Sidney Hall.

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Abbey, to the Duke of Portland ; Wollaton Hall, to Lord Middleton ; Worksop Manor, to the Earl of Surrey ;
Osberton House, to G. S. Foljambe, Esq. ; Serlby Hall, to Viscount Galway ; Wiseton Hall, to Lord Althorpe;
and Thurgarton Priory, to Colonel John Gilbert Cooper Gardiner.

Eminent natives of the county : Archbishop Cranmer, bom at Aslacton, was burnt as a heretic at Oxfcwd, in
1555; Dr. Robert Thoroton, author of the " History of Nottinghamshire," was bom at Screveton ; lady Mary
Wortley Montagu, the celebrated letter-writer, bom at Thoresby, died in 1762 ; Archbishop Seeker, was bom at
Sibthorpe, and died in 1768; the learned Bishop Warburton, was a native of Newark-upon-Trent; Robert
Dodsley, an ingenious poetical bookseller, was bom at Mansfield, and died in 1764 ; Dr. Darwin, the author of
the " Botanic Garden," was born at Elston, near Newark, and died in 1802 ; Dr. Andrew Kippis, editor of the
'^ Biographia Britannica," was bom at Nottingham, and died in 1795 ; Henry Kirke White, an ingenious poet,
who died at an early age in 1806, was likewise a native of that town ; as also were the leamed Gilbert Wake*
field; and Paul Sandby, an eminent draftsman and engraver, who was bom in 1732, and died at PaddingUm
in 1809.

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Lat. between 51 deg. 28 mib. and 5f deg. 10 min. N. Lon. be-
tween 1 deg. t min. and 1 deg.38 min. W. Greatest l«ngth 48 m.
Greatest breadth S6m. Superficial extent 485,^^80 acres. Bound-
aries: N. Warwickshire and Northamptonshire; £. Backingham-
ahire; S.Berkshire; W. Berkshire, Gloucesterahire, and Warwick-
shire. Hundreds 14. Parishes 312. Cityl: Oxford. Boroughs 2.
Karket-towns 10: Banbnrj, Biceater, Bntibrd, Chipping Norton,
Deddington, Henlej-upon-Thames, Thame^ Watlington, Witney,
and Woodstock.

Archdeaconry and Diocese of Oxford, containing the deaneries
ef Aston, Burceater, Chipping Norton, Cuddesden, Deddington,
Henley, Witney, and Woodstock. Endowed grftOmiar-achools,
with nnirersity privileges, at Ch&rlbuiy and Steeple Aston.

Oxford Circuit.-— Assizes held at Oxford, likewise the quarter-

sessions which take place January 11, April 19, July 12, and Octo-
ber 18: here is also the county gaol. Acting magistrates 59.
Members of Parliament, 3 finr die county, 2 for the city of Oxfovd,
and 1 each for the boroughs of Banbury and New Woodstock,

Polling-places for the County — Oxford, Deddington, Witney,
and Nettlebed.

' Population, &c. (in 1821) inhabited houses 25,594; families
28,841, comprising 68,817 males, and 68,154 females; total
136,971 : (in 1831) total 151,726. Estimated increase of inhap
bitaots, from 1700 to 1821, 60,800. Assessment for poor
and county rates (in 1826) land 109,305/. 13>. ; dwelling-houses
21 ,863/. If. ; mills, factories, &c. 1148i. 16s. ; minorial profits, &o.
469i. 49. i total 132,786^ 149. : (in 1830) total 151,2351.

