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The new Biblical atlas, and scripture gazetteer : with descriptive notices of the tabernacle and the temple online

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CoNSiDEEABLE attention has been given during the last twenty years to Biblical
Geography : its study has been promoted by the recent laborious investigations
of learned men, and by a more careful preparation of maps. In the year 1840,
the Eeligious Tract Society issued a Scripture Atlas, which was found very useful,
and which has had an extended circulation. Since that time a considerable
advance has been made in this department of knowledge. Very few localities in
Palestine, for instance, had, up to that period, been satisfactorily ascertained, either
by astronomical observation or geographical survey. The accounts of nearly all
early travellers had been loose and indefinite, and often legendary and fabulous
More recent writers, however, have felt the importance of greater care and accuracy,
and hence materials have been furnished for the preparation of maps far superior
to those hitherto published.

For the arrangement of the present Atlas, the principal guide has been the
"Bibel Atlas nach den neuesten und besten Hiilfsquellen," the production of
Heinrich Keipert, of Berlin, a learned artist, who executed the valuable maps, and
wrote the accompanying memoir, for Dr. Robinson's "Biblical Researches." But
whilst his publication has formed the basis, the labours of Berghaus, Ritter,
Schubert, Guers, and others, have afforded valuable assistance. The Physical Map,
constructed by Petermann expressly for this work, will commend itself to the
attention of the studious reader. The descriptive matter has been carefully com-
piled from the works of Burckhardt, Buckingham, Robinson, Wilson, Olin, Barth,
Kitto, Coleman, Lynch, Bartlett, and other modem writers.

It is hoped that this improved work may assist many to read the Bible with
more interest and profit; and that, so reading, they may, through the blessing of
the Divine Spirit, experience the power of that holy book in enlightening the eyes,
converting the soul, and rejoicing the heart. C.




MAP, No I.

The Ancient World, sho\^Tng the probable
Settlements of tlie Descendants of Noah

Japheth • •

Ham .•...•
Shem . . . . •
Kingdom of Nimrod .

MAP, No. n.

Countries mentioned in the Bible
Mesopotamia ....
Arabia ....
I. Arabia Deserta .
n. Ai-abia Petrea
III. Arabia Felix

1. The Edomites .

2. The Moabites

3. The Amalekites

4. The Midiaiiites

5. The Ammonites ,

6. Ishmaelites .

7. Kenites .

Egypt ....

Assyria ....
Aram, or Syria .
Ararat, or Armenia Major
Chaldaea, or Babylonia
Media ....
Parthia ....
Persia ....
Africa ....

Cush, or Ethiopia
Libya . . . •
The Ludim .

MAP, No. in.


Tabular View of the Stations .

MAP, No. rV.
Canaan, as divided among the Twelve
Tribes, from the Time of Joshua to the
Accession of David . . • .30

Levi 31

Reuben 32

Gad 32

Manasseh 32

Judah 32

Ephraim . . _ 33

Benjamin ,...*. 33

Zebulon , . 33

Dau .
Simeon .

MAP, No. V.
The Kingdom of Israel in the Time of
David and Solomon ....




MAP, No. VI.


Palestine, under the Maccabaean and Idu-
mecan Princes, and illustrative of the
Period of Christ and his Apostles

Judea .......

Samaria .......

Galilee .......

Parasa .......

Idumaea .......

Modern Palestine .....

The Journeys op the Apostle Paul ;
the Seven Churches of Asia .
St. Paul's First Missionary Journey
,, Second Missionary Journey

,, Third Missionary Journey
,, Voyage to Rome
,, Fourth and last Journey
The Seven Churches of Asia

MAP, No. Vin.

Jerusalem and its Environs
I. Ancient Jerusalem .
WaUs .
Gates and Towers
Streets aad Palaces
Reservoirs and Pools
Modern Jerusalem

Publ'c Edifices .






MAP, No. IX.

