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▼ersity privileges, at Bristol, Bruton, Crewkeme, and Ilminster.

Western Circuit. — Lent assizes held at -Taunton ; Ihe summer
at Bridgewater and Wells, alternately. Quarter-sessions
held January 1 1 , April 19, at Wells ; July 12, at Bridgewater ; and
October 18, at Taunton. County gaol at Ilchester. Acting ma-
gistrates 130. Members of Parliament, 2 for the eastern division
of the county, 2 for the western division, 2 each for the cities of
Bristol, Bath, and Wells, 2 each for the boroughs of Bridgewater
and Taunton, and 1 for the borough of Frome.

PoUing-places for the eastern division — Wells, Bath, Shepton
Mallet, Bedminster, Axbridge, and Wincanton; for the western
division — Taunton, Bridgewater, Ilchester, and Williton.

Population, &c. (in 1821) inhabited houses 61,852; fimilies
73,537; oomprisiug 170,199 males; and 185,115 females; total
355,314 : (in 1831) toUl 403,908. Estimated increase of inha-
bitants from 1700 to 1821, 166,600. Assessment for poor and
county rates (in 1826) land 141,247/. 4t.; dwelling-houses
30,305/. 15«.; mills, factories, &c. 2,380/. ; msnorial profits, &c
3,041/. 13«. ; total 176,974/. 12#.: (in 1830) total 209,566/.

This county is diversified by rocky eminences in the north-eastern quarter, towards the west declining into
fertile plains, and near the sea into, moorland tructs. The south-eastern portions consist of high downs, used
for the pasturage of sheep, and raising of com ; and from Shepton Mallet to Chard is a fertile tract, interspersed
with fine meadows and orchards. The central district comprises fens and marshy moors, and the land is often
covered by water. Towards the south-west is the fruitful vale of Taunton Dean. The climate is as various a«
the soil ; even in winter the weather is usually mild near the coast ; it is temperate in the vale of Taunton, and
m the level districts ; on the hills the air becomes much colder, and storms are not unfrequent ; in the marshes
the air is moist and foggy, and the cold is extreme on the heights of Mendip, but as the country declines th&
atmosphere becomes pleasant, and the heat in summer is moderated by the sea breezes. The productions are
numerous ; besides wheat, barley, and oats, hemp, flax, teasels, and woad, are largely cultivated ; the plains
afibrd fine pasture for cattle, and Chedder furnishes excellent cheese ; sheep are fed on the hills and downs,
which are noted for the fineness of their wool. Swine are fed in great numbers in the north-east. Abundance
of fowls are reared for the cities of Bath and Bristol, in their vicinity. The best down and feathers are procured
from the marshy districts. Cider is a common product of this county. The manufactures are those of fine
woollen cloth, coarse woollen, and worsted goods, knit worsted stockings, coarse linens, crape, silk, lace, and
leather gloves ; and there are cotton-mills, and iron and copper-milb on the Lower Avon. The mineral produce
{Consists of coal, lead-ore, lapis calaminaris, manganese, copper-ore, iron-ore, spars, and crystals; and
silver has been found in small quantitities near Porlock : granite has been procured a few miles north-east of
Taunton, and fine freestone at Coombe Down. The cranberry, whortleberry, and juniper bushes grow on the
hills ; and on the low moors the myrica gale, or candleberry myrtle. In the forest of Exmoor is sometimes seen
the red deer; ^nd among the birds are the wild duck, the gull, the curlew, the rail, the wheatear, and the heath
hen. Among the fish caught in the rivers and ofi* the coast are the trout, carp, perch, pike, tench, eels, flounders,
dabs, soles, plaice, skate, conger-eels, shrimps, prawns, crabs, muscles, and star-fish; and the herring and
salmon-fisheries are very extensive. The principal heights are Bradley Knoll ; Dundry Beacon ; Lansdown ;
Moor Lynch ; Thorney Down ; Ash Beacon ; Glastonbury Tor ; Polden Hill, between Glastonbury and Bridge-
water; Quantock Hills, north of Taunton ; Brandon Hills, westward of the preceding ; Bratton, near Minehead ;
and Dunkery Beacon (on Exmoor), which appears to be the highest point in the county. The rivers are
numerous, but not very considerable ; among them are the Farret, rising on the borders of Dorsetshire, which
flows northward, and after being joined by the lie, the Yeo, or Ivel, and the Tone, falls into Bridgewater Bay ;
the Brue, which rises on the confines of Wiltshire^ and after receiving a few inconsiderable streams, flows west-

