Copyright
Samuel Washington McCallie.

A preliminary report on the roads and road-building materials of Georgia online

. (page 19 of 22)
Online LibrarySamuel Washington McCallieA preliminary report on the roads and road-building materials of Georgia → online text (page 19 of 22)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


clays suitable for surfacing sandy roads must be more or less
abundant and widely distributed.



STEWART COUNTY

Area, 450 square miles ; approximate road-mileage, 350 ; num-
ber of miles of graded road, o ; number of miles of macadamized
road, o ; amount of money annually raised for public-road pur-
poses, o. The roads are constructed and maintained by statute
labor.

The road-hands are said to work on the public roads of Stewart
county, from 10 to 15 days each year. The County Ordinary, in
speaking of the highways of the county, says : '*I think our sys-
tem a very poor one. I favor using misdemeanor convicts on our
roads. Machinery should be used, in working the roads. It would
greatly reduce the cost of maintenance." He suggests, that an
improvement of the roads would greatly increase the value of real
estate throughout the several districts.

The county is usually level, and the soils are sandy. No rock
suitable for road-surfacing is reported, though clays, which are
well suited for surfacing sandy roads, are quite abundant and
widely distributed.

WEBSTER COUNTY

Area, 325 square miles ;. approximate road-mileage, 175; num-
ber of miles of graded road, o ; number of miles of macadamized
road, o ; amount of money annually raised for public-road purposes,
o. The roads are constructed and maintained by statute labor.

The surface of Webster county, in places, is rolling; but it is
generally level, and the soils are sandy. But little grading is re-



Digitized by



Google



226 EQUIPMENT, METHODS AND MATERIALS, BY COUNTIES

quired in the construction of the roads. Sand beds occur in cer-
tain localities; but they are not usually extensive.

The road-building material is mostly limestone, which occurs in
several places in the county. '*Iron rock," probably impure iron
ore, is also reported, in some localities, in abundance.

The roads of the county are worked only four days each year ;
and they are reported to be in poor condition, especially during
the rainy season.

SUMTER COUNTY

Area, 515 square miles; approximate road-mileage, 300; num-
ber of miles of graded road, o ; number of miles of macadamized
road, o ; amount of money annually raised for public-road pur-
poses, not ascertained ; number of days worked by hands each
year, about 8. The roads are constructed and maintained by
statute and hired free labor.

Sumter county is located in the southwestern portion of the
State. Its surface is generally level, and the soils are often sandy.
The highways are reported to be in fair condition. They are
kept up by statute labor, supplemented by hired free labor. The
hired force consists of about 30 hands, who are employed about
six months each year. It is under the management of a general
superintendent and one overseer. The former is paid $50 per
month, and the latter, $25 per month ; while the hands each re-
ceive 60 cents jyfer day. This force is employed mostly in lessening
the grades of the steep hills, and in repairing the bad places in the
roads throughout the county. It is maintained principally by a
commutation-tax. This tax, which is $2.50, is exacted of all per-
sons subject to road-duty, who do not work upon the roads the re-
quired number of days. The road-working outfit belonging to the
county, consists of scrapers, plows, picks, shovels, wagons, 6 mules,
etc. The mules are used only about six months each year.

The materials for road-surfacing in Sumter county are limited.
Limestone suitable for this purpose is found at a few places in the
county ; but it is too local in its distribution, to become of general



Digitized by



Google



EQUIPMENT, METHODS AND MATERIALS, BY COUNTIES



227



use. Clays for surfacing sandy roads are more or less plentiful,
and are widely distributed throughotittthe county.



DOOLY COUNTY

Area, 750 square miles ; approximate road-mileage, 1,000 ; num-
ber of miles of graded road, o; number of miles of macadamized
road, o; amount of money annually raised for public-road pur-
poses, o. The roads are constructed and maintained by statute
labor.

The public roads of Dooly county are reported by the Ordinary
to be in poor condition. They are said to be worked, on an aver-
age, only about 5 days each year. A few years ago, an effort was
made to raise a special road-tax, and to have the roads worked by
hired labor; but the plan met with considerable opposition, and
was finally abandoned. The Ordinary in speaking of the present
system of road-working, says, that many of the leading citizens of
the county are now convinced, that they can never secure good
roads under their present system of working ; and, as a conse-
quence, there is said to be a growing sentiment in favor of working
the roads by taxation.

