Santiago Pan-American Scientific Congress. 1st.

Report of the delegates of the United States to the Pan-American scientific congress held at Santiago, Chile, Dec. 25, 1908 to Jan. 5, 1909 online

. (page 8 of 9)
Online LibrarySantiago Pan-American Scientific Congress. 1stReport of the delegates of the United States to the Pan-American scientific congress held at Santiago, Chile, Dec. 25, 1908 to Jan. 5, 1909 → online text (page 8 of 9)
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physiology in the Argentine Republic. The scientific phenomena in American
society. Hygienic education; the national school and the sanitary crusade. Social
and public hygiene; its pr(jgrcss in American countries; a proposition concerning
its condition absolute and relative."



The papers presented to this section were as follows:
Marcial Martinez de Ferrari, Chile: "Study of the influence of the fine arts in our

S. Alberto Mackenna, Chile: "Influence of the fine arts in education."
R. Guillermo Eyzaguirre, Chile : ' ' Distinctive characteristics of the literature of America

as compared with that of Europe."
Jorge Huneeus, Chile: "Historical review of the intellectual effort of Chile."
Eduardo Poirier, Guatemala: "Science and letters in Guatemala."
Carlos Silva Vildosola, Chile: "The press of the American nations as the best means of

cementing the bonds between them."
Moists Men tt, Chile: "Journalism in America."
Francisco Risopatr6n, Chile: "Origin of the Spanish language and of its idioms and

Adolfo Urzua Rozas, Chile: "Measures which tend to prevent the corruption of the

Castilian tongue and which augment its richness in vocables used by educated

people in America who speak that tongue."

Appendix O.

Report on Section IX. Agronomy and Zooteehnics, by Mr. George M.


The section on agronomy and zooteclinica opened its session on Satinday, Decem-
ber 26, with an attendance of 32, including officers and visitors. Daily sessions were
held, except on Sunday and New Year's Day.

The officers were Salvador Izquierdo, S., president; Julio Besnard, vice-president,
and Jose A. Alfonso and R. Rojas Huneeus, secretaries. As was commonly done in
other sections, various delegates were invited to preside over the different meetings.
The affairs of the section were quite well conducted, the work of the active secretary,
Senor R. Rojas Huneeus, being especially efficient.

The subject of agricultural education occupied the greater amount of time of the
section, perhaps three-fourths of the discussion being on this topic. The enthusiasm
was marked and the fact is important as showing the growing interest in the subject
in Latin-American countries.

Senor Julio Besnard, of Chile, presented the first paper on agricultural education.
He recommended that ad\'anced agricultural education be given the character of
university instruction.

Dr. Bicardo Huergo, chief of the division of education in the Argentine ministry of
agriculture, followed with an elaborate presentation of a plan for agricultural educa-
tion which contemplated the development of a complete system from the institute
and extension systems common in North America to the full-fledged undergraduate
course. His plan was divided into four parts: (1) Advanced agricultural education,
(2) secondary agricultural education, (3) practical agricultural education, and (4)
extension (extensiva) agricultural education. Doctor Huergo also strongly ad^'ised
the obligatory study of English in all advanced agricultural schools.

A paper by Senor Ramon Montero (Truguay) was read on "Agricultural instruction
in the normal schools for teachers in Montevideo, ' ' in which the writer recommended
that agricultural instruction be given in primary countrj' schools, and e\-en in schools
in cities in agricultural districts, and that teachers should be trained in the normal
schools so that they could give this instruction.

Sefior Maximo Jeria (< 'hile) presented a pajier on " Grades which may be established
in agricultural education on the American Continent, " in which he advised the di^-i3ion
of this section of pedagogy into three grades; (1) Advanced, (2) secondary, and (3) pri-
mary. He pointed out that, in his opinion, advanced agricultural education should
be desimcd for the training of men capable of conducting research work in the
various branches of agricultural science; that secondary education should l>e for the
training of skilled farmers, and the schools so designated should be more or less local
in chararfcr; and that primary education should give boys and girls in the rural
schools a practical idea of plant growth and of the best methods to use in simple
farm and garden operations.

In all the discussions and jiapers on the subject it was made clear that agricultural
educational institutions should be not only well equipped with laboratories for class
use, but that they should be in close touch with agricultm-al experiment stations,
and preferably should have farms attached to them of sufficient extent to carry on
field investigations.