This county is in general pleasant and fertile, exhibiting some variety of soil and surface in different parts. In
the northern portion of the county, the soil is strong, deep sand ; the central district is rich meadow-land, with a
subsoil of gravel, remarkable for the variety of fossil remains found in it ; and in the south is a pleasing alterna-
tion of hill and dale, on the border of Buckinghamshire in particular, where are fine groves of beech-trees, which
clothe the Chiltem Hills, the rest consists of sheep-walks, or tracts under cultivation. On the western side of the
county is the forest of Whichwocd, subject to a right of common for horses and sheep. Oak, ash, beech, and some elm
are grown here. The land is dry, but by no means destitute of running water. Among the agricultural products
are wheat, barley, oats, peas, beans, turnips, tares, clover, trefoil, and sainfoin. The grass-land affords good
pasturage for milch cattle, and butter is made here in great quantities, and calves are fattened for the metropohs.
A great many sheep and swine are kept, the latter of which furnish materials for sausages. Witney is famous for
'he manufacture of blankets ; at Banbury is made a kind of velvet called shag ; and, besides lace-making practised
in the south of the connty, gloves and various articles of polished steel are made at Woodstock. The mineral
products consist of limestone, freestone, slate for roofing, pipe-clay, fullers*-earth, and ochre, which is found near
Shotover. The most important eminences in this county are Epwell Hill, eastward of Banbury, which appears to
be the highest ground in Oxfordshire, Nettlebed, north-west of Henley; Shotover Hill, south-east of Oxford;
Taynton, north-west of Burford ; Stoken Church Hill, north-east of Watlington ; and Nuffield Heath, southward
of that place. The principal rivers, besides the Thames (which skirts the southern border of the county, dividing it
from Berkshire), acie the Windrush, which rises in Gloucestershire ; the Evenlode, from Worcestershire ; the Cher-
well, from Northamptonshire ; and the Thame, from Buckinghamshire, which, with several smaller streams, all
fall into the Thames. At Clifton, near Deddington, is a mineral spring, the water of which possesses aperient
properties and is used externally in cutaneous disorders ; at Sutton Bog, on the confines of Northamptonshire, is
a sulphureous mineral spring, and there is another at Chadlington, south of Chipping Norton ; and at Deddington
is a purgative chalybeate spring impregnated with sulphur. In the extensive bed of gravel, on which Oxford
stands, are found many remarkable fossils, such as fragments of teeth, tusks, and bones of elephants, bones of

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the hippopotamus, horse's teeth, and horns of a species of stag, sometimes in a complete state of preserration
The ancient British inhabitants of this county were the Dobuni ; under the Romans it belonged to the pro«
Tince of Flavia Ceesariensis ; and under the Anglo-Saxons, to the kingdom of Mercia. At Hook Norton,
north-west of Deddington, the Danes defeated the English with great slaughter in the reign of Edward the Elder.
In 1469 an important engagement took place on the north-east border, near Banbury, between the Yorkists and
Lancastrians, when the former were defeated, and Edward IV. was taken prisoner by the Earl of Warwick. In
the civil war in the reign of Charles I. a skirmish took place, in 1643, at Chalgrare Field, north-west of Wat-
lington, memorable on account of Hampden, the great patriot, having received his death-wound on tliat occasion.
This county was intersected by the two great Roman roads, the Iknield Street and the Akeman Street, besides
the traces of another extending southward. Here were the stations of JEVidi Castra, Alcester, in the parish of Wan-
dlebury ; Dorocina, Dorchester; and probably Brinavis, near Chipping Norton ; besides which may be mentioned
Ad Tamesin, supposed to have been between Crowmarsh and Mongewell, south of Wallingford, to which place
there is a bridge, and near it, a few years ago, an urn full of Roman coins was discovered. A large tesselated
pavement was disinterred in 1713, near Stonesfield ; and another at Great Tew. At Rollrich, north-west of Chip «
ping Norton, is a very curious monument of uncertain date, consisting of a number of stones arranged in a circle
resembling other remains of antiquity in various parts of this island, the construction of which has been ascribed
^> the Druids. Before the Reformation, Oxfordshire contained many conventual establishments, one of the most
important of which was the Abbey of St. Frideswide, at Oxford, and the church belonging to it was made the
cathedral, on the foundation of the bishopric in the reign of Henry VIII. Among the parish churches that of Iffley
may be specified as a fine example of the Norman style of architecture. The city of Oxford is the seat of one of
our national universities, generally regarded as being the most ancient, its foundation being attributed to Alfred
the Great. It comprises nineteen colleges and five halls, the oldest of which is University College, founded about
1232, by William, Archdeacon of Durham ; but Balliol College appears to have been the first that was regularly
endowed. New College is distinguished for its noble Gothic chapel, the windows of which are richly ornamented
with painted glass, both ancient and modem.