Dooly county is generally level ; though, in some places, there
are considerable hills. The expense of grading the roads of the
county may therefore be said to be but a small part of the actual
cost of building permanent first-class highways. The roads, in
some localities, are often sandy ; but, as a general rule, the soils
are of a clayey nature; and, as a result, the roads, during the
winter and early spring months, are often in a bad condition for
traffic.

The only suitable material in the county for road-metal is lime-
stone, which is found in considerable abundance at a few points
north of Vienna.



Digitized by



Google



aa8 EQUIPMENT, METHODS AND MATERIALS, BY COUNTIES

PULASKI COUNTY

Area, 435 square miles ; approximate road-mileage, 250 ; num-
ber of miles of graded road, o ; number of miles of macadamized
road, o ; amount of money annually raised for public-road pur-
poses, o. The roads are constructed and maintained by statute
labor.

The surface of Pulaski county is rolling in the northern part,
and level in the southern part. The soils are usually sandy. The
road materials are limestones, which occur only in a few localities,
mostly along streams. They are frequently compact, and would
make fair material for road-surfacing.

The county owns one iron bridge, valued at $18,000. Owing to
the meager report received from this county, nothing definite is
known, concerning the true condition of the roads in Pulaski
county.



DODGE COUNTY

Area, 414 square miles ; approximate road-mileage, 250 ; num-
ber of miles of graded road, o ; number of miles of macadamized
road, o ; amount of money annually raised for public-road pur-
poses, o. The roads are constructed and maintained by statute
labor.

Topographically, Dodge county is generally level, and the soils
are mostly sandy. The road-surfacing materials of the county
are limited to limestones, which frequently occur in considerable
beds. They are often quite compact, and well suited for road-
metal. In the more sandy districts of the county, where rock is
wantihg, days can" usually, be found.^ beneath the superficial layer
of sand for the improvement of the roadways.

The roads of Dodge county are reported to be in fair condition ;
though the county owns no road-machinery, the ordinary tools
only being used for road-working.



Digitized by



Google



EQUIPMENT, AfETHODS AND MATERIALS, BY COUNTIES 220

LAURENS COUNTY

Area, 761 square miles ; approximate road-mileage, 450 ; num-
ber of miles of graded road, o ; number of miles of macadamized
road, o; amount of money annually raised for public-road pur-
poses, o. The roads are constructed and maintained by statute
labor.

The greater part of Laurens county is comparatively level ;.
and, as a consequence, the cost of road-grading is reduced to a
minimum. The roads, in places, are quite sandy ; but there is
usually plenty of clay at hand, for surfacing. There are, in several
localities, extensive out-croppings of limestones, which are well
suited for road-metal. Unfortunately, the limestone is not gener-
ally distributed throughout the county; and in many places, it
would have to be hauled long distances, in order to be placed upon
all the principal highways.

Laurens county raises no special road-tax ; but, in the last few
years, it has constructed an excellent iron bridge, valued at $16,000.

The roads of the county are kept up entirely by statute labor.
The hands are said to work, on an average, only four days each
year, on the highways.

JOHNSON COUNTY

Area, 266 square miles ; approximate road-mileage, 250 ; num-
ber of miles of graded road, o ; number of miles of macadamized
road, o ; amount of money annually raised for public-road pur-
poses, o. The roads are constructed and maintained by statute
labor.

Johnson county is generally level, and the soils are sandy. The
roads are kept in fair condition by statute labor. The County
Ordinary is of the opinion, that the time is near at hand, when
the public roads of the county will all be worked by taxation.
No rock suitable for road-surfacing is reported. The sandy roads
are improved by the use of clay, which is more or less abundant
throughout the county. The occurrence of limestone in the



Digitized by



Google



230 EQUIPMENT, METHODS AND MATERIALS, BY COUNTIES

artesian well at Wrightsville would indicate, that this rock out-
crops at places in this county.



EMANUEL COUNTY

Area, 1,028 square miles; approximate road-mileage, 1,300;
number of miles of graded road, o ; number of miles of macada-
mized road, o ; amount of money annually raised for public-road
purposes, $3,500. The roads are constructed and maintained by
hired and statute labor.