Physical Map of Palestine and the adja-
cent Countries


Region of

adjacent to

I. The Great Valley
The Waters of Merom
The Lake of Tiberias
^ The River Jordan

The Dead Sea .
The Wady el-Arabah
n. The Region of the Plain

the Shore
III. The Tablelands

rV. The Lebanon, also the Sinaitic Group
V. Geological andMineralogicalFeatures 65

MAPS, Nos. X. and XI.
The Tabernacle : its Altars, Utensils,

and Priests

The Tabernacle : its Courts

Altars, etc. ......

Mode of Encampment ....

Garments of the Priests ....





MAP, No.
Plan of the Temple .
Solomon's Temple
Herod's Temple . .


Scripture Gazetteer




The classical and other names which do not appear in the Bible aie engraved in a thinner letter.
The mark ? denotes that the site is doiibtfiil.



No. I.

€lie Intient Wmlt


The tenth chapter of Genesis contains a brief account of the descendants of ^Toah,
To the inattentive reader it may seem an uninteresting catalogue of names, but to
the student it is of the highest value as a clue to the perplexed history of the nations
of the earth. It should be remembered that this chapter is an inspired document,
which, taken in connexion with other portions of Scripture referring to it, will yield
much important instruction.

It was the opinion of the ancient fathers, that the distribution of mankind was not
left to be settled at random, or according to the exigencies of the moment ; but that
a distribution of the world, as known to the patriarch Noah, was made by him among
his three sons, before any actual migrations from the first settlement, in Armenia,
took place. Probability is in favour of this hypothesis ; and Dr. Hales, who adopts
it, quotes the striking passages, Deut. xxxii. 7 — 9, and Acts xvii. 26, as tending strongly
to support it. He also adduces in its favour an Armenian tradition, quoted by
AbuKaragi, which states, that Noah distributed the habitable part of tlie globe, from
north to south, between his sons, giving to Ham the region of the blacks, to Shem
the region of the tawny, and to Japheth the region of the ruddy.

" We are not warranted," says Dr. J. Pye Smith,* " to suppose that the families,
or clans, or tribes, or however the groups might be formed, migrated immediately to
their respective seats, by any sort of general breaking up. This would presuppose
some kind of compulsory enforcement, which neither the nature of the case, nor
any intimation in the narrative, warrants us to assume. We may rather conceive
that a diversity of movements took place, excited by general conviction of duty and
utility, guided in a great measure by patriarchal directions, and strengthened by
circumstances which would inevitably occur ; such, on the one hand, as earthquakes,
volcanic eruptions, local inundations, land-slips, pi'oof of unwholesomeness in marshy
districts, the annoyance of winged insects or other noxious animals — urging to depart
from disagreeable or dangerous places ; and, on the other hand, attractive peculi-
arities, new and more convenient situations for pasturage, better soils for the various
* Li the article. Nations, Dispersion of, Kitto's Biblical Cyclopaedia, ii. 396.



kinds of agriculture, more pleasing sites for dwellings, the formation of towns, and
the security of their inhabitants. It is, also, too probable that there were turbulent
men, or those who had perpetrated crimes or occasioned offences, who, with their
fiimilics and adherents, would quit hastily, and travel as rapidly and as far as they

The descendants of Japheth are enumerated first in the sacred narrative ; and
very briefly, as the more remote nations and the least concerned in biblical history
The primitive families of Ham follow ; and the generations of Shem, as the most
important, are mentioned last. The Canaanites, who lived nearest, are described
with the greatest particularity, — so that even, in one instance, the boundaries are
stated. Moses describes the individual tribes of the descendants of Gomer, Javan,
Cush, Mizraim, and Ai-am, who lived near him, and even the minor divisions of the
family of Joktan.

I. Japheth, it appears from Gen. x. 21, was the eldest son of Noah. His name
denotes " enlargement," and his boundaries have indeed been wonderfully extended.
Not only Europe, but Asia Minor, the whole of the vast regions of Asia north of
Taurus, and probably America, were peopled by his posterity. The genealogical table
of his race may thus be represented : —

I ^

f 1 ^1 i \ \ ^

Gomer. Magog. Madai. Javan, Tubal. Meshecu. Tiras.