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waid, and enters the sea a little to the north of the preceding ; the Ax, which rises in the Mendip Hills, and falls
into the Bristol Channel ; and the Ex, rising in Exmoor Forest, and passing on into Devonshire. The Lower
Avon, which borders the county on the north, divides it from Wiltshire and Gloucestershire. Besides the Bath
iraters there are mineral springs at Glastonbury, Ashill, Castle Carey, Alford, Queen Camel, lincomb. Road,
near Frome, Wells, Wellington, and Wincanton ; at Nether Stowey is a petrifying spring, the water containing
calcareous earth, held in solution by carbonic acid ; and at East Chinnock, between Yeovil and Crewkeme, is a
salt spring. Wokey Hole, in the Mendip Hills, near Wells, where the river Ax rises, is a very curious cavern, the
roof of which is partly covered with dripping stalactites. Chedder Cliffs, in the same hills, form an immense
cleft, remarkable as the native spot of the Chedder Pink.

The ancient British inhabitants of this county were the Hedui and the Cimbri ; under the Romans it belonged
to the province called Britannia Prima, and contained the stations of Ischalis, Ilchester; and Avallonia, Glaston-
bury ; and Aquse Solis, Bath, a principal Roman colony. Under the Saxons it belonged to the kingdom of
Wessex. The Isle of Athelney, formed by the rivers Tone and Parret, was the retreat of King Alfred, when
driven from his throne by the Danes in 877. In 1016 a battle was fought between Canute the Dane and
Edmund Ironside, at Pen. In the civil war, in the reign of Charles L» some important contests occurred in this
county. In July, 1643, a severe but indecisive engagement took place at Lansdown, between the Royalists and
the Parliamentarians. In 1645 Taunton was bravely defended by Colonel Blake, against the Royalists; and in
1646, the Parliamentarians having besieged Dunster Castle, were attacked by the Royalists, and great numbers
of them were killed or taken prisoners. In 1686 the unfortunate Duke of Monmouth was defeated at Sedgemoor,
near Bridgewater, and military executions followed, in which the inhabitants of Somersetshire were the principal
sufferers. Among the Roman roads were the Fossway, and the Ridgeway, a branch of the Iknield Street. The
ruins of a Roman temple, tesselated pavements, inscribed stones, and other antiquities have been excavated at Bath ;
and remains of a similar kind have been discovered in different parts of the county. At Stanton Drew is a circular
stone monument, regarded as Druidical ; and there are remains of ancient intrenched camps in various places.

Among the ancient castles were those of Bridgewater, Dunster, Montacute, Stoke-under-ltamdon, Stowey,
Taunton, and Walton. Coombe Sydenham, near Stogumber, is a very ancient mansion, the seat of the Syden-
hams. There were more than forty monastic establishments in this county before the Reformation ; and there
are still some remains of the abbeys of Glastonbury, Athelney, Bruton, and Hinton Charterhouse, the nunnery
of Cannington, and the priory of Kewstoke. The cathedral of Wells, the abbey church of Bath, and the church of
St. Mary Magdalen, at Taunton, may be mentioned as fine specimens of the Gothic architecture of different ages.

Noblemen's and gentlemen's seats : Ashton Court, the seat of Sir John Smith, Bart. ; Leigh Court, of P. J.
Miles, Esq. ; Newton Park, of William Gore Langton, Esq.; Prior Park, near Bath, formerly the property of Ralph
Allen, Esq.; Kelston House, of Sir John Cssar Hawkins, Bart.; Butleigh Park, near Somerton, of Lord Glaston-
bury ; Dunster Castle, of J. F. Luttrel, Esq. ; Enmore Castle, near Bridgewater, of the Earl of Egmont ; King's
Weston House, near Somerton, of William Dickenson, Esq. ; Marston House, near Frome, of the Earl of
Cork and Orrery; Redlinch Park, near Somerton, of the Earl of Ilchester; Midford Castle, near Bath,
of Charles Conolly, Esq. ; Stone Easton Park, near Wells, of Sir John Stuart Hippesley, Bart.

