Sarat Chandra Das.

A Tibetan-English dictionary: with Sanskrit synonyms online

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of KimA (JIfiUm.).

H^m^^ Skh9 idai^hu ^ftnni, ^rWf

the son of Bali.

fl^^'^^ tMhldan^ma iflriV a power-
Ivl woman, an amaion.

ywQ-l §iob^^ ehe ^f%mm title of a
iMdrtffil for oauaing rain during a
iroi^t (K. gu. »t in).

(Mil ir.-fl §iob9 mo^'^s met. iron;s
(ftiO, with ayn. ^fs^ (M^im,).



fl^^ gkh^^mg mmm n. of a nmnb^
(Ta^. 56) ; |«w*^H«»f«'»«Hiflwwm
another nnmber.

fw^m: gtob^^md 1. wvnf n. of the
elder brother of Eiiahna. 2.s«^'M^apirit,
aleohol (Mion.).

Jfw^f^'^ 9bob9 (adrtf-ifia VTV» filV n. of
a medicinal plant (J^ii.).

fiiv'^m §hb§-lai «t«« oonrage, intrepi-
dity.

lf^'^ aior-wa^^-^ alao ^^f^'^ to go
aatray, to be loat ; 99^'^ a child baa
been loat; Ju§-^M trogt ihr^wa to loee
one'aUfe; %>m'y^'Q to loae one'a aenaee;
f^'vU^it cannot be loat ; |^'Q(^f^'4 to loae
an aitide; B*4tK'«i>rf^'q to be miagnided,
loae one'a ebaraeter: a^tAqpfr|irft«tR'f^'
A'' {A, 9) vdien he "waa loaing moat oer-
tainly the good look of emanoqpation;

ftMM fvy«HMir A^Mr (Uhram. 57) having
regained the (thing) loat he will be very
pleaaed.

* 9^H^' ifor-kkud 1. v^«m a mirage.
2. defined aa q*rt*a'iTa^Vi', 'TP or S?*^
a ditoh where all imparities are depoaited ;
alao a gutter or drain.

+ ^5'*' irtoHwi fat. |'WB:«i pf. ^|"
to grow wide, expand ; be oopiooa, abon-
dant. ^|T§^'«^ id.; ^^^m Wg with
repentance; ^a^o^^d inflated with
paanon.

^'^ latag-pa ^* («1W««) jA%
ir^H^ examined, v. X^^ ^^T^^ eareful
or minute inqmry or inveatigation, exami-
nation ; fi'«i>r49^(i examination of dreama;
^'Q*%'q9^vrir«r* ddlful in teating preoi-
oua atonea («Ai.).



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49irq'Q«ti J^frt^g-pa $kittpa to mike in-
quirj, inyeeigatitioii

^W""* iUi^at (V^^) n. <rf » numW..

^WW Jrt<V-4>y«rf=^»^ eMunina-
Uoiii oarefal weighing of ftU the details
of A ease, deliberation: M'W^'^'i^'Y
9i^'{^^ (Sdsa, 1)9) if anything be done
without deliberation, one xepenta at the
end.

Q5«ipi tiiaji-'^'T^ ilioghpa f»3^
1. dexfcrons, skilfaL 2. ^mr fiokle,
lightning. ^

^^ \n:ta4 ^1%ir a kind of formal
onne, whioh oonsiflts in hiding the ^SSigf
and name of an enemy in the ground
and imploring some deity to kill him: ^\
H^Q to perform that oeremony {Ja,),

1. new, zeeent; sadden. 2. haste, speed,

^*r^4 kri^n kheUMf to be soie or
oeitainof.

W<^ Inian-ldaH lih steadfast;, quiet,
steady.

«f^, iWF, 1K^, Ct, ^Tf, ir^, ftw 1. adj.
and abstract noun: firm, steadfast, safe.

2. firmness; 49^*^1^'^^'^ to last, hold out,
abide, ooqtinue; ^^^'^Vt<i acquire fimmess
and durability ; Q^^'^^'Q to become firm.
WS'lS hr^A ffy* 9ky%4 a continued or
abiding happiness ; S^*^ firm strength,
their strength is holding out; ^T^"^^"
to watch, keep, presenre carefully ; V*^w*<r
qi^af'q^-igi he kne^ his word to be inviol-
able; *^*rfln5W'*"' because he firmly kept
his word; V'^^'i'^*^ eternal welfare,
everlasting happiness ; ^^'^rq^^-ci finnfaith



Syn. ^*S'«> Uai-pM; ^V" gm^
^M^ iougt'pai »spi-^ mi'MlVHM (Hitofk).