( I \ ( j i 71

Ashkenaz. Riphath. Togannah. Elishah. Tarshish. Kittim. Dodanim.

1. The descendants of Gomer, the eldest son, spread themselves westward over
nearly the whole continent of Europe, retaining, with some slight variation, their
paternal name of Gomerians ; as Cimmerians in Asia ; Cimfcri in Gaul and Italy ;
and Cymri, Cambri, and Cumbri, in Wales and Cumberland. Ancient authors
identify them also with the Galatse of Asia Minor, who, according to Josephus, were
called Gomeriani, from their ancestor Gomer ; from whom came the Gaels, Gauls,
and CeltaB of Europe, occupying the countries from the Euxine or Black Sea, to
the Western Ocean. The descendants of Gomer are mentioned among the northern
nations, which should accompany Gog in his conquests in the latter days, Ezek.
xxxviii. 6.

Ashkenaz, the eldest son of Gomer, appears to have settled on the coasts of the
Euxine Sea, which from him received its primaiy denomination, Axenus, resembling
Ashkenaz. His precise settlement is represented in Scripture as contiguous to
Armenia, westward, answering to Bithynia ; for the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and
Ashkenaz are mentioned together, Jer. li. 27. The Armenian language is still called
the Ashkenazian. The rabbinical Jews understand by Ashkenaz the whole of Ger-
many ; but Keipert says such a view is unsupported by testimony. Eiphath, the
second son, peopled the country east of the Euxine, Paphlagonia, Croatia, and the
Alpine regions. Togarmah, or Togarmuth, the third son, inhabited the confines of
Armenia and the Caucasian regions. Togarmah is mentioned witli Gomer, Ezek.
xxxviii. 6 ; and with Meshech and Tubal, Ezek. xxvii. 13, 14.

2. Magog, Tubal, and Meshech, sons of Japheth, are noticed by Ezekiel, (xxxviii.
2, 14, 15,) as settled in the north; that is, the space between the Black and the
Caspian Seas, and the borders of Scythia. Tlie first of these may be traced in the


Mongogians, Mongols, and Moguls ; the second in the Toboloski of Siberia ; and
the third in the Moschici, Moscow, and Muscovites. Reference is made to their
descendants in Ezek. xxvii. 13 ; xxxii, 26 ; xxxix. 1. The prophet speaks of Magog
as a country and Gog as its ruler.

3. Madai was the father of the Medes, who are thus denominated in Scripture :
see 3 Kings xvii. 6; Isa. xiii. 17; Jei\ li. 11 ; Dan v, 28; and probably also of the
primitive inhabitants of Hindustan.

4. Javan, the fourth son of Japheth, was the father of the Javanians, or Jaones
of the Greeks. He had four sons, by whom the different portions of Greece Proper
were peopled. Kittim is now generally considered to have settled in C^^prus ; and if
we proceed on the principle that we are to look first of all for the countries nearest
to the Hebrews, distinguished also for their civilization and commerce, hardly any
objection can be made to the adoption of the reading Rhodanim for Dodanim, and
applying it to the island of Rhodes ; or against explaining Tarshish to mean Tarsus
in Cilicia, where a very ancient Greek colony (descended from Javan) existed ; whereas
Tartessus in Spain, which has been commonly taken for it, was neither inhabited by
the Greeks, nor known to the Hebrews at the time that Moses wrote. Tarshish, in
the later books of the Bible, may possibly refer to the Spanish Tartessus.

II. Ham and his descendants are next mentioned, Gen. x. 6 — 20. Ham signifies
"teat," or "burnt," and is peculiarly significant of the regions allotted to his race —
Africa and the hot southern parts of Asia. The name of this patriarch is preserved
in the title given to Egypt, " the land of Ham," Psa. cv. 23. His genealogy may be
thus given : —



. I

f \ ^

Seba. Havilah. Sabtah.