Among the more distinguished natives of this county may be mentioned St. Dunstan, famed as a statesman
and man of science in the tenth century ; the celebrated Roger Bacon, a learned friar of the thirteenth century^
said to have been bom at Ilchester ; Sir John Harington, a statesman and miscellaneous writer, in the reigns of
Elizabeth and James I., who was a native of Kelston, near Bath ; Tom Coryate, the eccentric traveller, who was
bom at Odcombe in 1577, and died at Surat, in the East Indies, in 1617; William Dampier, a famous navi-
gator, bora at Braton, or according to some, at East Coker, in 1652, died 1699; Admiral Blake, who was a
native of Bridgewater ; William Prynne, an eminent lawyer and antiquary, bom at Swanswick, in 1600, died in
1669; Ralph Cudworth, an eminent divine, bom at^Aller, in 1617, and died 1688 ; John Locke, the celebrated
author of the *< Essay on Human Understanding,'' bom at Wrington, in 1632, died October 28, 1704 ; Henry
Fielding, author of '< Tom Jones," born at Sharpham Park, died in 1754 ; and the highly-talented, but unfoi^
tunate poet Chatterton, a native of Bristol, who committed suicide in August, 1770.

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LaL between 52 deg. 24 min. and 53 deg. 13 mm. N. Lon.
bttween 1 deg. 33 min. and 2 deg. 22 min. W. Greatest length
55 m. « Greatest breadth 24 m. Superficial extent 734,720 acres.
Boondaries : N^^Oheshir^^; £. Derbyshire and Warwickshire ; S.
Worcestershiv; W. Stiropshiie. Hundreds 5. Parishes 146.
Citj 1 : Lichfiel4. Boughs 6. Market-towns 18 : Burslem, Bur-
Con-on-Trent, Cheadle, Eecleshall, Hanley, Lane-end, Leek, Long-
Bor, Newcastle-ui}der-Lyme, Rugelej, Stafford, Stoke-npon-Trent,
Stone, Tamworth, Uttoxeter, Walsall, Wednesbuiy, and Wolrer-

Diocese of Lichfield and Coventry; archdeaconry of Stafford,
except the parishes of Brome and Clent. The archdeaconry con-
tains the deaneries of Tamworth, Tutbury, Lapley, Treizoll, Al-
▼eton, Leek, Newcastle-undoLyme, andlStone. Endowed gnun-
mar-schools, with uniTersity priyfleges, at Tamworth and Wolrer-
> hamptbn.

Oxford Circuit — ^Assises and quarter-sessions held at Stafford,

where is the county gaol. Acting magistrates 62. Memben o
Pariiament, 2 fi^r the northern division of the county, 2 for the
southern division, 2 for the city of Lichfield, 2 each for the borouglui
of Staffixrd, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Stoke*upon-Trent, Tamworth*
and Wolverhampton ; and 1 for the borough of Walsall.

Polling-places for the northern division — Stafford, Leek, New«
castle-under-Lyme, CheadlCi and Abbots Bromley ; for the southern
division — Walsall, Lichfield, Wolverhampton, Penkxtdge, and
Kings Swinford.

Population, &c. (in 1821) inhabited houses 63,319; fiunilies,
68,780; comprising 171,668 nudes, and 169,372 fiamales; total,
341,040: (in 1831) total 410,485« Estimated increase of inha^
bitants, firom 1700 to 1821, 230,700« Assessment for poor and
county rates (in 1826) land 85,6692. 14f.; dwelling-houses
34,962i. 18f.; mills, factories, &o. 66541. I6t. ; mandrial profits,
&o. 7129Z. 4s. ; total 134^4162. tU. : (in 1830) total 171,578(.

