Samuel Washington McCallie.

A preliminary report on a part of the phosphates and marls of Georgia online

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ing done, by the use of artificial manures. The result of the extensive
use of marls, as natural fertilizers, is well illustrated, in the case of the -
State of New Jersey. The late Prof. Geo. H. Cook, formerly State
Geologist of New Jersey, in speaking of these deposits in his report for
1868, says: "The marl, which has been described in the preceding
pages, has been of incalculable value to the country, in which it is
found. It has raised it, from the lowest stage of agricultural ex-
haustion to a high state of improvement. Lands, which, in the old


style of cultivation, had to lie fallow, by the use of marl produce heavy
crops of clover, and grow rich, while resting. Thousands of acres of
land, which had been worn out and left in commons, are now, by rea-
son of this fertilizer, yielding crops of the finest quality. Instances are
pointed out, everywhere in the marl district, of farms, which, in for-
mer times, would not support a family; but which are now making
their owners rich from their productiveness. Bare sands, by the ap-
plication of marl, are made to grow clover, and then crops of corn,
potatoes and wheat."

The marls in South Georgia are found, in many instances, to equal,
in plant-food, those of New Jersey; and, if abundantly and judiciously
used, there appears to be no reason, why they might not produce a
similar effect, on the fertility of the soil. The great advantage, in the
use of marl, over the commercial fertilizers, is its lasting effect. Prof.
Cook, in speaking of this, says : "While all other fertilizers are ex-
hausted and the soil becomes poor, I have never seen a field, which was
once well marled, that is now poor. Its effect is said to be visible, for
thirty years."

The first cost of marling lands is usually great. Especially is this
true, where the marl has to be transported some distance. Yet, in the
long run, it is found to be cheaper, than to use commercial fertilizer,
on account of its durable effects. The amount of marl, which should
be used per acre, differs greatly. It depends largely on the character
of the soil and the nature of the marl. In some cases, where it is scat-
tered broadcast over the fields, it has been found to take as much as
six or eight tons per acre; while, on the contrary, similar effect is often
produced, with less than one fourth of that quantity. The question
of the amount to be used per acre must be determined, mainly, by
practical field-tests.

The plant-foods, which are found to occur in marls, are numerous;


but the more important are limited to a few chemical compounds, viz.,
calcium carbonate, phosphoric acid and potash. Prof. H. W. Wiley,
Chemist of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, in speaking of marls,
in the year-book for 1895, says: "The chief agricultural oons'tituent
of marls is always lime carbonate, although some samples of marl,
which are placed on the market, may have only a small per cent, of
this material. In so far as the fertilizing properties are concerned in
a general way, however, they must be ascribed principally to carbonate
of lime. It is for this reason, that marls act in such a beneficial way,
when applied to stiff, clay soils and others deficient in lime. Many of
the Virginia marls, however, are found to contain, in addition to the
lime, considerable quantities of potash and phosphoric acid, while
marls, from other localities, contain, also, potash and phosphoric acid,
the potash being usually in the form of silicate.

"The per cent, of phosphoric acid, in phosphate-bearing marls, va-
ries from a mere trace to as much as 4 or 5 per cent. Usually, how-
ever, the marls contain from 1 to 3 per cent, of phosphate. When
marls contain over 5 per cent, of phosphate, they can hardly be con-
sidered under the name of marls; but should then be transferred to the
place of natural phosphate On account of the small pro-
portion of plant-food in marls, they will not bear transportation to any
great distance. There are very few marls, that are worth, when placed
on the field, more than 4 or 5 per cent. ; and, in a great majority of
cases, the value is not even so great."