Raamah. Sabtechali.










Ludim. Anamim. Lebabim.
Naphtuhim. Patbrusim. Caslubim.
Capbtorim. |




Sbeba. Dedan.

Sidon, Hetb, tbe Jebusite,

tbe Amoiite, the Girgashite,

tbe Hhite, tbe Arkite,

tbe Sinite, the Arvadite,

tbe Zemarite, tbe Hamathite.

1. CusH appears to have been the most celebrated of the sons of Ham ; he gave
his name to the land on both sides of the Red Sea. The portion in Asia, on the Gulf
of Persia, still bears the name of Chusistan, from whence his descendants spread over
Arabia and part of India, invaded Egypt under the name of " shepherd kings," and
thence passed into Central Africa.

Seha, Havilah, Sabtah, Sahtechah, and Raamah, the sons of Cush, and his two
grandchildren, Sheba and Dedan, seem to have settled in Idumea and a portion of
Arabia. Raamah founded a city in Arabia, which became noted for its commerce,
Ezek. xxvii. 22. Sheba, whose queen came to learn of the wisdom of Solomon, was on
the Arabian coast of the Red Sea. To the Jews in Palestine it was "the uttermost parts
of the earth," Matt. xii. 42. Dedan was a place of merchandise, — probably the modern
Aden, — a port which is again rapidly rising into importance.

2. Mtsb, or Mizraim, the second son of Ham, settled in Egypt, whence the Egyptians
are styled in Scripture, Mizraim, (literally, " the two Egypts,") or Mizraites, in the plural
form. This country is called in the East, at the present day, " the land of Misr."

Of the sons of Misr, Ludi^n and Lehabim were probably the Copto-Libyans The


fomier are joined by Isaiah (Ixvi. 19) with Pul, whose settlement is supposed to have been
about the island Philaj, near the first cataract of the Nile; by Jeremiah (xlvi. 19) with
the Ethiopians and Lydians ; and by Ezekiel (xxvii. 10) with Phut, as the mercenary
soldiers of Tyre ; — all plainly denoting their African position. The Naphtuhim occupied
the sea coast, called by the Egyptians, Nephtus. The descendants oi Pathrusim occupied
a lower part of Eg}-pt, which in consequence bore the name of Pathros, Isa. xi. 11; and
those of Casluhim and Cajyhtorim, the district which lies between the delta of the Nile
and the southern extremity of Palestine. The descendants of these latter people were
the Philistines. Caphtor is mentioned by Jeremiah (xlvii. 4) as an island, and is
supposed, from its geographical position, to be the island of Crete, which was known
to the Egyptians at a very early period, and may have been first colonized by the

3. Phut, or " the bow," and his posterity, are supposed to have peopled that part of
Africa called Mauritania, which answers nearly to the modern Barbary and Morocco.
Pliny mentions a city in this region called Putea, and Ptolemy, a river bearing the actual
name of Phut. This is also mentioned by Jerome, who says that the adjacent country
was called Pvegio Phutensis, or " the land of Phut." This region contained Cyrene, a cele-
brated place of Jewish learning, whose ruins bear testimony to its former splendour.

4. Canaax, the youngest son of Ham, gave his name to that land which was after-
wards promised to the children of Abraham for an inheritance. Sidon, the first-bom of
Canaan, occupied the north-west comer, and built the town of that name, so early
celebrated both in sacred and profane history for its luxury and commerce : see Judges
xviii. 7 ; Isa. xxiii. 2. Heth, the second son, was the progenitor of the Hittites, who
settled in the south, near Hebron, Gen. xxiii. 3 — 7 ; and Jehus and his posterity, the
Jebusites at Jerusalem, where they remained till the days of David, 2 Sam. v. 6 — 9.
Beyond these latter, the Emorites, or Amorites, settled, Numb. xiii. 29, extending
themselves beyond Jordan, until they were destroyed by Moses and Joshua, according
to the Divine command, for their iniquities.