The surface of Emanuel county is generally level, and the soils
are sandy. No rocks suitable for road-surfacing material are re-
ported from this county. All the roads at present are kept up,
either by statute or hired labor. Each person residing in the
county and subject to road-duty is required to pay a commutation-
tax of $2.00, or work on the public roads four days each year.
The amount of money annually collected from this source aggre-
gates about $3,000. This amount, together with an additional
sum of about $500, which is raised as a special road-tax, is dis-
tributed to the several districts of the county, where it is ex-
pended in general road-improvement. All the roads in the county
are under the management of a superintendent, appointed by the
Commissioners of Roads and Revenues. The superintendent has
general charge of all the roads of the county, while each district
is under the general management of an overseer. The superin-
tendent receives a salary of $40 per month for his services.



SCREVEN COUNTY

Area, 786 square miles ; approximate road-mileage, 600 ; num-
ber of miles of graded road, o ; number of miles of macadamized
road, o; amount of money annually raised for public-road purposes,
$12,270. The roads are ' constructed and maintained by statute
and hired free labor.

The surface of the county is level, and the soils are sandy.
Lime-sinks and cypress swamps are occasionally to be seen. But



Digitized by



Google



EQUIPMENT, METHODS AND MATERIALS, BY COUNTIES



231



little or no grading is here required, in the construction of first-
class roads. The materials for road-construction are limestone
and flint Neither is abundant nor widely distributed. They are
exposed mostly in the vicinity of streams or lime-sinks. The
limestones are often soft and highly fossiliferous. Exposures of
both the limestone and the flint are to be seen on Brier creek near
Mill Haven.

The roads in Screven county are reported to be in fair condition.
They are worked, on an average, by the road hands, about eight
days each year. The statute labor is at present supplemented by
hired free labor.

Superintendents or overseers are appointed in each district to
take charge of the roads. Ten of these are now employed in the
county. They receive $1.35 per day for their services, when actu-
ally engaged on road-duty.



EFFINGHAM COUNTY

Area, 449 square miles ; approximate road-mileage, 250 ; num-
ber of miles of graded road, o ; number of miles of macadamized
road, o ; amount of money annually raised for public-road pur-
poses, o. The roads are constructed and maintained by statute
labor.

Efiingham county is situated in the extreme eastern part of the
State, between the Savannah and Ogeechee rivers. This section
of the State is low and level, and contains but few, if any, rocks,
suitable for road-surfacing. The Chairman of the Board of Road
Commissioners of this county says : " Our roads are divided into
sections of about five miles. Each section is given to one over-
seer and an assignment of hands, who work the road, on an
average, about two days each year. Persons, desiring to be re-
leased from working the public roads of this county, can be re-
lieved, on the payment of $1.00 for each day's labor required.
The total amount, annually collected from this source, does not
exceed $20.00."



Digitized by



Google



232 EQUIPMENT, METHODS AND MATERIALS, BY COUNTIES

BULLOCH COUNTY

Area, 903 square miles ; approximate road-mileage, 300 ; num-
ber of miles of graded road, 50 ; number of miles of macadamized
road, o ; amount of money raised annually for public-road pur-
poses, o. The roads are constructed and maintained by statute
and convict labor.

Bulloch county employs 15 convicts on its public roads, besides
exacting of each individual, subject to road-duty, an average of
two days' labor per year. The Ordinary says, that the roads are
not what they should be, but that they are gradually improving
under the present system. The county levies no special road-tax ;
but it maintains its chain-gang by appropriation, made from the
general county fund. Each convict is said to cost the county
only about $5.00 per month. This amount evidently does not
include the expense of guarding and over-seeing. A superin-
tendent and two guards have charge of the chain-gang. The
former is paid $35, and the latter, $30 per month each. The county
has no road-machinery ; but it owns a team of mules, which is
used, in moving the tools and the convicts from place to place.
But little rock suitable for road-material is to be found in Bul-
loch county. The roads are usually sandy ; and the only material
at hand for improving their surface is clay.



TATTNALL COUNTY

Area^ 1,123 square miles ; approximate road-mileage, not ascer-
tained ; number of miles of graded road, o ; number of miles of
macadamized road, o ; amount of money annually raised for public-
road purposes, o ; average number of days worked by road hands
each year, 2. The roads are constructed and maintained by
statute labor.

Topographically, Tattnall county is quite level ; and, as a con-
sequence, the cost of the road-grading is reduced to a minimum.
Rock suitable for road-surfacing is reported, at several points west
of the Ohoopee river. It is probably limestone.



Digitized by



Google



> 5:

2 S

\ \

O is

> c:

> ^

G O



^ - "ii



•< a >,

DO S

5. O ib.

i; ^

L «

C V)

^

- o

H O

>



s

o

'I!
H
5

O
>

I

> ti.

n s

s ^

S >.