The northern portion of this county, called the Moorlands, is hilly, resembling the adjacent parts of Derby-
shire; the yalley along the Trent is generally fertile, adorned with seats and plantations, and affording a variety
of beautiful prospects. The central and southern parts are agreeably diyersified with wood, pasture, and arable
land. Cannock Heath, a central tract, was once a forest famous fdr its oak timber. The climate b considered
not unhealthy, though it is inclmed to be wet, especially toward the north part of the county ; probably from its
being bordered by a ridge of mountainous land to the west, which attracts the clouds. The air is sharp, and
colder than in many other counties. The agricultural produce of this county consists of wheat, barley, oats,
beans, and peas ; buckwheat is sometimes cultivated, and likewise hemp and flax on a small scale ; cabbages are
extensively grown in this county, and also Swedish turnips. Near the river, and especially on the banks of the
Trent, are tracts of fertile meadow-land, where cattle are fed for the dairy, aod great quantities of cheese and
butter are made. Goal is abundant in various parts of the county, and especially in the Moorlands; and in the
northern and southern districts are procured large quantities of iron-ore ; and here arc found lead, copper,
marble, alabaster, gritstone, fullers'-earth, pipe-clay, and red and yellow ochre ; and at Weston-upon-Trent
are brine-pits, from which considerable quantities of fine salt are procured. Staffordshire has long been famous
for its potteries, the chief seat of which is in the neighbourhood of Newcastle- under-Lyme. In the neighbour-
hood of Newcastle also are iron-works. Wolverhampton is noted for the manufacture of locks, edge-tools, and
japanned ware ; Walsall for sadlers' ironmongery ; hardware is made at PelsaU, Sedgley, West Bromwich, and

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other places ; and on the borders, near Worcestershire! are a number of large glasshouses* At Rocester'On-the-
Dove, Fazeley, Tutbury, and elsewhere, are cotton-works ; silk goods are manufactured at Leek, and boots and
shoes at Stafford ; Burton-upon-Trent is noted for its ale. The most important mountain heights are the Weaver
Hills, in the southern part of the county, which are the loftiest; Ashley Heath, Bar Beacon, Castle Ring, Leek
Rocks, Ecton Hill, between Newcastle and Leek, and Ipstones Sharp Clifis, north of Cheadle. Among the
principal rivers are the Trent, which rises near the north-western border, and crosses the county circuitously to
Burton, where it enters Derbyshire ; the Dove, which rises in the Moorlands, and parts this county from Derby-
shire; and the other rivers are the Manifold, the Blythe, the Sow, and the Penk; the Stour, the Chumet, the
Lyme, the Tame, and the Tern. There are saline sulphureous springs at Codsall, north-west of Wolverhampton ;
between Ingestre and Stafford is St. Erasmuses Well, a saline, purgative spring ; there is another at Dortshill, a few
miles from Lichfield ; and at Cannock, near Stafford, is a chalybeate spring. At Bradley, south-eastward of
Wolverhampton, a considerable portion of the soil has been calcined^ in consequence of a stratum of coal about
ten feet below the surface having taken fire, and burnt during half a century ; in the neighbourhood "^are found
sulphur and alum.

The earliest inhabitants of Staffordshire are supposed to have been the Camabii ; under the Roman govern-
ment, it belonged to the province of Flavia Ceesariensis ; and during the Saxon Heptarchy, it formed a part of
the kingdom of Mercia. Battles were fought in 705, between the Mercians and Northumbrians, at Maer, seven
miles north-west of Ecclesfield ; in 1322 at Burton, where the Earl of Lancaster was defeated by the forces of
Edward IL ; and at Blore Heath, between Eccleshall and Drayton, where the Earl of Salisbury defeated the
Lancastrians in 1459. Hopton Heath, near Ingestrie, Tutbury Castle, Dudley Castle, and Lichfield, were the
scenes of contest in the civil war under Charles L Here were probably the Roman stations of Etiocetum, Wall;
Ad Trivonam, at Berry Farm, in Branston, on the Trent, south-west of Burton ; and Pennocrucium, supposed by
Camden to have been Penkridge, near which are traces of an ancient intrenchment.

The most important of the baronial castles, of which there are any remains, are those of Alveton, Caverswall,
Chartley, Heyley, or Heleigh Castle, Tamworth, and Tutbury. There were many religious houses in this county
before the Reformation ; and there are still some remains of the abbeys of Burton and Croxden, and the priories
of Rowton, Stafford, and Stone.