III. The posterity of Shem possessed the finest regions of Upper and Middle Asia.
Shem signifies " renown," which distinctive title was realized by this great branch of
the human family, both in a temporal and spiritual sense ; especially as from among his
posterity was raised up the Messiah, in whom " all the families of the earth shall be


j 1 ^ \

Elaai. Asshur. Arphaxad, Lud. Aram.

Salah. ( j j \

I Uz. Hul. Gether. Mash.


t )

Peleg. Joktan.

Reu. Almodad, &c.






1. Elam appears to have settled in Elymais, or Southei-n Persia, contiguous to the
ancient Susiana, or modern Chusistan. The sacred writers, under the name of Elam,
comprehended the country of Persia in general : the inhabitants were famous for the
use of the bow, Jer. xlix. 34, 35.

2. AssHUR peopled the land known as Assyria, which became a province of the
Cushite empire founded by Nimrod.

3. Arphaxad, through his grandson Eber, was the original of the houses of Peleg
and Joktan, the progenitors of the two celebrated races of the Hebrews and the primitive
Arabs. Peleg probably remained in Chaldea at the time of the dispersion ; for his
descendant Terah and his family settled at Ur of the Chaldees, Gen. xi. 31. Of the
children of Joktan it is said, that •' their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest, unto
Sephar a mount of the east," Gen. x. 30. Faber conjectures that they were the
ancestors of the great body of the Hindoos, who still retain a lively tradition of the
patriarch Shem.

4. LuD, according to a tradition of the Lydians, quoted by Josephus, was the father
of the people that dwelt in Asia Minor.

5. Akam, by his descendants, planted the fertile country north of Babylonia, called
Aram-Naharaim, or "Aram between the two rivers," the Euphrates andTigxis, which the
Greeks from thence denominated Mesopotamia, Gen.'xxiv. 10; and Padan-aram, or "the
level country of Aram," Gen. xxv. 20. This country is frequently rendered Syria in
Scripture, which must not be understood as Palestine Syria. Uz, the eldest son of
Aram, peopled the northern part of Arabia, the land of Job.

The map includes all the parts of the globe with which the Hebrews were acquainted ;
and probably it includes countries unknown to them. Sinim, in Isa. xlix. 12, is
supposed to mean China, and Phut, Mauritania: they are thus inserted in the maj) as
probable, but not as certain. The localities of the Joktanic tribes in Southern Arabia
are generally admitted to be very uncertain. Of the Ishmaelitish tribes veiy few can be
determined ; hence, to avoid mere arbitrary decisions, most of them are omitted.

Kingdom of Nimrod. — Eastern authors maintain that Nimrod the Cushite, and
" mighty hunter," was the first man that wore a crown. His name, says Dr. J. Pye
Smith, is rather an appellative, probably given after his death, as descriptive of his
character : it signifies " apostasy, impiety, rebellion." The land of Nimrod (Mic. v. 6),
situate in Shinar (Gen. x. 10), may have been of no great extent. The principal towns
were, 1. Babel, "the city of confusion," which was the original of the great city of
Babylon on the Euphrates, and, in after ages, became the capital of the Chaldean empire,
and the mistress of Western Asia, Isa. xiii. 19 — 22 ; Dan. iv. 30. The tower of Babel
or Birs Nimrod, was on the west bank of the river, and more than three hundred miles
from its mouth. The early traditions respecting this ancient structure, and its ancient
ruins, show that it was a stupendous work. The mighty mounds which remain are an
enduring monument, at once of the ambitious impiety of this early race, and of the
avenging justice of God. 2. Erech is supposed to be represented by the imposing
mounds of El Assayah, or "the palace of pebbles," on the Euphrates. 3. Calneh, which
both ancient and modern authorities concur in fixing as the site of the great city of
Ctesiphon, upon the eastern bank of the Tigris. 4. Accad is assigned as the Sittace of
the Greeks, and the Akkerkuf of tlie present time. It is situate about nine miles west
of the latter river, where the waters make the nearest approach to the Euphrates. Its
present name is Tel Nimrud, " the hill of Nimrod." Its ruins stand upon a gentle
elevation, and consist chiefly of masses of sun-biu'nt bricks.