The conclusions and recommendations of this sectionshow that an amalgamation of
the different ideas presented was effected. It is very much to be regretted, how-
ever, that Doctor Huergo's recommendation in regard to the compulsory study of
English in advanced schools was not favorably acted upon. In view of the impor-
tance of the North American agricultural experiment stations, both in the United
Slates and Canada, and the probability of applying their results to a greater or less
degree throughout the New World, students m' Latin America would find a knowl-
edge of English greatly to their advantage in pursuinfj research work in agriculture.
Without such knowledge a very large amount of scientific information is not available
to them.



The zootechnic branch o£ (he section was represented by a relatively small number
of papers, but this number included some very good ones. A paper by Drs. Ileraclio
Rivas and Cesar Zanelli, of the University of La Plata (Arsentine Republic), was read,
describing the poisoning of horses in the northern provinces of Argentina by the
mycelium of a fungus found in Festuca hicroiii/me. The symptoms appear to be simi-
lar to those found in cases of poisoning of horses in the United States due to their
eating hay containing the plant commonly known as the "horsetail" (Equisete).
Affected horses show pronounced paralysis and gradually Lise the power of locomo-
tion. The affection is known in Argentina as "La Tembladera."

Dr. Ramon Bidart, of the division of animal industry of the Argentine ministry
of agriculture, presented a detailed paper on tuberculosis, in which he presented a
resume of European work and gaT.'e complete data on the subject gathered by the
Argentine Government. Doctor Bidart's conclusions were (1) that the American
governments should combat bovine tuberculosis to increase the animal wealth and
protect human health; (2) that measures designed to eradicate this disease in coun-
tries of large li^•c-s(ock production should be carried out on liberal lines, the greatest
efl'orts for eradication being directed toward herds from which food products, such
as milk and beef, are derived; (3) that injections of tuberculin are not practicable of
application to animals which are not stabled ; and (4) that the presence of glandular
affection of tuberculosis in one individual in the abattoir signifies nothing in itself
with respect to the general condition of an entire herd of cattle, tuberculosis being
a disease whose local affections are most frequently found in those organs.

On the subject of national sanitary police. Doctor Bidart recommended strongly
the adoption of sanitary animal police laws in live-stock countries, and urged the
necessity for the uniformity of such laws in neighboring countries. He also sug-
gested the desirability of improving cattle within the areas infected with Texas
fever cattle tick (Boophilus annvlatus), such improvement having for its object the
relief of cattle raisers in such areas from the necessity of going to uninfected areas
for breeding stock.

Dr. Fernando Lahille (Argentine Republic) presented some interesting notes on
the life history of the Texas fever cattle tick, on alpaca breeding and on fisheries.
He urged the necessity for South American countries to pass laws for the protection
of the alpaca and similar animals, and for the establishment of breeding stations
where they could be studied and improved according to scientific principles. In
regard to fisheries. Doctor Lahille recommended the establishment of laboratories
in South American countries for the study of marine fauna, with the special object
of encouraging the fishing industry, and suggested the desirability of adopting uni-
form laws throughout South America for its regulation. He also recommended that
American naturalists confer regarding the nomenclatm-e of fishes in the Western
Hemisphere and methods of measuring and describing them.

The subject of veterinary education received attention from Dr. (Jlodomiro Griffin,
dean of the faculty of agronomy and veterinary science in the University of La Plata
(Argentine Republic), who presented a paper outlining an ideal cour.^i? in \'eterinary
science, and from Dr. P. Berges (Argentine Republic), who presented a resolution
recommending that all American countries which have not already done so provide
for such instruction.

On miscellaneous subjects some interesting suggestions were presented. Dr.
Ricardo Huergo (Argentine Republic) discussed the advisability of ' ' Extensive inves-
tigations to establish the relation existing between the absorbent power of soils and
fertility as a basis for the determination of the latter." Seiior R. Rojas Huneeus
(Chile) urged the establishment of agricultural experiment stations in countries not
yet having such institutions, and presented a detailed paj)er on the growth and
development of such institutions throughout the world . Senor Rafael Uribe y Uribe
(Colombia) and IMaximo Jeria (Chile) urged the organization into ministries of agri-
culture of the work of the different American Governments which aim to foster and
encourage agriculture. Senor Victorino Rojas Magallanes recommended the estab-
lishment of bureaus of agricultural statistics in the different countries, and made a
suggestion that is of particular interest to citizens of the United States— that the
Bureau of American Republics take steps to have translated into Spanish and dis-
tributed throughout Latin-America the Yearbook of the United States Department of
Agriculture and such other reports or bulletins of the department as would be inter-
esting to Latin-American farmers and stock raisers.