Noblemen's and gentlemen's seats : Bagot's Park, near Abbot's Bromley, and Blithfield Park, belonging to
Lord Bagot ; Beaudesert, near Lichfield, to the Marquis of Anglesey ; Chartley Park, near Uttoxeter, to Earl
Ferrers ; Drayton Park, near Tamworth, to Sir Robert Peel, Bart. ; Eccleshall Castle, to the Bishop of Lichfield
and Coventry ; Enville Hall, to the Earl of Stamford and Warrington ; Himley Hall, to Lord Dudley and Ward ;
Ingestrie Hall, near Stafford, to Earl Talbot ; Patshull, near Wolverhampton, to Lieutenant-General Sir Geo^e
Pigot, Bart. ; Sandon Hall, to the Earl of Harrowby ; Sandwell Park, near Walsall, to the Earl of Dartmouth ;
Shuckburgh Park, near Colwick, to Sir Francis Shuckburgh, Bart. ; Trentham Park, near Newcastle, to the
Marquis of Stafford ; Weston Park, near Brewood, to the Earl of Bradford ; Wrottesley Hall, to Sir John
Wrottesley, Bart. Bentley Hall, near Walsall, and Moseley Hall, are old mansions, where Charles II. took
refuge after the battle of Worcester.

Among the eminent natives of this county may be mentioned, Izaak Walton, celebrated for his '' Treatise on
the Art of Angling," who was bom at Stafford in 1593, and died at Winchester in 1683 ; John Ligbtfoot, a
learned divine and Rabbinical student, who was bom at Stoke-upon-Trent, died in 1675 ; Dr. Gilbert Sheldon,
Archbishop of Canterbury in the reign of Charles II., who founded the theatre at Oxford, was born at Ellastone,
westward of Ashbourn, and died in 1677; Ashmole, the antiquary, who was a native of Lichfield; as also was the
celebrated Dr. Samuel Johnson ; Thomas Astle, a distinguished antiquary, who was bom at Yoxall, and died in
1803 ; William Wollaston, author of the " Religion of Nature Delineated," who was bom at Coton Clanford,
and died in 1724 ; Fenton, one of the coadjutors of Pope, in his translation of the " Odyssey," who was a native
of Newcastle-under-Lyme ; Dr. Hurd, a leamed Bishop of Worcester, who was bom at Congreve, near Penk-.
ridge, and died in 1808 ; and James Wyatt, the architect, who was a native of Burton, died in 1813

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LaL between 51 deg* 56 min. end 52 deg. 37 min. N. Lon. be-
tween S9 min. end 1 deg. 44 min. £. Greatest length 48 m.
Greeteet breadth 27 m. Superficial extent 967,680 acres. Bonnd-
ariee: N. Norfolk ; £. German Geeen; S. Essex ; W. Cambridge-
shire. Hondreds 21. Liberty 1. Parishes 500. Boroughs 4.
Market-towns 22 : Aldebnrgh, Beccles, Brandon, Bimga/, Bury St.
Edmnnd's, Clare, Dnnwich, Eye, Framlingham, Hadleigh, Hales-
worth, Haverhill, Ipswich, Lowestoft, Mildenhall, Needham-mar-
ket, Orford, Saxmnndham, Soathwold, Stowmarket, Sudbury, and

Dioceee of Norwich ; archdeaconries ef Suffolk, containing the
deaneries of Bosmere, Cariford, Claydon, Colneis, Dunwich, Hoxne,
Ipswich, Loes, Lothingland, Grford, Samford, South Elmham,
Wangford, and Wilford ; and of Sudbury, containing the deaneries
of Blackboum, Clare, Hartismere, Stow, Sudbury, Thedwestry, and
Thingoe. Endowed gnunmar-scbools, with university privileges,
at Bungay, BnrfSt. Edmund's, Ipswich, Redgrave, and Sudburj.

Norfolk Cirouit. — Assizes held at Bury; and quarter-sessioBS at
Bury and Ipswich, at which last town are the county prisons. A et-
ing magistrates 110. Members of Parliament, 2 for the eastern
division of the county, 2 for the western division, 2 each for the
boroughs of Ipswich, Bury St. Edmund's, and Sudbury, and 1 for
the borough of Eye.

Polling-places for the eastern division^Ipswich, Needham,
Woodbridge, Framlingfaam, Saxmnndham, Halesworth, and Bec-
cles; for the western division— Bury St. Edmund's, Wickham
Brook, Lavenham, Stowmarket, Botesdale, Mildenhall,and Hadleigh.