While this statement as to the value of marls is much more con-
servative, than the statements of many previous writers on the subject,
it, nevertheless, shows, that they are still considered to be of impor-
tance, as a fertilizer. On the supposition, that marls are worth only
$2 per ton, which is certainly a low estimate for many of the deposits
found in South Georgia, even then there exists a considerable margin


for profit. The marls, where found on the f arm, and favorably located,
can be placed on the field, in many cases, at a cost of not over 50 cents
per ton, thus giving a return of 400 per cent, on the outlay. Dr.
George F. Payne, Chemist for the Agricultural Department of the
State of Georgia, fully realizes the importance of these deposits. In
a bulletin, published in 1892, Dr. Payne, in speaking of the natural
fertilizers of the State, says: "In Southwest Georgia exist enormous
deposits of carbonate of lime, in a number of different forms, and
marls peculiarly rich in carbonate of lime, many of them containing
from 40 to 50 per cent, of actual lime. It is strange, that goods
mined in different States should be bought by our farmers, when a
better article lies unusued in boundless profusion, in the lower part of
our State."

The statement in reference to the. value of 'the marl deposits of
South Georgia may seem to many overdrawn. However, it is the
writer's opinion, that, when the marls, clays, etc., of this section are
fully developed) they will equal, or even surpass, in value, the more
varied mineral resources of the northern part of the State.


Acid Phosphate Factory, First 9

Advisory Board , 3

Alapacoochee Creek 82, 83

Alapaha River 80, 83

Algiers, Phosphates of 17

Altamaha River 90

Ansted, Dr., 22

Apains, T. J 73

Apatite 18

Ardennes 13

Arcadia 26

Ashley River 20, 22

Ashe, C. R 47

Atkinson 87


Bainbridge 46, 50

Baird, Prof., 25

Bamle 17

Beauval 13

Belgium, Phosphates of, u

Bellevue Bluff 93

Big Attapulgus Creek 53

Black Lake 58

Black Shale 38

Blalock Plantation 75

Blowing Cave 58

Bonney, Prof. T. G 40

Boston, Georgia 61

Brice Property 71

Brooks County 44.69

Brogger, Prof., 31

Brown, J. H 59

Buckingham Mining Company 18

Buford Phosphate, Deposits of, 23

Burrows, F. A 57

Caceres 14

Camden County 86

Camp Perry 85

Canada, Phosphates of, 18,30

Ceclavin 15

Chapman Property 71

Charleston, Phosphates Deposits of 20,22

Charlotte Harbour 25

Charlton County 84

Chattahoochee River 46

Chester, A 59

Claypole , 67

Clyattville 78

College Creek 90

Columbia Formation 46

Comer's Mine 39

Combes 31

Cook, Prof. George H 95

Cooper River 23

Connell, R. A 55

Coprolites 32

Cretaceous Chalk , 14

Cretaceous Deposits ~ 15

Crescent Bluff ." 93

Cutler, J. L 68

Darton, N. H., 34

Davy, Sir Humphry, 8

Dawson, Sir William 31

Decatur County 44, 46, 49

Devil's Hopper 70

DeSoto County 27

Devonian, Black Shale of the, 29

Limestone, Phosphates of the, 16

Dnieper River 15

Duke of Richmond 8

Duke's Well 71

Dunnellon 26

Eason, J. B., 63

Echols County 79

Eldridge, George H., 36,43

England, Cretaceous Deposits of 10

, Green Sands of, 10

, Phosphates of, 10

Eocene Marl Beds 32

Formation 35. 46, 62

Limestone 27

Estremadura, Province of, 14

Faceville 35.

Fertilizers, Used by the Romans and Peruvians


Fertilizers, Used by the English Farmers 8

Flint River 46

Florida, Phosphates of, 25

Phosphates, Production of 28

Forest Falls 46, 55

Freeman, I. H 79

. Property 53

France, Phosphates of 12


Gault Period 4i

Georgia Mining Company 61

Germany, Phosphates of, 16

Gironde, Department of 12

Glacial Period 35

Glenn County 89

Goose Creek 21

Greensands, The, 13

, Phosphates of i5

of England 32

. Epoch 4i

Beds of New Jersey 95

Green, W. T., 80, 81

Grayham, J. L., 48

Guano, Composition and Mode of Occurrence .. 8
t Peruvian Government Prohibits the