No. IL

Cnimtpies tnmtintieh in tjie ^Ut

(For Canaan, see Maps, Nos. 4, 5, 6, and 9 ; Asia Minor, see Travels of the Apostle Paul, Map 7.)

In this map are exhibited "the lands of the Gentiles," all of which have, more
or less, an interesting connexion with "the land of promise." The first that claims
attention, as the scene of some of the earhest events recorded in biblical history, is: —


The Hebrew name of this countiy is Aram-Naharaim, which, as before stated,
answers to the Greek Mesopotamia, or "the land between the two rivers," Gen. xxiv. 10.
The modern Arabs call it El Jesireh, or " the island," it being nearly encompassed
by the two great streams, the Euphrates and the Tigris. It extends from the thirty-
third deoi-ee to the thirty-eightli of north latitude. Armenia, Asia Minor, and Syria,
bound it on the west ; Babylonia and Arabia Deserta on the south ; and Kurdistan
on the north. Along its northern boundaries is a branch of Mount Taurus, known
to the Hebrews by the name Mash, Gen. x. 23, and called by the Arabs Judi. An
important stream, the Chebar,* flows through the land, and joins the Euphrates near
Carchemish. Here Nebuchadnezzar planted a colony of the Jews, among whom was
the prophet Ezekiel, 2 Kings xxiv. 15; Ezek. i. 1, 3. The country in general is
fertile; the mulberry, olive, and vine flourish without cultivation. The summer is
hot and dry, and the winter is generally very mild. This land once contained many
populous cities, as Carchemish, Hena, Sepharvaim, and Thelasar, but is now chiefly
traversed by nomadic tribes of Arabs

The Scripture associations of Mesopotamia are of much interest. Here Abram
lived in the district of Ur, near the Euphrates. Grotius, Bochart, and Wells placed
this spot on the Tigris : recent investigation, however, has fully shown that the present
Urfah, on the first-named river, is the true locality. It is now called " Ur of the
Chaldees," by the eastern Jews, who make pilgrimages to it as the birthplace of
the patriarch. There is a pool of beautifully clear water within the walls of this city,
known as " the lake of Abraham the Beloved." The most remarkable circumstance
connected with it, is the large number of fish, a species of barbel, which sport
unmolested in its waters. From thence Abram removed to Haran, about twenty
miles south of Urfah, until, called of God, he left his own country to go to the
distant land of Canaan, the future residence of his posterity. Haran is enumerated
a thousand years after the call of Abram, among the towns which had been taken by
the predecessors of the king of Assyria. It is also mentioned still later among the
cities that traded with Tyre, 2 Kings xix. 12; Isa. xxxvii. 12; Ezek. xxvii. 23.
"Rebecca's weU" still marks the spot, and to it the Ishmaelites, or Bedouins, still
resort to pray, and water their flocks. In the New Testament it is called Charran,
Acts vii. 4.

One of the kings of Mesopotamia subdued the Israelites after the death of Joshua,
Judges iii. 8. His dominions were probably in Lower Mesopotamia. In after ages

* This river is not to be confounded with, the Chabor or Habor, of Assyria, where Shaliaaneaea-
colonized the ten tribes.

Edw? Go




the country was seized by the Assyrians : at the dissolution of their empire, it was
di\'ided between the Medes and the Babylonians. In the revolutions of kingdoms
that followed, it was successively a province of the Medo-Persian, Macedonian, and

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Online LibraryScottish History Society. cnThe new Biblical atlas, and scripture gazetteer : with descriptive notices of the tabernacle and the temple → online text (page 1 of 17)