C/5 T-



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



EQUIPMENT, ME THODS AND MA TERIALS. B Y COUNTIES 233

WAYNE COUNTY

Area, 721 square miles; approximate road-mileage, 500; num-
ber of miles of graded road, o; number of miles of macadamized
Toad, o ; amount of money annually raised for public-road pur-
poses, o. The roads are constructed and maintained by statute
labor.

Topographically, Wayne county is quite level. Sand-hills,
<:overed with a stunted growth of oak, are occasionally met with,
in the vicinity of the larger streams. Swamps are also more or
less abundant.

As far as known, the county has no hard rock, suitable for road-
surfacing. Clays, however, suitable for surfacing sandy roads, are
more or less plentiful, and widely distributed. The Chairman of
the Board of County Commissioners reports the roads to be in fair
condition ; but he adds, that some change is necessary before the
xoads can be much improved.



APPLING COUNTY

Area, 1,074 square miles ; approximate road-mile^e, 400 ; num-
l>er of miles of graded road, 75 ; number of miles of macadamized
road, o ; amount of money annually raised for public-road purposes,
o ; number of days worked by road hands each year, 4. The roads
^re constructed and maintained by statute labor.

This county, which lies in the southeastern portion of the State,
is, like all other counties of the Tertiary area, low and level ; and
Toad-grading, as a consequence, is inexpensive. Rock suitable for
road-surfacing is reported to occur in several localities in the north-
ern part of the county, along the Altamaha river. The County
Ordinary, in speaking of the present system of road-working, says :
-*« We work our roads under the old law ; it is a poor system."



Digitized by



Google



234 EQUIPMENT, METHODS AND MATERIALS, BY COUNTIES

MONTGOMERY COUNTY

Area, 763 square miles ; approximate road-mileage, 500 ; num-
ber of miles of graded road, o ; number of miles of macadamized
road, o; amount of money annually raised for public-road pur-
poses, o. The roads are constructed and maintained by statute
labor.

Montgomery county is level and sandy. The chief difficulty to
be overcome, in constructing good roads in the county, is the heavy
beds of sand, which frequently occur in the neighborhood of the
larger streams. Clays are usually to be had nearby, however, for
the surfacing of such roads ; but, in some instances, they would
have to be hauled quite a distance. No hard rock of any kind^
suitable for road material, is reported from this county. Neverthe-
less, it unquestionably occurs; as such rock was penetrated in
boring the deep wells at Lyons and McArthur.



TELFAIR COUNTY

Area, 491 square miles ; approximate road-mileage, 200 ; num-
ber of miles of graded road, o ; number of miles of macadamized
road, o; amount of money annually raised for public-road pur-
poses, o. The roads are constructed and maintained by statute
labor.

The roads are worked , on an average, from five to six days each
year, and are reported to be in fair condition. The surface of the
county is level, and the soils are sandy. Along the larger streams,
are frequently more or less extensive swamps which are a great
hindrance in the way of road-construction.

No hard rock suitable for road material is reported from the
county. Clays can usually be found, for surfacing sandy roads.

The Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners expresses
the opinion, that the system of road-improvement, now in use in
Telfair county, is the best, that can be had, under present condi-
tions.



Digitized by



Google



EQUIPMENT, ME THODS AND MA TERIALS, B Y COUNTIES 235

COFFEE COUNTY

Area, 1,145 square miles; approximate road-mileage, 500;
number of miles of graded road, o ; number of miles of macadam-
ized road, o; amount of money raised annually for road purposes,
o. The roads are constructed and maintained by statute labor.

There seems to be but little effort put forth in Coffee county for
the betterment of its highways. The Chairman of the Board of
County Commissioners expresses the opinion, that the system,
under which the roads are kept up, is not satisfactory ; yet he does
not indicate, that there is likely to be any change, soon. The sur-
face of Coffee county is generally low and sandy. No rotk, suita-
ble for road-material, is reported from the county.



IRWIN COUNTY

Area, 601 square miles; approximate road-mileage, 300; num-
ber of miles of graded road, o ; number of miles of macadamized
road, o; amount of money annually raised for public-road pur-
poses, o. The roads are constructed and maintained by statute
labor.