Noblemen's and gentlemen's seats : Blenheim, the magnificent seat of the Duke of Marlborough ; Blandford
Park, belonging to Lord Churchill ; Caversham Park, to Col. Marsac ; Crowsley Park, to Mrs. Atkyns Wright ;
Ditchley Park, to the Earl of Normanton ; Grey's Court, to Lady Stapleton ; Heythorpe Park, to the Duke of
Beaufort ; Kirklington Hall, to Admiral Sotheron ; Middleton Park, to the Earl of Jersey ; Rousham, to Lady
Cotterell Dormer ; Watlington Park, to John Henry Tilson, Esq. ; Wroxton Abbey, to the Earl of Guildford.

Among the more eminent natives of this county were, Sir Thomas Pope, a distinguished statesman and founder
of Trinity College, Oxford, who was bom at Deddington, and died in 1558 ; Anthony-k-Wood, the historian of
the university, bora at Oxford in 1632, and died in 1695; Sir William Davenant, a distinguished poet of the
seventeenth century, was also a native of Oxford ; Thomas Lydiat, a very learned but unfortunate scholar, who
died in 1646 ; Dr. Edward Pococke, an eminent orientalist, who was bom at Oxford, and died in 1691 ;
William Chillingworth, a learned divine, who distinguished himself among the adherents of Charles I., was also a
native of Oxford ; John Philips, the ingenious author of a poem on Cider, was born at Bampton, and died in
1708 ; Sir John Holt, chief justice of the King's Bench in the reign of William III., who was a native of Thame.

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Lat. between 52 deg. 31 mio. and 52 deg. 46 min. N. Lon. be-
ween 25 min. and 48 min. W. Greatest length 18 m. Greatest
breadth 15 m. Superficial extent 91,002 acres. Boundaries : N.
Leiceaterahire and Lincolnshire ; £. Lincolnshire ; S. Northamp-
tonshire ; W. Leicestershire. Hundreds 4, and 1 soke. Parishes
50. Boroughs none. Maiket-towns 2 : Oakham and Uppingham.

Archdeaconry of Northampton and diocese of Peterborough, ex-
sept the parishes of Empringham, Ketton-cum-Tixorer, and Lid-
dington-cum-Caldecott, which are included in the diocese of Lin-
coln, Endowed grammar-schools, with unirersiCy pririleges, at
Oakham and Uppingham,

Alidland Circuit. — Assises and quarter-sessions held at Oak-
ham, where is the county gaol. Acting magistrates 7. Membeis
of Parliament, 2 for the county.

Polling-place, Oakham.

Population, &c. (in 1821) inhabited houses 3675 ; families 3936,
comprising 9223 males, and 9264 females; total 18,487: (in 1831)
total 19,385. Estimated increase of inhabitanU from 1700 to
1821, 2300. Assessment for poor and county rates (in 1826) land
10,960/. 2#. ; dwelling-houses 847/. ; mills, factories, &c. 74/. 19«. ;
manorial profits, &c. 7/. 4i,; total 11,889/. 5t.: (in 1830; total

The general appearance of this county is interesting, being diversified with hills and valleySy mterspersed
with woods and villages. The name Rutland, or Roteland, was probably derived from the redness of the soil,
which is composed of a kind of ruddle or ochreous earth, which stains the fleeces of sheep. Though this is the
smallest county in the kingdom, it is reckoned the most fertile^ the soil being extremely rich, especially in the
Vale of Catmoss. Nearly half the land is under tillage, producmg wheat of a fine quality, and also barley, oaUr,
beans, peas, turnips, and tares. The quantity of pasture somewhat exceeds that of the arable land ; and the residue '
consists of woodland. This county is noted for Stilton cheese ; and there are extensive orchards in Rutlandshire*
Limestone is of frequent occurrence, and the quarries of Ketton supply quantities of valuable stone for building;
ironstone is likewise found here. The principal hills in this county, from which the finest views may be obtained,
are Manton, north of Uppingham , which is said to be the highest ground in the county ; Beaumont Chase, Rakesborougfa
Hill, North Luffenham, the village of Teigh, the Wissendine Hills, and Witchley Common. The rivers in this county
are the Welland, on the south-eastern border ; the Eye, on the south-west, which rises in Leicestershire, and falls
mto the Welland ; the Wash, or Guash ; and the Chater, which also joins the Welland. There is a chalybeate
spring between Teigh and Market Overton, besides others in various parts of the county. The ancient British
inhabitants are supposed to have been the Coritani ; under the Romans it belonged to the province called Flavia
CflBsariensis, and under the Saxons to the kingdom of Mercia. In 1016 a battle was fought at Essendine,
between the Danes and Saxons ; and at Horn, near Stamford, an engagement took place between Edward IV*
and a party of Lancastrians, on the 27th of April, 1470,