^5^'^ n:-f^-9S«or m'iH theesrtli;
|jfV<Ai'fi|'}Ywmthe phyacal or material
world*

«^Y^ in: 11,1 the fixed star, pclsr
star.
Syn. of in: ^V {^er-pknr; ^V

f*flr <o^ ; V jfra gan r^aA^ (l^iofi.).

^9^')'^^' ittafhpa izui an epithet of the
Amra {%M Iha-min).

^^'tm Iftimt'paii eho9 1*w4 the
enduring religion, t.^.. Buddhism.

affcR'awp iptan-par bfotpm ffNni;
firmly rooted or establiiihad.

^W^ W^w-^pas*!^^, •■w '>|*'i (Jpfofi.) ;
q^acA'^^ icUM^ii dreg-pa (mysfcio) ; for
lf;mrdo^regi.(MHg.ll).

flfT^-ftS fei«J»^w ftW IffWfc caw«
to be established ; tho estaUkher.

^V^IS**! iri^n hyei-ma the goddaes of
earth; srJ^-flH^WfpiirtS* tiie goddess
of the earth who is thoroughly ateadlsst
(2>.i2.).

tti^'^^ \ttiM bi9kol4oa in 4|f^Kir^wiw
^^'K-^lfai if you seek reliahilitj, aesrch for
the daughter of a good father.

49^'M iitan-ihaf a complitnentaiy
Address or title of respect to good and
honourable man.

^^'"^ irtan-gyo m^Km^H the animate
and inanimate world; "!'<'?^'W8^»« *^
gyo signifies animated nature.

the aggregate of stability {A, JT. 1^S8)
2. V. «^*«.



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Oqi-q to be afraid of» to apprahind: |T<r
tra^q* feared an {Situ. 7S).

'^^^TP (r^HNi l.s««-^ V« far ftilff#-
/» grown up, aaything full blown. 3. to
be d6lighied: ^^l^^^-fff^^w^^-
^j^%ifll^yam {Tig. k. $r) I xaoeiTed
the note oontainmg the partioalan yoa
hftTe i6Dt togetiber with eockaiire of iilk
■oral, and haye been greatly pleaeed.

duiiy, aefliduons.

ufir^irq iciun <I«mw= W^«^'^*^raah
and self-flnffioient; «I5^^VH^ Jr^im-to
kfug-poi to be self-oonfident

PWl'fl ktt^m-pa ^^mm power,
proweiB.

qS^ tf M pf . and fnt. of ^^^-J (8*)-
rii.4S).

«f mild, gentle.

«yr*^ kti^pho4 or ajaM^a=^1^-
f«i'«J ^'K 1. a hero, champion; ^^ST^*
abode of a hero, a tiger's den. 2. (iV
2r^) to snbdne an enemy in battle.

qgorq Jr*t«/-ira=Vq^f^'^ «e^«r |6yor.
tea or Va^'l^'Q 1. to eonqner. 2. deport-
ment^ behaTVNir ((7«.). 3. diligenoe,
painataking (^A.).

qjarw irtuUma or OjcHsftf^ [not
blunted]^, cprw^-3 $|r9 beaven.

qgoTQ^ \ittuU9hug9 wi, ^jft:«<» ifvnft,
ift, qr^nm 1. tow; aco. to C$. manner,
way of acting. 2. ace. to 8ch, exeroiBe
of penance; q5«i|^9V*» or «yr|ifw|s
inrf^c to perform suoh exercises, to do
penanoe. 3. penitent.



«>rJW<^ JrW-MtVl «w«^^^* If*,
qif^ an ascetic: one who is penitent; a
maker of penance; a sage.

Syn. K^-f^' dta^-9t<Ai\ 1^Q*| kufUu
tgy^i vrt«»Tv«> rffcoWMift 9Ppo*ixi; ^i

iror gnwtpa (Jfiioii.).

qjfll-OTW^q^- firiuUhugi *«iil=W*
wnat any novice monk or disciple of. the
Hinajfdna sohod.

^'W« itiuU9hug9'ma^}fif^^''^ or
^•rqs^ii a house-wife (4f4wi.).