Shipment of 9

, Deposits in Venezuela, Guiana and

Africa 9

Guyenne, Province of, I2


Hayes, Dr. C. W 28

Haddock, William 74

Hallaway, Griffin 70

Heard Property 66

Henslow, Professor o

Hessian Province

Hickman County 29

Hillsboro County 27

Holmes, Prof. F. S 20, 32

Humboldt -

Hunt, Dr. T. Sterry 18, 3


Jacksonboro, Phosphate Deposits of 23

Jones, Dunwoody 61

Jumping Gulley Creek 78

Jurassic Limestone


Kerr, Prof. W. C 33

King, James P., ,


Lafayette Formation 46, 55. 5<

Lahn River i

Lake Park 7

Lake Imonia 69

Lanark County jg

Lane, W. D., ^

^awes, J. B., g

LeBaron, Capt. J. F 25

Leeds County 18

Lewis County 29

Liebig, Dr 9

Liege I2

ingula 33 39

.Logrosan 14

Lowndes County 76


Mallett. Dr 66

Manatee County, Fla 27

Marls, Value of 96

of South Georgia, Value of, 97

Marvin 71

McCall, J. R 54

McDonald 70

Mclntosh County , 92

Mclntyre \ 67

McRee, G. R 77

Meuse 13

Miocene Formation 35, 46, 54, 62

Mitchell, Mrs 65

Mons 12

Monticello 66

Morehead, T. S 26

Morle, Monsieur 13

Mosquito Coast 34

Murchison, Sir R. I., 15


Norway, Phosphates of, 16

Nottingham, Countess of 90

Ocala 26

Ocean Pond 76

Oedegarden 17

Ohio 38

Okefenokee Swamp 84

Old Troupville 77, 79

Ontario 18, 19

Open View Lake 58

Organic Manures 8

Peace River 25

Payne, Dr. George F., 98

Peru 8

Phosphorus 7

Phosphates 7, 9

Essential to Plant-foods 7

Phosphatic Nodules 10, 61, 63, 64


Phosphatic Nodules, First Used in the Manufac-
ture of Fertilizers 10

Phosphates, Origin of, 3

of Georgia, Distribution of 43

Piscola Creek 73

Polk County 27

Ponto Creek 60

Pratt, Dr. N. A , 21, 33, 34

Prescott Property 81

Quebec 19

Ragan, G. W 60

Ravenel, Dr. St. Julian 21

Recovery 52

Red Bluff 49

Reusch 31

Roberts Property 74

Rock Ford 78

Ruffin, Mr., , 20

Russia, Phosphates of,,... 15


Safford, Dr. J. M 29, 37

Sapelo River 92

Satilla River 91

Scott, Col. G. W., 26

Selwyn, Prof, A. R. C 31

Shepard, Prof. C. U 34

Silurian Formation, Phosphates of, 14

Sink of the Levels 58

Snowden, Dr. R. R , 26

Soils of South Georgia, Character of 45

South Carolina, Phosphates of 20

Mining and Manufacturing Co. 22

Somme, Department of 13

Spain, Phosphates of , 14

Spencer, Dr. J. W 46,62

Spring Creek 47, 48

Statenville 80

St. Andrews Parish : 20

St. Johns River 25

St. Marys River 84, 85

Suwannee River 83

Canal Company 84

Swain Creek 37

Swilley Bridge 82

Tebessa 17

Tennessee, Phosphate Deposits of, 28

Thomas County 44, 60, 94

Toms Creek 83

Toy, T. S 61

Trader's Hill 84

Trenton Limestone 40

Tuomey, Prof., 21

Tunis, Phosphates of 17

Turtle River 90

Varnador, L. C 61, 64

Vicksburg Limestone 35

Voght, Albertus 26

Volga River 15

Virginia Marls 97


Wade's Park 72

Walker, James 93

Wales, Phosphates of, n

Water Falls 56

Wellsman, James T 22

Whigham 55

White Oak Creek 88

White Limestone 62

Whitfield, Rev. George 90

Withlacoochee River 46,72

Wiley, Dr. H. W., 97

Wyatt, Dr. Francis, 35




This book is due on the last date stamped below, or

on the date to which renewed.
Renewed books are subject to immediate recall.

LD 21-40m-5,'65

General Library

University of California



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Online LibrarySamuel Washington McCallieA preliminary report on a part of the phosphates and marls of Georgia → online text (page 7 of 7)