A short paper by Director F. H. Newell, of the United States Reclamation Service,
was read on "The reclamation of arid lands in the United States." Mi'. Newell
showed conciselv the steps through which the reclamation of arid lands has been devel-
oped, and presented the fundamental principles on which the work of the United
States Government is based.


The recommendations adopted by the section were as follows:
Agricultural education, for its development, should be divided into three grades:
Higher, secondary, and elementary-practical.

A. Higher agricultural education:

(1) The section of agronomy and zootechnics declares that it regards as indispensa-
ble that the American countries which have not already done so give to higher
education in agriculture the character of university instruction.

To this end, a faculty of agronomy should be established with due provision that
the institutions which give this instruction are supplied with the necessary labora-
tories and are located on property of their own, in which said instruction can be amply
applied and demonstrated.

B. Secondary education:

The instruction of a secondary character should be theoretical and practical, and
should be distinguished by its local character, confining especially the work done
to the branches of agriculture peculiar to the region in which they are situated, and
developing the teaching of them under a local management. The institutions which
give this instruction should be established on farm properties of sufficient -extent,
conveniently located, and adapted to an economical developemnt so as to train agri-
cultm'ists and specialists capable of directing work on a rural establishment.

C. Practical-elementary education.

The practical-elementary education should be local and made specific in certain
branches of agronomic science best suited to local application, developing the work
in detail and supplying the proper explanations as each act is performed, in all the
operations which deal with the planting, development, and management of a farm
property of the kind and importance which the school should have in mind.

D. In order to complete agricultural education, the American countries should
keep in view —

(1) Supplementary establishments for agricultural and experimental development,
such as agricultural experiment stations, laboratories of vegetable pathology and
vitolo^y, special stations, agricultural statistics, etc.

(2) With the development of extension teaching through the medium of demonstra-
tion farms, by the aid of local farmers, and, in general, by all the means of propaganda
which enable agricultural instruction to reach the farmer himself so as to guide him in
his work.

E. The secondary and practical-elementary agricultural instruction, as well as the
different activities involved in official agricultural propaganda, should be organized
systematically in accordance with the needs of the country, and should be placed in
charge of the executive power, for the attainment of which purpose the Government
should possess a central administrative mechanism, capable of regulating the system
and controlling its results, a ministry of agriculture, with its dependencies, being the
most efficacious of all.

F. In order to awaken and stimulate a desire for agricultural study, the section of
agronomy and zootechnics believes —

(1) That the primary schools in the country, and even in cities in ai;ricultural
districts, should include compulsory agricultural education as an integral part of their
course of study.

(2) That in the courses of study in normal schools, instruction in theoretical and
applied agriculture should be included, in order to render teachers capable of gi^'ing
such instruction in the primary schools.

The following is the list of i)apers presented in the section

Alfonso, Jos6 A., Chile: "Forests and forest legislation."
Amadco, Tomds, Argentine Republic: "Agricultural associations."
Bergfe, P., Argentine Republic: 1. "The live-stock resources of Latin-America,
especially Argentina." 2. "Importance of improving the different species of
animals in the Argentine Republic; method of encouraging this in the Latin-Amer-
ican countries." 3. "Injurious effects of the neglect shown toward the improvement
of cattle in Latin-America; meansof remedying it." 4. "The need of encoura'^ing
in Latin-America the development and extension of the refrigerating industry and of
refrigerator transjjortation for the advancement of various rural industries." 5.
" The transformation of the meat trade of Latin-.\merica into a sjstematic industry;
its condition, present and future." 6. "Project for the establishment of a per-
manent committee of the Latin-American Congress."
Besnard, Julio, Chile: 1. "Instruction in zootechnics; general considerations and
programmes." 2. "Preparation of students for advanced asricultm-al colleges;
practical agricultural education." 3. "Encouragement of animal production."
Bidart, Dr. Ramon, Argentine Republic: 1. "Tuberculosis." 2. "Sanitarv police
laws." ■' ^


Bretos, Laureano, Guatemala: "Zootechnic ideas,"

Briano, Juan A., Argentine Republic: "An automatic cattle guard for railways."

Brummer, J., Argentine Republic: "Desiccation of fruits and vegetables; evaporating
ovens and apparatus."

Conti, Marcelo, Argentine Republic: "The mechanical theory of a new plow."