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Tickencote church is remarkable as a specimen of Norman architecture ; and the churches of EssendinCi
Ezton, and Ketton, are deserving of notice. Noblemen's and gentlemen's seats : Burley, belonging to the Earl
of Winchelsea and Nottingham ; Normanton Park, to Sir Gilbert Heathcote, Bart. ; and Exton HaU» to Sir
Gerard Noel Noel, Bart. Oakham was the birthplace of Jeflfrey Hudson, a remarkable dwarf, who was page to
the queen of Charles I. ; and after having served as a royalist officer in the civil war, died in poverty about
1682. Sir Everard Digby* who was unfortunately distinguished for his share in the conspiracy against James L,
called the Gunpowder Plot, for which he was executed near St. Paul's Churchyard, in January 1606, was the
son of a gentleman who possessed an estate at Drystoke, south of Uppingham,

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£at. between 5t deg. 18 min. end 52 deg. 59 min. N. Lon. be-
tween t deg. 17mm. and 3 deg. 14 min. W. Grastest length 40 m.
Gieetest breadth 55m. Svperfioial extent 858.240 acres. Bound-
aries: N. Cheshire; £. Staibrdahire ; S. Worcester, Hereford,
and Radnor; W. Montgomery and Denbigh. Hundreds, liber-
tiea, &c. 16. Parishes 214. Borough* 4. Market-towns 17:
Biahop's Castle, Bridgenortb, Church Stretton, Cleobury Mor*
tisMr, Drayton, fillesmere, Halea Owen, Ludlow, Madeley, New-
port, Oswestry, Shiffiiall, Shrewsbury, WeUington, Wenlock, Wem,
and Whitchurch.

Partly in the diocese of Lichfield and Coventry, and partly in
those of Hereford and St. Asaph, beaidas the pariahes of Clayeiley,
Halea Owen, and Worfield, in that of Worcester. The arcfadea-
eoory of Salop contains that part of the county which belongs to the
diooeaes of Hereford and Lichfield and Coventry, and the arch-
deaconry ofStAaaph is co-extenai7e with the diocese. The county
of Salop containa the deaneries of Burford, Clun, Ludlow, Marchia,
Newport, Pontesbuiy, Salop, Stotteaden, and Wenlock. Endowed

grammar-schools, with university privileges, a^ridgenorth, Don*
nington, Ludlow, Newport, Shidhall, Shrewabuiy, and Wem*

Oxford Circuit — ^Assizes aud quarter-sessions are held at Shrews-
bury, where is the county gaol. Acting magistrates 109. Mem.
hers of Parliament, 2 for the northern division of the county, 2 for
the aouthem division, 2 each for the boroughs of Shrewsbury,
Bridgenorth, Ludlow, and Wenlock.

Polling-places for the northern division—Shrewsbury, Oswestiy,
Whitchurch, and Wellington ; for the southern dirision— Church
Stretton, Bridgenorth, Ludlow, Bishop's Castle, and Wenlock.

Population, &c. (in 1821) inhabited houses 38,663; familiea
41,636; comprising 102,056 males, and 104,097 females; total
206,153 : (in 1831) total 222,503. Estimated increase of inhabit-
ants from 1700 to 1821 , 108,700. Assessment for poor and county
ratea (in 1826) land 72,763/. U; dweUing-honses 14,5151. 8i.;
mills, factories, &c 1227/. 7j.; manorial profits, &c. 2247/. 4t.-
total 90,753i.: (in 1830) total 99,665/.