Irwin county is level, and the soils are usually sandy. The only
hard rock, reported from the county, is sandstone. It is said to
occur only in a few localities, and is limited in quantity. The
Chairman of the Board of County Commissioners, in speaking of
the roads of Irwin county, says: '*We use only statute labor,
and our roads are poorly worked. I am satisfied, that we can never
have good roads, until they are worked by direct taxation, and the
use of the chain-gang."



WILCOX COUNTY

Area, 563 square miles ; approximate road-mileage, 250 ; num-
ber of miles of graded road, o; number of miles of macadamized
road, o ; amount of money annually raised for public-road pur-
average number of days worked each year on the public



Digitized by



Google



236 EQUIPMENT, METHODS AND MATERIALS, BY COUNTIES

roads by each hand subject to road-duty, 4. The roads are con-
structed and maintained by statute labor.

Wilcox county is level and the soils are sandy. No hard rocks
suitable for road-surfacing, as far as known, occur in the county.
Clays for surfacing sandy roads are more or less widely distributed.



WORTH COUNTY

Area, 750 square miles ; approximate road-mileage, 300 ; num-
ber of miles of graded road, o; number of miles of macadamized
road, o ; amount of money annually raised for public-road pur-
poses o. The roads are constructed and maintained by statute
labor.

Topographically, Worth county is level, and the soils are usually
sandy. Limestone, sandstone and flint rock are reported to occur
in several localities ; but, so far, none of them has been used to
any extent for road purposes. The Ordinary says : " Our people
do not care to make any change in the present system of road-
working; they think that it is good enough."

The roads of the county are reported to be worked, on an
average, about six days each year.



LEE COUNTY

Area, 360 square miles ; approximate road-mileage, 500 ; num-
ber of miles of graded road, 25 ; number of miles of macadamized
road, o ; amount of money annually raised for public-road pur-
poses, o. The roads are constructed and maintained by statute
labor.

The surface of Lee county is level, and the soils, usually sandy.
The road-grading, spoken of above, consists chiefly in crowning
the roadbeds, which costs on an average only about $25 per
month. The roads are worked from six to eight days each year ;
and they are usually in fair condition for traflSc. Limestone
suitable for road-surfacing occurs in the county ; but it is not
widely distributed. The county owns two steel bridges, which
were constructed at a cost of $1,200 each.



Digitized by



Google



EQUIPMENT, METHODS AND MATERIALS, BY COUNTIES 337

TERRELL COUNTY

Area, 320 square miles ; approximate road-mileage, 250 ; num-
ber of miles of graded road, o ; number of miles of macadamized
road,o; amount of money raised for public- road purposes, o.
The roads are constructed and maintained by statute labor.

Topographically, Terrell county differs but little from Telfair.
The County Ordinary says : *' Our roads are poorly worked. I
think our next Grand Jury will change our system of working
the roads by adopting the new law."

Limestone suitable for road material is reported, at several
points in the county. Clays are used in improving the surface of
sandy roads. They are widely distributed, and can be had on
nearly all the leading thoroughfares, with but little expense in
hauling.



DOUGHERTY COUNTY

Area, 312 square miles ; approximate road-mileage, 250; num-
ber of miles of graded road, o ; number of miles of macadamized
road, o ; amount of money annually raised for public-road pur-
poses, $3,000. The roads are constructed and maintained by con-
vict labor.

Dougherty county is generally level, and the roads require but
little grading. The roadbeds of the western part of the county
usually consist of clays, while, in the eastern part, they are sandy.
Deep sand beds and low-lands, or swamps, are the main obstacles
to be overcome in highway improvement in Dougherty county.
The surface of the sandy roads has been greatly improved, in
many places, by covering them, to the depth of four or five inches
with clay, which is frequently to be had at the roadside, by re-
moving the superficial layer of sand.

Dougherty county works, on an average, about 30 convicts on
its highways. The chain-gang is under the direction of a super-
intendent and one assistant, who receive salaries, respectively, of



Digitized by



Google



238 EQUIPMENT, METHODS AND MATERIALS, BY COUNTIES

$600 and $3CX) per year. There are also three guards, regularly
employed at $20 each per month. The cost of maintaining the
chain-gang — that is, the expense of feeding, clothing and medical
treatment of each individual — is approximately 20 cents per day.
If, to this cost, there be added the expense of conviction, the
superintendent's and assistant's salaries, guard-hire, etc., the entire


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 19 21 22

Online LibrarySamuel Washington McCallieA preliminary report on the roads and road-building materials of Georgia → online text (page 19 of 22)