Vallejo, Carlos, Chile: 1. "The action of chlorides on the nitrates of the soil." 2.
"Artificial pressure with various salts and their effect on the growth and fruiting of

Darel, Dr. Desiderio, Argentine Republic: 1. "Economic importance of the alpaca
and similar animals in Argentina." 2. "Ostrich breeding in the coimtries of

De Vinzac, V. Gase, Argentine Republic: "Agricultural bookkeeping."

Division de Agricultura of the Argentine Government: Work accomplished by this
division in the year 1908.

Escobar, R6mulo, Mexico: "Agricultural education in Mexico."

Gamboa, Ezequiel, Argentine Republic: "Nominal accounts in agricultural book-

Girola, Carlos, Argentine Republic: 1. "Cultivation of industrial plants in the Argen-
tine RepubHc." 2. "Notes on Argentine fruit culture." 3. "The cultivation of
the peach in the Argentine Repubhc." 4. "Degrees which may be established in
agricultural education on the American continent."

Griffin, Clodomiro, Argentine Republic: "A plan of instruction in veterinary medi-

Guarch, Susviela, Uruguay: 1. "The nutrition of animals." 2. "Industries in gen-
eral and the live-stock industry in particular."

Henriquez, Carlos, Chile: "Sketch of the saltpeter propaganda in the Argentine

Huergo, J. N., Argentine Republic: " Diaspis penlagona in the Argentine Republic."

Huergo, Ricardo, Argentine Republic: 1. "Advanced agricultural education." 2.
"Special agricultural education." 3. "Practical agricultural education." 4.
"Extension agricultural education." 5. "The soil in agriculture."

Huneeus, F. Rojas, Chile: "Development of agricultural experiment stations in the
principal countries and their influence on agricultural progress."

Jeria, Maximo, Chile: 1. "Degrees which may be established in agricultural educa-
tion on the American continent." 2. "Economic characteristics of the agricultural
industry compared with the textile and manufacturing industries." 3. "The
encouragement of agriculture."

Lahille, Fernando, Argentine Republic: 1. "Fecundity of the Texas fever cattle
tick: Anaccount of some important periods of its life." 2. "Breeding the alpaca."
3. "Observations concerning fishes and fisheries."

Le Feunre, Rene, Chile: "Motion on the study of Anthropotechnics (Eugenics)."

Magallanes, Victorino Rojas, Chile: "Chilean legislation on agricultural statistics."

Medina, Guillermo, Chile: "A new system of farming adapted to arid lands, the
methods of Salvador Izquierdo, S."

Montero, Alfredo Ramon, Uruguay: 1. "Necessity for preserving and increasing the
forests in American countries." 2. "Agricultural instruction in the normal schools
in Montevideo."

Newell, F. H., United States: "The reclaiming of arid lands in the United States."

Renom, George A., Argentine Republic: " Feeding live stock for export."

Rivas, Heraclio, and Zanelli, Cesar, Argentine Republic: "La Tembladera, a dis-
ease of horses in the northern provinces of the Argentine Republic."

Rommel, George M., United States: 1. "Methods of instruction in animal husbandry
in the agricultural colleges of the United States." 2. "Sanitary animal police in
the United States."

Tonnelier, Argentine Republic: "Contribution to the study of means to combat rust
in wheat."

Torreggioni, Jose, Bolivia: "Sanitary veterinary police laws."

Uribe y Uribe, Rafael, Colombia: 1. "Monograph on the banana." 2. "Cultivation
of Hawa rubber." 3. "Necessity for departments of agriculture in America."

Vidella, Florisa, Chile: "Agricultural instruction in normal schools."

Appendix P.
Names of the Members.


Chairman: Dr. L, S. Rowe, University of I'ennHylvania.

A'ice-chairman: Dr. Paul S. Reinsch, Uni\(_'rtiity of Wisconsin.

Dr. Hiram Bingham, Yale University.

Dr. Archibald Cary ( 'oolidge, Harvard University.

Col. W. C. Gorsas, U. S. Army.

Mr. W. H. H(ilme«, Smithsonian Institution.

Dr. Bernard Moses, University of California.

Mr. George M. Rommel, Department of Agriculture.

Dr. W. R. Shepherd, Columbia University.

Dr. W. B. Smith, Tulane University.

Secretary: Mr. Clarence L. Hay.

Assistant secretary: Mr. Charlc.'< G. Neumann.

Second assistant secretary: Mr, Huntington Smith.


University of California, Dr. Bernard Closes.

University of Chicago, Dr. A. A. Michelson, Dr. J. L. Laughlin.

Columbia Univer.-iity, Dr. W. R. Shepherd.

