1850, 3,097,394 ; in 1855, 3,466,212 ; in 1860, 3,880,735 ;
in 1865, 3,827,818 ;t in 1870, 4,382,759 ; in 1875,
4,698,958.

The percentage of increase from one census to another,
since 1790, has been as follows : From 1790 to 1800, 73.19 ;
1800 to 1810, 62.81 ; 1810 to 1814, 8.01 ; 1814 to 1820,



32.52 ; 1820 to 1825, 17.75 ; 1825 to 1830, 18.69 ; 1830
to 1835, 13.34; 1835 to 1840, 11.70; 1840 to 1845, 7.23;
1845 to 1850, 18.-92 ; 1850 to 1855, 11.91 ; 1855 to 1860,
11.96 ; 1860 to 1S65 (decrease), 1.36 ; 1865 to 1870 (in-
crease), 14.50; 1870 to 1875, 7.21. If will bfe seen that
with the exception of the five years from 18G0 to 1865;
during the War of the Rebellion, there has generally been a
handsome increase ; and it is quite probable that the falling
off in the single instance is more apparent than real, and
mostly owing to an imperfect census. The ' growth of the
State has certainly, on the whole, been gratifying to its
people. The population of each of the twenty-four cities of
the State for 1875, was as follows :



Albany 86,541

Auburn I9,C49

Bin^bainton 15,518

Braolilyn 482,iaa

. Buffalo", i 134,657

Coboes 17,4U:i

Elmira.,: 20,43B.

Hudson 8,734

Kingston ;...... 2(1,445

Loek^iort 12,553

Long Island City 16,587.

Ncwburgh 17.322



Nciy York 1,041,886

Ogflensburg 10,358

Oswego. 22,428

Pougbkeepsie 2U,022

Eoobestcr 81,722^

Rome .-..:...i 12,Z51i

Sobeneotady 12,7.59

Syracuse 48,255

Troy 48,531'

Utiea 32,4U6

Watertown 0,992

Yonkers 17,232



» There is Bomo discrepancy in these figures,
t This return must have been very imperfect.



The urban and suburban population of the State .in 1875
was 3,256,768, and the rural popfflation 1,442,190.' The
increase per cent, in the former for ten years was 34.93, and'
for the latter only 1.99, showing that almost the entire
growth of the State is at present in the cities, towns, and
villages^. The rate per cent, of increase for the cities and
villages of Oneida County for the same period was 23.44,
and the rural population of the county during the same
period fell off 4.76 per cent. The suburban population is'
reckoned in all villages containing 1000 inhabitants. The
population of the county is divided between the two classes
as follows: Cities and villages, 72,276; rural, 42,059.

Total colored population, 603 ; Oneida Indians, 64.

A State' census, taken at various periods, shows the fol-
lowing figures for the county according to the Stale census
report for 1875: Census of 1814, 45,228 ; of 1825,57,847;
of 1835, 77,518; of 1845, 84,776 : of 1855, 107,749 ; of
1865,102,713.

A careful footing of the population by towns for 1840
and 1850 makes a material variation from the totals as given'
in the United States census returns. About 4000 less for
1860. On the whole the advance in population has been
very steady and uniform.

Nationality. — ^Of the total population of the State for
1875, 3,503,300 were native, and 1,195,658 foreign born!
Of the foreign born, 828,499 were in the cities, and 367,-
159 in the State at large. In Oneida County there were
88,500 native and 25,835 foreign born, or about in the
proportion of three and a half of the former to one of the
latter.' The nativity of the population of Oneida County
was as follows : Born in the State, total, 83,033 ; born in-
the county, 64,595 ; born in other counties of the State,
18,438 ; State of Maine, 108 ; New Hampshire, 187 ; Ver-
mont, 587 ; Massachusetts, 1326 ; Rhode Island, 244 ;
Connecticut, 1129 ; New Jersey, 32^ ; Pennsylvania, 386 ;
oth(3r United States, 1178. Foreign : Canada, ' 982 ';
England, 4235 ; the German Empire, 6706 ; Ireland, 8654 ;
Scotland, 684 ; other foreign countries, 4574. Of aliens,
there were 5402.



240



HISTOKY OP ONEIDA COUNTY, NEW YORK.



POPULATION OF ONEIDA COUNTY PROM 1800 TO 1875.



1


1800.


1810.


1820.


1830.


1840.


1860.


1860.


1870.


1876.








1,481
3,058


1,765
2,175


2,688
2,271
1,027
3,309
1,308


2,837
2,213
1,260
4,212
1,261


2,716
2,067
1,160
4,106
1,258


2,626
2,233
1,022
4,063
1,307


Angustn,


1,698


2,004


2,771


Boonvilie




393
1,170

454
1,132

163


1,294
1,533


2,746
1,608


5,619
1,418




1,061"


■*Ben2iil


Camden


384


1,772


1,945


2,331


2,820


3,187


3,687


3,638


^■^Chainpion


143
1,048




!










Deerfield


1,232
396
970


2,346

640

1,498


4,182

964

1,699


3,120
1,259
1,742


2,287
2,687
1,419


2,249
2,802
1,440


2,045
2,299
1,209
1,276
4,912


2,098
2,181
1,142
1,230

4,749


FlorencQ


Floyd


767


Forestpbrt


Kirkland








2,609


2,984


3,421


4,186


■^'Lowville ,


300
622
























Lee




2,186


2,514


2,936
1,799
2,251


3,026
1,857
2,115


2,796
1,687
2,134


2,656
1,451
2,145


2,413
1,418
2,216


Marcy ,






Marshall








1,908


"^"Mexico ,. ,


240


845




New Hartford




3,699
2,765
1,400
4,360


3,819
2,844
1,638
6,680


4,847
4,283
2,384
7,920


4,395
3,762
2,670
6,246


4,037
3,675 ■
1,184
11,000


4,382

3.593

1,166

12,251


Paris


4,721
224

1,497
107


5,418
489

2,003
362
947

1,324

1,105
328

1,548


6,707

912

3,569




Rome

SRedfield


®Kiehland










::::::::: ■■■




Sangerfield


1,143
562


2,011
1,461


2,272
2,094


2,251
1,993


2,371
1,764


2,343
1,554


2,513
1,261


2,913
1,220


»Scriba


Trenton


624
440


2,617


3,221


3,178


3,540


3,604


3,166


3,118


«Turin


Utiea




2,972>
2,707
2,447
1,307
2,791
2,237
5,219


8,323
3,045
3,739
1,766
3,303
2,419
4,410


12,782
3,043
4,604
2,530
3,105
3,488
5,156


17,566
3,089
5,587
3,436
3,292
2,524
5,820


22,524
2,908
6,967



Online LibrarySamuel W DurantHistory of Oneida County, New York : with illustrations and biographical sketches of some of its prominent men and pioneers → online text (page 65 of 192)