TfiE aspect of this county is much divenifiedi the 'western parts being mountainous and rugged, but to the
east it is more level, though not destitute of hills. The climate is considered highly salubrious ; the air is pure,
though in some parts sharp and piercing, and the inhabitants are said to be remarkably long lived. The soil,
from the irr^ularities of the surface, presents many varieties ; but it is in most parts well cultivated. In the
level districts, cattle are pastured in great numbers; and much cheese is made, like that of Cheshire. The sheep
afford some of the finest wool in England. The arable land yields large crops of wheat and other grain, turnips
and potatoes are extensively raised ; and to the south are hop-yards and orchards. Clun Forest consists of
more than 12,000 acres of land, forming a sheep-walk. The mineral productions consist of iron, lead-ore, coal,
fossil tar, limestone, red and white sandstone, freestone, and pipe-clay. The principal manufacture in this
county is that of iron, besides which are those of china, earthenware, pipes, bricks and tiles, glass, flannel, and
malt* The principal heights are Brown Clay Hill ; Bridgenorth, on the baiiks of the Severn ; Hawkeston ;
Long Mount Forest ; Wrekin Hill, south-east of Shrewsbury ; Quardock Hill, north-east of Church Stretton ;
Stipperston Cloe, near Norbury ; Amen Hill, five miles from Shrewsbury ; Titterston Hill, east of Ludlow ; and
Pimhill, near Shrewsbury. All the rivers in this county are connected with the Severn, which enters Shropshire
to the north-west, and leaves it at its north-eastern . extremity. Among the other streams are the Tern and the
Rodon, the former of which rises in Staffordshire ; besides which may be mentioned the Camlet, the Clun, or
Colun, the Oney, and the Corve, which, uniting with the Teme, join the Severn below Worcester. The largest
o£several lakes which are in this county is that of Ellesmere. The chief mmeral springs are the saline purgative

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spas at Moreton Say, near Drayton ; and Hanlys, in the vicinity of Shrewsbury ; and the chalybeate water
abo at Hanlys. Here likewise may be noticed the burning well at Broseley, near Wenlock ; and the well at
Pichford, near Condover, which yields petroleum, or rock-oil.

The ancient British inhabitants of this county were the Ordovices ; under the Romans it belonged to the pro-
vince of Britannia Secunda; and under the Saxons to the kingdom of Mercia. A battle was fought at Maserfield
in 642, between Penda, King of Mercia, and Oswald, King of Northumbria. Hostilities were carried on here be-
tween the forces of Stephen and the Empress Maud ; and in 1 164 Henry II. assembled an army in Shropshire
for the mvasion of Wales. A parliament was held at Shrewsbury in 1283, when was passed the statute, ** Dc
Mercatoribus." In 1403 Henry IV. defeated the insurgents, near that town, commanded by Henry Percy. In
the civil war, under Charles L, sieges and battles took place at Tong Castle, Oswestry, Shrewsbury, and Lud-
low; and also at Bridgenorth, which was taken in 1646 by the Parliamentarians, when the contest was nearly
over. Charles II. took refuge at White Ladies* Priory, and at Boscobel House, after the battle of Worcester. Yirio-
conium, or Uriconium, Wroxeter, was the principal Roman station in this county ; and here also probably were
the stations of Uxaconia, at Red Hill, near Okenyate, and Rutunium, at Rowton. The ancient roads, called
the Watliog Street and Ryknield Street passed through Shropshire ; and remains of Roman antiquities have been
found in various places. The Anglo-Saxons have left a durable monument of their dominion in the great
intrenchment called Clawdh Offa, or Offa's Dyke, which extended from Chester to the river Wye, through part
of this county, and was constructed by order of OfTa, King of Mercia, in the eighth century, as a bulwark
against the incursions of the Welsh Britons. Near Cleobury Mortimer are traces of a Danish camp ; in 1809 a
remarkable cave was discovered at Bumcote, near Worfield ; and on the side of Nesscliffe rock is a cavern,
called Kynaston's Cave, with which .are connected some curious traditions. This county contained anciently a
greater number of castles than most others, on account of its proximity to the Welsh border. Among the most
important of those, of which there are traces remaining, may be mentioned the castles of Bridgenorth, Shrews-
bury, Ludlow, Acton Bumell, Clun, Hopton, Moreton Corbet, Oswestry, Caus, Sibdon, Stoke, Wattlesborough,
Whittington, and Alberbury. Among the monastic remains, the most important are those of the abbeys of Wen-
lock, Hales Owen, Buildwas, Shrewsbury, Lilleshall, Haughmond, and White Abbey, near Alberbury ; with the
priories of White Indies, Chirbury, and Bromfield.