P^^ ir^ssfn^ fhug'pa a cayem

^ ifTa fnt. of f q we will see, let us
see; also sbst a view, project

«r^JT» »»-ac K%^ fWtl, W*i
pleasant to look upon, n. of the city of
India.

qjpA'H itUi-wati ehe4 tot seeing.

qff qR-M^ itUMcaii fgdha^ limit of sight ;
met. death.

Syn. ^^ icM'tca ; »^S^ iuhe-hdab ; '^"t
inhe-bpho; '^'^^ hchi^pho {M^hn.).

ay's Hia-h^ ^P^ visible.

^HP^ W«*f pf. of fq-q, ^q|q«-«*

{Situ. 75).

q^«^« iffamhpa pf. of |»rq=i^K.nq

Syn. |«*q #tysH» ; «rf^ «» S^*-tf<7 ; q««^

qSpW «/a» pf. of ?q /<a.M-<i.

^V^f^ W^thnof concerning, regarding.
as to; used as a postp. with q.



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''fS Warf=»« lioi or Ji'i surfaoe;
direotion : Ar^llipi'cqfS on the side of a
oooL hiU (r«-M/. 5^).

^f^ iitam, ^ damoDsiantion, ezplU
oatLoQ (2IMII. iO).

4.q|i;*^f^'q iftan ^fidf^-wa hard to ezj^li-
cftte (^^ w) a religioaB work or doctrine.

W^ W^i^hgtf^ ^ muoellaneoiui
ooUeotion of literary works, both sacred
and general, consisting of 225 volumes.
Very few of the Tangyor treatises belong
to Tibetan anthoorflhip; they are mostly
translations into Tibetan from Ohinese and
Sanskrit texts. A fine copy of this oolleo-
tion is stored at the India office.

^'|w|^' kttafHtgtf^ gU^ a monastery
presided over by one of the four incarnate
lamas of Lhasa from among whom by turn
the 8gffMl4ikabt m., the B^gent of the
Dalai Lama, is selected. The monastevy
stands in the northern qnaxtercf Lhasa
within the walls of the dty; and the title
by which the lama of Tan-gye-ling is
known in Tibet is ^H-^X'^ fftfe-m Sin-
p<hche.

a religioas oommentaiy.

wa TfMmi WNt works xelating to the
S'&stras: (1) ^f^Sl'^H'*** dm-mei-kgi
tstan-icoi ; (2) ^S'^WI'V*'' don-hg-gt
ittan-ioot; (8) ^^^^-^^Hf^t^i dan^dai
Idafi^patHiUtn'iooi; (4) ^i^^^'^i^t^i
ikohpa Ihur-kfhpati isUM^§; (5) fS

Wtf»-Sw; (6) fii^'^fi*^^^m tgrulhpa
Ihur-kn^pati tiion^i90§; (7) ft^s^-^-^gir*'
mf^tm ia9hgyo dad tbrel^wtiti (tton-i^of ;



(8) ♦rt'^F*^ hite hral-gpii9taH-^99 ;

(9) |^«r«*ISt V*« #*v.W«' »*«-

^^'^ W^uhp^ miw 1. doctrinal
teaching in genend. 2. a single doctrine
orasystemof doctrines. «urjw)qpiti«a«|.
tgy^i^lf^ itiaihpa the doctrine or religkm
ofBnddha; l^^Mn^^ftewfortnA-qfri
tkubiMbi ttkm^paiiL; *ns^ ^l^sw; f^
imir; «fevfr^W« nmNfli (Inir. J. JT.).
v.Jf^. WW^^'' explanation of the
real state (of the body of illoaon).

qf^tiS||-^ MoM-^pff^' tgroH^m the lamp
of religion, a spiritual goide, a compli-
mentary title for a learned lama {Yig. k,
SO).

V^***^'^W itian-paii m^a^idaj the
lord of religion^ Y«*f«rT^'!^*''^w^-^T^"
•i^nqS^-»*«r*S-¥»*«*«f^-^ to the feet
of his hoUnesB ^Narcia — the inatchlees
lord of the ptvloimd mystic doctrineft
{Tig. k. 10).

nfSnim : to make intelligible, to eladdate.
^f^*1 iitofMna seems to be a name
givw to certain female sabterranean spirits
Uyinginmoantainoosdistaiots. Onesach,
in the expanded history of Gantama, nnder
the title of Owrt^-^T^^qi^ljr^^'S**^^'
f H idtan^bu^lkl'Bogi d^^af^km ffmr-gp
Ma^Fmaki Ou^mo^ was, alter his Tietoiy
over M&ra the devil, cited as a witness to
his exploits. In both llilarasp^ and
Fadma Tang-yig, we read of *Hhe twelre
(fton-ma" sud to hannt the upper peaks of
Monnt Eyerest. Padma Sambhava oons-
titated them protectors of the Dootxine in
that r^on. MQaraspa speaks a^so of a
^y-H or mistrees of the twelTC (f^aMHMa
whom he describes as a hhadowm aUe to
raise mirages before worldly eyea. (t.