Population, &c. (in 1821) inhabited houses 42,773; Families
55,064, comprising 132,410 males, and 138,132 f<6males; total
270,542 : (in 1831) total 296,304. Estimated increase of inha-
bitants from 1700 to 1821, 123,300. Assessment for poor and
county rates (in 1826) land 221,332/. It.; dwelling-houses
36^5241. I7t.; mills, factories, &c. 4398i. 8s. ; manorial profits, &c.
Till, I9i. ; total 262,967i. 5i.: (in 1830) total 299,684^1

This is in general a level county, without any considerable eminences. The soil varies much in different
parts ; in the interior is a tract, extending from north to south, chiefly a strong clay, fertile for all the purposes of
husbandry. That part styled High Suffolk, has a soil so heavy and tenacious, that in wet seasons the by-roads
are scarcely passable. Here are produced much butter and cheese, but the latter has gained the character of being
the worst in England. From the sea-coast to some distance inland, the soil is mostly sand, but that which is
cultivated has been improved by the addition of shell marl (called here crang) of which there are vast beds in the
vicinity of Woodbridge. Great changes have taken place on the shore in consequence of the encroachments of
the sea, by which the towns of Dunwich and Aldeburgh have been partly swallowed up. The north-eastern por-
tion forms a considerable part of the wide tract of barren heath by which this quarter of the kingdom is so much
occupied ; and it consists chiefly of sheep-walks. The loam districts on the borders of the rivers are extremely
productive. Marshes and peat-bogs extend through the north-western angle. On the whole this county is one
of the most thriving in respect to agriculture, and it furnishes an excellent breed of draught horses. The chief
produce of the soil consists of wheat, barley, oats, beans, peas, buckwheat, turnips, cabbages, potatoes, carrots,
tares, cole-seed, artificial grasses, hemp, and hops. The manufactures are principally tliose of wool-combing and
spinning, making light stuffs, buntings, crapes, and hempen cloth, besides the silk-works. Fine sea-salt is made
on the coast ; and the inlets, bays, and sea off the coast afford herrings, mackerel, and oysters. The chief trade is
in malt and com. Among the spots affording the most extensive views may be mentioned Stoke Neyland, south-
east of Sudbury ; St. Edmund's Hill, near Bury ; and Burstall, west of Ipswich. The rivers, besides the Wave-

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'^^y and the Little Ouse, are the Stour, rising on the western border, which flows south-eastward to the sea at
Harwich ; the Gipping, rising in the centre of the county above Stowmarket, and flowing down to Ipswich, where
it takes the name of Orwell, and at its mouth unites with the Stour, and forms the harbour of Harwich ; the
Deben rises near Debenham, and enters the sea to the north of Harwich ; the Aid rises north of Framlingham,
and flows south-eastward, entering the sea south of Orford ; the Blythe rises at Laxfield, and flows north-east
to the sea at Southwold ; and the Larke rises in the south-western part, and flows north-westward by Bury till it
joins the Greater Ouse. The ancient British inhabitants of this county were the Iceni Magni; under the Romans,
jt belonged to the province called Flavia Ceesariensis ; and under the Saxons to the kingdom of East Anglia.
At Newmarket Heath is the Devil's Dyke, which probably formed the boundary line of East Anglia and
Mercia. At Bulcamp, near Dunwich, Anna, King of the East Angles, was defeated and killed, in 655. In
1010, Sweyn, King of Denmark, landed at Ipswich, and defeated the Anglian Danes; and afterwards
ravaged and plundered the county. It became the seat of hostilities also in the reigns of Stephen, Henry II.>
John, and Henry III. ; in that of Richard II., the inhabitants were implicated in the insurrection under Littester;
and also in that under Ket, the tanner. Some important naval engagements took place off this coast with the
Dutch, in the reign of Charles II., among which were that off Lowestoft, June 3, 1665 ; and the sanguinary battle
of Solebay (Southwold Bay) May 28th, 1672. The Roman station Ad Ansam, was probably on the Stour ; the
station of Cambretonium is supposed to have been at Brettenham ; and that of Icianis may have been at Ickling-
ham ; while the site of Garianonum is usually fixed at Burgh Castle. Among the remains of ancient castles are

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Online LibrarySidney HallA new British atlas: comprising a series of 54 maps, constructed from the ... → online text (page 12 of 20)