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and Great Packington, in the northern district ; and Edge Hill and Brail's Hill, which form a part of the moun-
tain ridge on the south-eastern border. The chief rivers are the Avon, the Leam, and the Tame. The Avon
rises in Northamptonshire, and joins the Severn at Tewkesbury ; the Leam, which also rises in Northampton-
shire, unites with the Avon, near Warwick ; the Tame crosses the north-western portion of this county ; and after
(ts junction with the Cole, north of Coleshill, it enters Staffordshire, near Tamworth : besides these, here are the
smaller streams of the Anker, the Arrow, the Aloe, the Swift, and the Stour. There are saline mineral waters
at Leamington, which has of late years become a fashionable watering-place ; and also at Ilmington, or Balemore^
on the confines of Worcestershire ; at Coventry, Binley, and Newnham Regis, are chalybeate springs.

The ancient British inhabitants of the northern part of this county were the Cassii, and of the southern part
the Dobuni. Under the Romans it belonged to the province called Flavia Csesariensis ; and under the Saxons
to the kingdom of Mercia. In 757 an obstinate engagement took place at Seckington, between the kings of
Wessex and Mercia, in which the latter was killed. Kenilworth Castle was garrisoned by the barons, during the
civil war under Henry HL, in 1263, but it was taken by the king in 1266. The people of Warwickshire- in
general adhered to the Parliament, in the civil war in the reign of Charles L ; and in the important battle, fought
between the Royalists and the Parliamentarians, at Edge Hill, the men of this county distinguished themselves on
the side of the latter. This county is intersected, from the south-east to the north-west, by the Roman road called
the Watling Street ; by the Fosseway, which, crossing the former, enters the county northward of Monks Kirby,
and passes transversely to Moreton-in-the-Marsh, in Gloucestershire ; and by the Iknield Street, which passes
northward by Alcester into Worcestershire; and on the eastern confines the Ridgeway may be traced for some
distance. Among the Roman stations were Manduessedum, Mancester, in the north ; and Alauna, Alcester, in
the south ; and there was probably another, called Vernometum, at Willoughby, near Dunchurch. Kenilworth,
famed for the revels of the Earl of Leicester, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth ; Astley, Brandon, Maxstoke, Tam-
worth, and Warwick, are the principal ancient castles in this county, the last of which forms a part of the present
magnificent seat of the Earl of Warwick. Clbpton House, to the north of Stratford, and Compton Wyniates
House, on the south-eastern border, are among the most remarkable ancient mansions in this county. The prin-
cipal monastic remains are those of the Abbey of Merevale ; the priories of Coventry, Kenilworth, and Maxstoke ;
and the nunneries of Nuneaton, Pindley, and Polesworth.

Noblemen's and gentlemen's seats : AUesley Park, belonging to J. Beck, Esq. ; Bilton Hall, near Rugby, to
J. Simpson, Esq. ; Combe Abbey, near Coventry, to the Earl of Craven ; Newbold Hall, near Rugby, to
Lady Skipwith ; Ragley Park, near Alcester, to the Marquis of Hertford; Warwick Casde, to the Earl of War-
wick; Weston House, to the Earl of Clonmell; Packington Hall, near Coleshill, to the Earlof Aylesford; Max-
stoke Castle, to William Dilke, Esq. ; Stoneleigh Abbey» near Kenilworth, to J. Chandos Leigh, Esq.

Eminent persons connected with this county : Shakspeare, bom at Stratford-upon-Avon ; Michael Drayton, an
eminent poet, who was contemporary vrith Shakspeare ; William Dugdale, the monastic antiquary, who didd m
1686; Dr. Grew, a learned physician, who was secretary to the Royal Society, bom at Coventry, and
died in 1711 ; Fulk Grevile, Lord Brooke, a poet and statesman, in the reigns of Queen Elizabeth and James L,-
who was assassinated by one of his servants in 1628 ; Sir Thomas Overbury, an ingenious writer, who was poi-
soned in the Tower of London in 1613 ; Edmund Waller, a celebrated poet, who was bom at Coleshill^ and died
in 1687 ; Thomas Southern, a dramatic writer, who died at a very advanced age in 1746, is said to have been a
native of Stratford-upon-Avon ; William Somervile, author of a poem entitled " The Chase," who was bora at
Edston, in the parish of Wootton Waven, and died in 1742 ; Edward Cave, the original proprietor and editor of
the " Gentleman's Magazine," who was bora at Newton, in the parish of Clifton-upon-Dunsmoor, in 1691, and
died in 1754; Matthew Boulton, an ingenious mechanic and engineer, who was bom at Birmingham in 1728,
and died at Soho near that town, in 1809«