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MO. r, §6M). Ju SUiL maatioa 10 madt
of: qn*aA'^^adls igiMtUmati g$o l m ^ oj
the f cod offleciiigt lor the goardian daity of
tli# nonaaiery ol ^«V|Mi t6r«i-«Nfi^
pimg) called ^^.

^1^ ftlrf ew- rtwf a okroiiidogy; date*
relatiTe to the year of Buddha's death ;
^If^ a follower of Buddhifiii, a Bnddhxfit ;
an adhnent of a dootrine ; ^ff^ oolloq.
a destroyer of the doetdne, an ohnozioiia
penoQ.

^9V^ Wm-ifo^ MIr n. (rf a number.

^ff^^' Wat^-n^ 1. guardian of the
dootrine. 2. a goardian in general.

•^•^•^l p*j^r^^ gifii having been freely
dispensed, food was set forth (8Uu, 76),

HP^'fl WflrH«i=W^:^^«il.tosweep,
dean, cleanse ; also adj. nioe and elegant.
2. to appreciate; to be aware of (Xff.);
^*|«i iftar ehog'p0^¥^'%'^'^''* to be
able to oonq^rehend, -appreciate {Yig. k.
iS).

Off 'q ftl^^HMsur^f-q to take rest

4t>^* lttii4tMai private honse, sanotnm.

♦«t«W W»-^»M»i V»^'^'*^ 1- the
plaoe of origin, sonroe. Under this term
are said to fall: fS^^ residence; fiii
home;i'qF'lama*sxesidenoe;>('q^' palace;
^IjSfiWrr*'* Vihdra or monastery ; l^'^^'^'^
Ardma groye or park where reUgions ser-
mons are given; S'^^, ^'ff^ hermitage,
aanotoary, retreat of mn^m. 2. f ^9
essenoe.

-t-4'<V^' (l^^^ails^« respect; ««'
J-jir^S bowing, physically shewing
respect i^'ir Ji^' V-%if qj^^ Vlli^S^'^ (Fii.
9ei. Si).



•t*«fr« t9ti^9kuU wN a feUow
religions stadent

*l^*^ Wa^hig or 4^«r1^ ii^tVfi.
Uhig Mwm satire, irony; also reflecting
vg^on. oondnot in polite lai^aage;eensiire
oonoealed nnder sweet langoage.

Syn. ^^'kph^a4$kigi H^Vi#«
iMg-gn (f^fXi (8Uu. 7S).

^^ ittir so^nne of |'4 i^Mra.

one of the infernal regions. •H|^*^*^S^rq
the hell of endleai torments. 2. ace. to
Ja. restlessness.

^^^ WK-ica 4f^ to bring together
disocndant elements; to ooUeot in one he^
things nnlike one another. The four
enlaties which may be so drawn together
^r-A-^Qq^ are:-.(l)|vi i[m; (2) fif
*^¥*'flwiiftw; (8) t,^fS^ dtm-h ^^^pa
w^wnf ; (4) V*W «wM.

^ypj'^ it^tP^ to make lower, to
lower {8ck,).

^1 i9tui§ pf. t^^ n V (-^w-
75).

n^*C| ittun^pa to be compared ; «^'
■r* TP !• ^T*i^' he by akilfol compari-
son imposed on- them (A. IfT) ; ^'«ii'«i1^
^'^'^^'^ were oompared as to dse and
height and depth (Tig. k. 1),

q^^M^^wt^-q^q^^ to attend, wait
upon, respectfully, to serve ; mjum f a lit.
being ranged quite doeely together,
quite huddled together; also sticking
most closely {A. K, 111^).

7S



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«ifS-q|



•W'^T^W^ ittm^tdof gnat the object
or penon on wliioh oae wiahes to lAy.