Noblemen's and gentlemen's seats : Acton Burnel Castle, near Shrewsbury, the seat of Sir Edward Joseph
Smith, Bart. ; Loton Hall, of Sir Baldwin Leighton, Bart. ; Oakley Park, of the Hon. R. H. Clive ; Shavington
Hall, of the Earl of Kilmorey ; Wallcott Park, of the Earl of Powis ; the Leasowes, near Hales Owen, formerly
the seat of the poet Shenstone, now the property of M. Attwood, Esq. ; Moor Park, near Ludlow, of Richard
Salwey, Esq. ; Apley Park, of Thomas Whitmore, Esq. ; Aston Hall, near Oswestry, of William Uoyd, Esq. ;
Orleton, of William Cludd, Esq. ; Chirk Castle, of Mrs. Myddleton Biddulph ; and Brynkinalt, of Lord

Eminent persons connected with this county: Robert Langelande, a poet of the fourteenth century, supposed
to have been the author of " The Vision of Pierce Plowman," is said to have been a native of this county ;
Edmund Plowden, an eminent lawyer and law-reporter in the sixteenth century, who died in 1585; Richard
Baxter, a distinguished dissenting divine, was born at Rowton, near High Ercal, and died in 1691 ; Dr. Thomas
Hyde, a learned orientalist, born at Billingsley, died in 1703 ; the poet Shenstone, was a native of Hales Owen ;
Dr. William Withering, an eminent physician and botanist, was bom at Wellington in 1741, died in 1799 ; Wil-
liam Wycherley, an eminent comic writer, was bom at Cleve, and died in 1715 ; Dr. Charles Buraey, author of
the ** History of Music," was bora at Shrewsbury, died in 1814 ; Dr. Thomas Beddoes, an ingenious physician,
and writer on chemistry and natural philosophy, born at ShifFnall, died at Clifton, near Bristol, in 1808 ; Dr.
Thomas Percy, Bishop of Dromore, and editor of the " Reliques of English Poetry," was bora at Bridgenorth,
died in 1811 ; William Caslon, an eminent letter-founder, who was born at Hales Owen, and died in 1766;
and Dr. John Taylor, a leamed critic and civilian, who was a native of Shrewsbury, and died in 1766.

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Lat. between 50 deg. 48 min. and 51 deg. 30 min. N. Lon. be-
tween 2 deg. 55 min. and 4 deg. 5 min. W. Greatest length 65 m.
GreBteatbreadtfa45m. Superficial extent l,050|880acre8. Bound-
aiiea: N. Gloooesterahire and the Bristol Channel ; £. Wiltshire
and Dorsetshire; S. Dorsetshire and DeTonshire ; W. Dercwshire.
Hundreds, liberties, &c. 43. Parishes 469. Cities 3 : Bath,
WeHs, and Bristol, the latter partly in Gloncestershire. Bo-
roughs 3. Market-towns 24 : Azbridge, Bridgewater, Bruton,
Oastle Gary, -Chard, Crewkeme, Dulverton, Dunster, Frome, Glas-
tonbury, Ilchester, Ilminster, Langport, Milbome Port, Milverton,
Minehead, Shepton Mallet, Somerton, South Petherton, Taunton,
Wellington, Wincantoo, Wiyeliseombe, and Yeovil.

Diocese of Bath and Wells ; archdeaconry of Bath, containing
the deaneries of Bath and Redcliffe, with Bedminster ; that of
Wells containing the deaneries of Axbridge, Cary, Frome, Ilches-
ter, Marston, and Pawlett, and the jusrisdiction of Glastonbury ; and
that of Taunton, containing the deaneries of Bridgewater, Crew-
keme, Dunster, and Taunton . Endowed grammar-schools, with uni-

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Online LibrarySidney HallA new British atlas: comprising a series of 54 maps, constructed from the ... → online text (page 11 of 20)