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.Lat. between 54 deg. 10 min. and 54 deg. 43 min. N. Lon. be-
tween i deg. 20 min. and 3 deg. 12 min. W. Greatest length
40 m. Greatest breadth 32 m. Superficial extent 488,320 acres.
Boundaries: N. Cumberland; £. Durham and Yorkshire; S.
Yorkabire and Lancashire; W. Lancashire snd Cumberland.
Wards 4. Parishes 32. Borough 1. Market-towns 8 : Ambleside,
Applebj, Burton, Kendal, Kirkby Lonsdale, Kizkby Stephen, Miln-
thorp, and Orton.

Partly in the diocese of Chester, and partly in that of Carlisle,
the former including the barony of Kendal, containing portions of
the deaneries of Kendal and Kirkby Lonsdale, and the latter in-
cluding the barony of Westmorland, which constitates the deanery
of Westmorland. Endowed grammar-schools, with univ^ersity pri-
yileges, at Appleby, Heversham, Kendal, Kirkby Lonsdale, and
Kirkby Stephen.

Northern Circuit. — ^Atnaee held at Appleby the Lent and M^
ohaelmas quarter-sessiooa held at Appleby, whe the county gad ;
and the Epiphany and Hilary sessions are held Kendal, where is
the boose of correotion. Acting magistrates 39, Members of Par-
liament, 2 for te county, and 2 for the borough of Kendal.

PoDing.plaoea— Api^eby« Kirkby Stephen, Shap, Ambleside,
Kendal, and Kirkby Lonsdale.

Population, &c.(in 1821) ii^abited houses 9245; families 10,438 ;
comprising 25,513 males, and 25,846 females; total 51,359-: (in
1831) total 55,041. Estimated increase of inhabitants from 1700
to 1821, 23,800. Assessment for poor and coun^ rates (in 1826)
land 24,185/. 13f . ; dwelling-houses 28301. 17«. ; mills, &ctories,
&c. 496/. 6t.; manorial profits, &o. 102/. 17i.; total 27,615/L 13«. c
(in 1830) total 32,044/.

The surface of this county is mountainous, the air is pure, and the climate is healthy. The land which is under
tillage is principally appropriated to the growth of oats, but barley and wheat are also raised, as well as turnips and
potatoes, the latter especially in the neighbourhood of Kendal. The mountains afford good pasture for sheep, and
herds of black-cattle graze on the lower heights. Great numbers of geese are bred on the moors, and the hills
abound with grouse. Many cattle for the dairy are kept in the valleys, and fine butter is made here for the
London market. Here are mines of lead, copper, coal, marble, slate, gypsum, freestone, and limestone. In
some places are said to have been discovered veins of gold ; and quarries of finely-veined marble have been
opened near Ambleside and Kendal. The principal heights in this county are Bow Fell and Helvellyn, on the
confines of Cumberland ; Kilhope Law, part of which is in Durham ; and Nine Standards. ^ The principal rivers
are the Eden, the Eamont, the Lowther, or Lodore, the Lune, and the Kent. The Eden, rising near tlie south-^
eastern border of the county passes north-westward and enters Cumberland. The Eamont issues from the north-
em extremity of Ulles Water, and passes on north-eastward to join the Eden. The Lowther, which rises in the
moors, north of Wetsleddale, passes northward and falls into the Eamont. The Lune, which has its source in the
parish of Ravenstonedale, runs southward into Lancashire. The Kent rises on the south side of a hill called the
High Street, and falls into Morecambe Bay. This county is distinguished for the number and picturesque beau-
ties of its lakes, the most important of which are Winander Mere, Ulles Water, Grass Mere, Hawes Water, Elter
Water, Broad Water, and Rydal Water, in which are found trout, pike, perch, eels, and especially char. Ln this
county are the mineral springs of Shapmoor, Weatherslack, and Kirby Thore. The British tribes, called the
Voluntii and Sistuntii appear to have been the ancient inhabitants of this county. Under the Roman govern*