^^'<i itUn-pa 1. pt. €i ttmhpa. 2.
Bbet t^mmt yb. t. f^'^ oopMeiioe;«
^'^ tc^on'pa {Jo,).

<h'B (f^M-^ 1« oiie to be served,
waited upon.

^'Y« (l^M-to %v fit to be respected
or serYed.



9^^^^4) to tellier eelfle moh aa hoTMBv
sheep, goata, ete. ; ^wrif^ to telliflariritb
a afering (Situ. 76). 2. maHopaaBHf eqpiai-
aion of pEaiae, t. fS'Q iM-p^

tV^9 "V^^ to praiae, to enwipliniwt; in
ooUoq.B^K^ or *|S1: •f"»'^'qiR^fr|-
nfS-w^*^'^ being gieatlj pwi»d 1^
the learned, noUe, and good {A. IM).



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^



9 I : i^ the tentti letter of the Kbe-
tea elphebet end the aeeond ooneoneiit of
the dental oleei. Bistheeepinted torn
effle; eadmBngliehitB Kmndmight be
found m the woid ^Thames."

1. nnm. flg. 10. 2. every thing, all,
total (8eh.).

9 n : defined as |irqr^ti|-cA-i^ signify,
mg f oolidineflB and mental daifaiete.

9 in : In Bndh. ^t ha hike entranee
to the cognition of all things^ of matter
and phenomena: (a) ^k-ipnrf^ipi^'^iivw
^fq-ifm-otKyi it demonstrates that. aU
things aire phenomenal (JT. d. <| lU) ; (f)
^^ft^n^^'%9:Urmm^-i;ffK it ie iym-
bc^otlheinstaUUfyofallttiingB (SbunL

9*'if ththU n. of a fmit, a iqpeaies of
iralnni. r^S ''^f^^^-J (8am. k. 179).

^^ tha-ifuur ^ftA 1. n. of a oon-
tellsiikm represented in Buddhist astio-
iomy hj a woman on horseback. 2. n.
f the goddess presiding oyer that oonstel-
ition.

Syn. rfV« rte Idan-ma ; ^J 5"^H«i if^pw-
tf gcig-pa; ^iwrt-^H ^gii«.ipa^* ^.mo

mn^ the two sons of Aftim who aie
YinB phjrioians. 'T^l'l^ tha-^kar-ggi
v^M-a the month of A^a (October).
rJ-f iha^tar^lfi Ha ^i(%^ n>4i|iiit the
U moon in the month of j^'im.



9*piq ^Ae-JfcAa6 a large needle (in Lk.)

(Ja.)-

^'1|'^ iha-na-na occurs in the work
^^^^••^*i-^iKw«^w^»isHi a com-
mentaiy on the description of the names of
Ththga-na and other tenns of mysticism
(2W. % f 7).

4. Sf^!f^ tha-ga-pa w^vm, vvft=^iv
'■^■^••^ 1. a wearer, one of the weaving
caste in India. 2. in Tib. a term for the
lowest class (^^) of people.

peaceful ; mild aspect.

wreath, a short cord or rope; twine for
making garlands; a chain or fetter.

^li^^^ iha-guH ^o-ean wH^ an
epithet of Yishnu on whose belly >»^«g
garknds (WUmJ).

"T^^ iha-gui lei under the weight of
chains; bound lyy fetters or ropes : A'^^'
«^]N-|F^-s^w|« a man of wicked nature
lies under the weight of the chain <rf fraud
(Ekrii. 9).

^'5 ^kff^ru Mjm aoc. to Jd. crigi-
mdly n|=|S^ rggoMpon 1. krge-
nese, spaciousness; abundance, plenty.
2. ace to J3. extent, width, breadth:
^ra^-^rfUfH gdsam^ gUH^gi tha^grn
kun-h in the whole extent of Jambudvhia
(Wr.).

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<f *'^ iha-ifru ehe-wa^^^'^ or J'^'^
Tery wide, flpaoions; eztennye.

ri'VM'q tha-ifru pai§^ very qpMOUSi
sbundaDt (40^*)*

74^ ihtHCgyof obtofle, rounded off

If 9*2^ <Aa^# or ^a^ tha^ha4
MM, «filf«, ^rw, ^ baae, aordid, Tile

^*^* tha^kud 1. the last month of
a season, «.^., <4\f'*^' *>y«-»A» <Aa-M«*^
the last month of spring, opp. to ^'^ ra-
ica the first month. 2. the youngest of
three or more sons: J^^'^V^V'' the
youngest or last two of the nine brothers.