Cornell University, Mr. Orville Adelbert Derby.

Harvard University, Dr. Thomas Barbour, Dr. Archibald Cary Coolidge, Dr. J. B.

Wood worth .
Uni\ersity of Ulinois, Mr. A. Hempel.
Uni\cr.sity of Michigan, Dr. H. D. Cm'tis.
Uni\ersily of Minnesota, Dr. C. W. Hall.
University of Pennsylvania, Dr. L. S. Rowe.
Princeton University, Dr. W. E. Browning.
University of Wisconsin, Dr. Paul S. P^einsch.
Yale University, Dr. Hiram Bingham.


UniAorsity of California, Dr. Bernard Moses.

University of Chicago, Dr. A. A. Michelson, Dr. J. L. Laughlin.

C'Oluinbia Universily, Dr. W, 11. Shepherd.

Cornell University, Mr. (_)r\ ille ^Vdelhert Derby,

George Washington University, Mr, W. H, Holmes.

Harvaid University, Dr. Thoinas Barbour, Dr. Archibald Cary Coolidge, Dr. J. B.

University of Hlinois, Mr, Adolph Hempel.
Univeisily of Michigan, Dr. H. D. (Jurtis.
University of Jlinnesola, Dr. C. W, Hall.
Northwestern University, Dr. W. F. Rice.
Universily of Pennsylvania, Dr, L. S. Rowe.
Princelon Uni\-ersit>-, Dr. W, E, Browning.
Tulane University, Dr, W. B, Smith,
University of Wisconsin, Dr, Paul S, Reinsch.
Yale University, Dr. Hham Bingham.


Dr. T., S. Rowe, American Academ>' of Political and Social Science,
.\fr, D, E, Salaa, National Education .Vssociation of the United Slates.

Appendix Q.

Personnel of Organization Committee and Regulations of the Pan-
American Scientific Congress.


Marcial Martinez, honorary president; Valentin Letelier, president; vice-presidents
Manuel Eigidio Ballesteros and Miguel Cruchaga; Eduardo Poirier, general secretary;
Octavlo Maira, treasurer.

Members: Alejandro Alvarez, Luis Espejo Varas, Jose Ramon Gutierrez, Anselmo
Hevia Riquelme, Vicente Izquierdo, Alejandro del Rio, Domingo V. Santa Maria,
Miguel ^'aras.

Augusto Vicuna S., assistant secretary.


Article 1. In accordance with the resolutions of tlie Third Latin-.Vmerican Scien-
tific Congress of Rio de Janeiro, a Fourth Scientific Congress (First Pan-American)
will meet in the city of Santiago, in the month of December, ]!)0S, under the auspices
of the Government of Chile.

The congress will open on the 25th of said month of December, and adjourn on the
5th of January, 1909.

Art. 2. The work of organization and procedure of the fourth congress shall be in
charge of an executive committee composed: First, of members appointed by the
third congress at the full session held on August 16, 1905; second, of members elected
by the said committee.

Art. 3. The executive committee shall elect the ofiicers of the congress, composed
of a president, two vice-ijrcsidents, a general secretary, one or two assistant secretaries,
a treasurer, and an assistant treasurer.

There shall also be interpreters, clerks for the secretary's office, and such other
employees as may be deemed necessary.

Said committee shall appoint such honorary presidents as it may deem ad^'isable.

Art. 4. The executive committee shall be subdivided into subcommittees, each
of which shall be composed of a chairman and two members selected by said executive

-Vrt. 5. The duties of the executive committee are:

1. To arrange for the fourth congress and to represent it with the Chilean Govern-
ment, the universities, and other scientific, national, and foreign corporations.

2. To appoint, at the capitals of the American Slates, commiUces whose duties
shall be to cooperate in the holding of the congress, to prepare the list of the persons
to be invited to participate in its proceedings, to procure an adequate representation
from the several countries, and to suggest questions as, because of their evident Ameri-
can interest, should be submitted to the congress.

3. To authorize disbursements and to approve accounts before being presented to
the proper accounting authority.

4. To prepare the final questions to be propounded in accordance with the reports
presented by the subcommittees.

5. To prepare a list of names of the members of the congress, in conformity with the
provisions of article 10.

6. To appoint such spokesmen as may be necessary to set forth before the proper

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Online LibrarySantiago Pan-American Scientific Congress. 1stReport of the delegates of the United States to the Pan-American scientific congress held at Santiago, Chile, Dec. 25, 1908 to Jan. 5, 1909 → online text (page 8 of 9)