^•|^<Aa.»«arfl.=«^*V-iw ^ the
hand. 2. ^T seems to be used of a "word
when employed in some peonliar sense
rather than in its striotly etymological
meaning; for example, as a proper name.
A derived or compounded word can only be
caUed a <A«.|«arf when the idea it expresses
does not clearly appear on analysis;
4'f^'^'Y^ understanding the sense. 8.
designation; metaphor; phrase; ^'IS*^
^<^'n shei tha-fnai^t* gragt^ so it is said
to be styled. ifv«^-i»^^ conditional truth
(/d.). 4. ^^%XK behaviour, practice, deal-
ing, business ; pecuniary transaction.

rfS'n iha-^^ai^ \^m, Mm one who
plap at dice ; gaining at dice ; one i«dio lap

stakes at play.

t-IS'iW' tha-piai (fcig-pa 1. of the same
nomendature. 2. n. of a school of
doctrine.

^fK^ tha^a4 fi^ iw» a writer.



^•^^ <Aa-Mor«^* ihar-tkar a few
hero and there: a^i^rlk^ir^
#Mtf-fiN ^p&n^M iha^kar yotf-jMi «^
fliere were a'few scattered farisOes of i^tAe-
fH {Bd9a. 18).

MM% Mm^ fim, Wrt%« distinction, sepeia-
ied, not mixed up together. ^^^ttM-dt^
tka the five kinds of distinctionA are:—
(1) 9>r<c''^ difFeranee in the teachen
(founders) of religions; (2) *rr^^ differ-
ence in the doctxines taught by them;
(d) ^^^'r''^^ 4ge-idun tha-4a4 difieienoe
in the classes of monks; (4) •w*^ la§ iha-
d^drSerenoe or varieties in works; (5) ^
^S lam iha^4 difference in the ways,
different methods or ways of reaohing the
goal (JT. du, «« 88). <^'J"«W"ww the
different sages or schools of sages (Pt^.
5). t^g*rt*3i^ tha-dai hytHca euptn fi
•rniWiWH Mhst are the various doings or
I?



^'SS\' tha-daJ-dH separately, variously,

apart : ^SS'^'^V''!''^**' ""I* Mmi^nn one
of llie eighteen ^(w^wq unmixed Hieories
of Buddha (Jf.F.). ^^"^'^^ M^-^W^is
dkye-na if differentiated? also: s|yntheti-
cally, differentially. i^-^*HT» ^«-<W-
dm mijug-pa^^'^^^^P^ not diifering,
not being different, not ad mittin g oi
differentiation.

'A\^<^ T. ^1 thar-mt.

9*3( iha-na 1. polite inquiry at any
time regarding a Buddhist monk's com-
forts while he is taking any meaUctc This
forms a part of the training in manners
given to monks. 2. even, so far as,
npto: <«riiis-ifsg-w««wr| even having
thought that (one) was laughing at. r^



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f-^-lfxl



f f a^lif |^M«ra^ 0rai abore the maUait
insect, i>., abo^e the ants.

^•q«^«{) ^^n^- thihpi oonfiuion, dis-
oider (8eh).

^'^ tha^wa^^wn mm 1. (^Upf)
rigid, haid, oompaoti fiim (Jl 2M.)-

2.=:9'q liltMM bad (ifl/.). 8.»^'

anger.

rq*^^*4|f^ <Aa-6a ^loii^ ftar ^miin or
«^ one of the stagee of yoga (y. 9ff^%'

^'^ Mo-te Wlw a medicinal plant Ter*
mnalia tomentosa.

^M^ Mo-^n oast-oi! dothee; rags
thrown oat; f 9^ « ^-|iif S'^fi from the
heap of oast-off rags at the entranoe
of a house {Pag. 180).

^*W iha^ma 1. ^^mm, ^w, wm, fire,
^^Pf vile, inferior, poor, humble. 2.st«'
•* or •m»« the last, lowest, uttermost ; Wt i^
ff^ §«'}^g'arS|^ the lowest class of male is
be ip^o is ridi in wealth (9brom. 51) ; the
last of several things, with respeot to
lumber, time, or rank: ^s^s^'J'rsi ihe
neanest of the oamivoroos animals ; MjS
1^ r«r]('«q« the end of every meeting is
•arting; ^J'^wrq^^ gfief^gfi tka-moi
^§kor be sees his relations for the last
ime around him; m^J^v* tof-kgi tha»f/m
f/ lie <*ats for the last time (Jd.),

a •^•i tha-ma-k 1. adv. finally, at la&t.
. poet p. : at the end of, after=K"i.

a#*^ ilKt^mar to the utmost, at the end,
tstly; •***"S%a thu^mar 4gt'Kn v^fi^^f^
m^n jnety, auspidousnese : ^^W**^'^^
r^i^tan t/tO'HMr f^dng lettly, there
ileut {JBOrofh, 51).



^wtm tha-^ma la§
all events, in any case.



at the least, at



^ ^'*I'P tha-nuhkha tobaooo: rn'^rn

a|i«ilif^'q-^|^' I in andent time about one
hundred years after the Iftrvdi^ of Bud-
dha, this evil drug called Thamdkha
i^ypeared (Chu^JtwH. % iS). Mention is
also made of tobaooo in the writings of
Miicig LalhdoH dated the 12th centory
A.D.

9*1*^1 tha-mO'ga also ^''^ tha-mag 1.
is a KoDgolian words Tib. i^^phgag^dam
the official seal, or a warrant containing it ;
also tablet with the seal of authority : ^'
^^•^^•8iiWi^'WSsrs|-^ii^<r^K.vH^- 1 the
governor Orag^-dar having received the
warrant of official command from
the En^>eror Se-chen (Ehublai-khan) {J.
ZoU.). 2. in H^. tobacco.

^'^Rn^^t/ta-mal^M wn^J^X ordinary,
mean, coarse, vulgar, common, general,
usual : si« «i^-^^^ to live like the vulgar ;
s#M<rir3)^ that is no usual thing, no com-
mon or ordinary thing (Ja.).



5' 4^ lha^shig^rmjfs.ws9fwi^'i or r*S'
^M vow, promise, solemn word : sr^^
»*^?^ J^HS'K'' foiget not, forget
not, reflect on your former vowa I ft* J'^'*^
^^-fi ^S^i •! in thinking closely on thy
former rigid vows. In the common saying
fr^a^t^»s| kha-ipe ia tha dam-Uhig
the word4 t/ia dam-Uhig signify solenm
vow

5'^ q'^ tlit^ra tha-re iu W. wide
asunder, wide; t^T'^q^^q tha'ta th<hre
^Hkait'pa to m?atter, to throw loosely about
(Ja.)



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•#«9*^1 ika-ram 1. «« Tile, mma:
^•Wiri^'4| r^irfifrjwinw^he porayed
to Qfen^ab that the vile ones should be kid
under ohains {Bon), 2. a medioinal herb
in X/«., PlatUago mt^or (Jd.) rw^^t<
"K^ iha-ram Vthrw-wa ffpoi^pwr hyei the
herb tharani stops diarrhoea. 3. the
breadth of a plain (8eh).

^^»W tha-ram^^f!^'^ ^aim^ adj.
full.

^^^fJia-ru the utmost limit (Selff.).

^^C Iha-loU in F^. a sort of red qLoOi

(Ja.).

modest, lowly; base, ugly. 2. a misohie-
vous person, one who is inferior, oruel, and
mischief. making: ^K^n'^ili'^^'^'r"'
3iq^<^»fHtR-i-1'i**r^-««IT' {Ta-^L 11)
now^a-days the iooamations of great and
sanctified souls do not make show of great-
ness but live in modest and humble man-
ner, j'i'a'^i^ 9/cy€9^ tha^l Mt'i a
n'er-do-weel.

9F^l:Thagl.n, of a place in Tibet : •T
i|'}-9^'«i^'S«l'l|-|q^«tls-q^'X at the time he
was engaged in the acquirement of per-
fection at R^yo-io in Thag {IM>. 5). 2.
for^^«^W«tiiepJ»te. ^^^thag-bin^m^^ ,
^y«< bgram^ l^wr the human palate;
swelling of the tongue.

^ II: distance: ^^%'^ thag ei-Uam
how far ; ^^ ma-thag only now, just now,
gen. with a verbal root : jws^^^ he
that has arrived just now ((?/r.); B^'^iS*''
v^ (the passages) that have been ex-
plained just now; as an adv. gen. ••'^ft
nia ihag4u or only ^^ nia4hag frq., •.g^
«rK^^t as soon as he had heard; ^^^^
tU^ma ihag'tu immediately (from Ja.).



•^I'fl ikag ne^wa or ^^'^ thng^Ht-m
fiM near; proximity; •T^"*'*''^ do not
be familiar, keep at a distance. ^'*i^'
ijS thag me-Bor tdai sit near, in the vicinity.

Syn. \^ ne-log; V^ Se-ik/tor; %^
^^ dtui'fM'fHo; M gfo\ V^ iho-hkhot
{1»on.).

«T^ thag^ran fibre from the bark of
plants or trees, Ac, v. M^ rm^ma.

«^^' tkag^riA ^; distance; dibtant:
esr^'Q''*^ thag^rii'po nw4fffe4 do not make
it distant; •^^•^»^H^^**«'*J^^ *
neighbour is a hundred times better than a
relation residuig at a distanoe. ^^1^',

Syn. '^V^ hgydk9\ JF*^' rgp^riHi
«Hr if^f ^^'^ eke9^U^^9ca (JKikm.).

^^n ikag^rH-^ or e^UH tliag
rtX-fiia far distant, a great distance;
«r«^^' sa-ihag riH a far or remote
country. e^^tl'^ thag rUL-po *w
from afar, from a distance.

e^^Y^q thag gcoirP^ vb. a. (^<^^ thag
choifrpa or ^^'^ thag-ekai^pa vb. n. or
passive) 1. to out the cord, sever, disoon*
neot; to abandon: «FS^'^•^«'•%3^a^•«^wr
'^idag ne-^ daH ibrel^ag ica^'pat ide I
am glad at having severed the comieotion
with my family ; %9'rt'^'n^ the hope of
going has been given up. Aeo. £b SMr.
^'^^YV« to^ag gooi-pa^io wean (a
child) ; f n^ ilo4hag oho4 deliberation
is out off, the matter is decided or resolved
upon. 2. to decide, resolve, detennine :
jfli«qif^ q^i^usS-q it was determined to
murder the king ; Jv^Vn^ «r4H^ w»-^a^*s
<r^ if you both positively refuse to give me
awife. ^^S'^rJsq to be sure, to decide, be
certain : V^flrq^'^Yq^^'Q as it is quite oertain
that he has died; ^'n<S yo4 ihag^od



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iiartoi ikMi-ckoi it k foifee oertain that
reljgion will gp r o a d ; y**wn^w^yi beiiig
imnumUe in onntflmplatioii.



^Y^s^Q ikBg ioai^ is aame as ^i'^<^'
Mi^ IHm daoided, fbishad. ^t9l«'^ «rli'

ckoiMer (Bd9M.Sl).

SjxL ffim iMla^^; ^-^ phffofi^kai
(tfiUm.).

^^ ikag^^koi oerUdntj; soxetji evi-
dence: M'9^'^^'9%'^^ hot one should
know for certain, one must be sure of it
(Jfi7.) ; tr«r^t<S'l'¥r*«^^ you, the ascetic
(yoffi)f finn in meditation («7a.).

9^^ ihag'4kag the noise made by
the fingers on a door, eto^ aa onomotopetio
woxd; 9'^^^'^^rtS*^ to knook on or at the
door.

^"^ihag^paaf^^l. «« a creeping
plants root. 2. ^ fl a rope, cord; «w
^^oAlAo^ rope made of wool; ^\^r^«i^
thag rope of the long hair of the Tak;
f^ r^a-ihag or W^^ phon-tkag rope of
graas ; ^F^ leagi4kag iron-chain, wire-
rope; '^"(^ ra§4kag cotton-rope, bandage
(Ja.). ««r^ ihag-mig mesh of a net {8eh.) ;
e^f thag-wo rope-wcrk ; rope maker's woik ;
^gwrttfi^'q tkag4^ra ^MtuUffihoi-wa lit
mfstaking a spotted string for a snake; fig.
to be beli^esB, to be Tary afraid of. ^W'^
q^^prf^-q ^ wwrfl^ i to be attached or
tied by a ropo (^ IT. I-i6). «JS^«^1^-
NT^'I^C^'V'^^'I "we shall watch, defend-
ing you in all linoerity {SuraH, H^i),

a ^ ^ ^ffjw ihag'pa g9um fig. the three fet-
:ors : (1) '^•^'r«*vrs^p|^- to preserve an



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