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ment, it belonged to the province called Maxima Cessariensis, and contained the station styled Vataris^ by Richard
of Cirencester, and Verters, in the Itinerary of Antoninus, supposed to be Brough ; and that of Brovonacis, or
Brocavonacis, Kirkby Thur ; and through this county passed a branch of the Watling Street. The remains of
supposed Roman camps may be traced at Castle-how, in the parish of Orton ; at Castle-steads, and Coney-beds,
near Natland ; at Maiden Castle, on Stainmore Forest, besides several others ; and tesselated pavements, altars,
urns, and coins have been found in various places. After the departure of the Romans this county was added to
the kingdom of Strathclyde, or Cumbria, and it appears to have received from the Angles the appellation of West
Moringaland, whence its present name. This county suffered severely from the inroads of the Scots, by whom
Appleby was burnt in 1173, and again in 1388. During the civil war under Charles I. Appleby Castle was
garrisoned for the king by Anne Clifford, the daughter of the last Earl of Cumberland. In 1745 a skirmish took
place between the Highlanders (headed by the young Pretender) and the English, near Kendal.

Into Westmorland extends the district of the Northern Lakes, celebrated for beautiful and picturesque scenery.
Between the mountains are pleasant and fertile valleys, watered by rivers, the most extensive of which are the
Vale of the Eden and that of Kendal.

Noblemen's and gentlemen's seats: Appleby Castle, belonging to the Earl of Thanet; Wharton Hall, near
Kirkby Stephen, and Lowther Castle, to the Earl of Lonsdale ; Leven*s Hall, to the Hon. Col. Howard; Rydall
Hall, near Ambleside, to Lady Le Fleming ; and Syzergh Park, to T. Strickland, Esq.

Among the eminent natives of this county may be mentioned John Mill, a learned divine, bom at Shap, in 1645,
and died in 1707; Ephraim Chambers, compiler of the Cyclopeedia, bom at Milton, and died May 15, 1740;
Bipson Gibson, bom at Knipe m 1669, and died in 1748 ; Dr. Thomas Shaw, the oriental traveller, bom at Ken-
dal in 1692, and died in 1751 ; and Dr, Richard Watson, Bishop of Llandaff, born at Heversham, and died
July 4, 1816.

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Injugitadr llViit ^<^ ibaaa Urpentridi.

r Diqitizfid±)x


Ltt between 50 deg. 56 min. and 51 deg. 40 min. N. Lon.
between 1 deg. SO min. and 2 deg.2f min. W. Greafeit length 54 m.
Gietteet breadth 34 m. Superficial extent 882,560 acres. Bonnd-
ariee : N. Glonceeterahine ; £. Berkshire and Hampshire; S. Dor-
■ecshiie; W. Somersetshire and Gloucestershire. Hundreds 29.
Parishes 295. Cityl: Salisbury. Boroughs 7. Market-towns 20 :
Amesburj, Bradford, Calne, Chippenham, Cricklade, Devizes,
Great Bedwin, Highworth, Hindoo, Mahnesburj, Market Laving-
ton, Marlborough, Melksham, Mere, Swindon, Trowbridge, War-
minster, Westbory, Wilton, and Wootton Bassett.

Diocese of Salisbuiy, exclusive of the parish of Kingswood,
which is in that of Gloucester, and the parish of Whitchbury, in
that of Winchester; archdeaconries of Sarum, containing the
deaneries of Amesbuiy, Chalk, Potteme, Salisbury, Wihon, and
Wily ; and that of Wilte, containing the deaneries of Avebury,
Cricklade, Malmesbury, and Marlborough. Endowed grammar-
schools, with university privileges, at Calne and Marlborough.

Western Circuit. — Assiaes held at Salisbury: the quarter-ses-
sioDs^EpiphaDy, at Devises; Lent, at Salisbury; Hilary, at

II Warminster ; Michaelmas, at Marlbonmgli. The eounty gaol li at
Fiaherton Anger, near Salisbury; the county house of carreotioa
at Devizes; and the bridewells at Devises and Marlborough.
Acting magistrates 100. Members of Parliament, 2 for the north-
em division of the county, 2 for the southern difision, 2 for the
city of Salisbury, 2 each for the boroughs of Chippenham, DeTisee,
and Marlborough, and 1 each for the boroughs of Calne, Malmes-
bury, Westbury, and Wilton.

Polling-places for the northern division — Devises, Melksham,
Malmesbury, and Swindon ; for the southern division — Salisbury,
Warminster, EeM Everley, and Hindon.

PopuIation,&c.(inl821)inhabitedhou8eB41,702 ; families 47,684;
comprising 108,213 males, and 113,944 females; total 222,157:
(in 1831) total 239,181. Estimated increase of inhabitants, from
1700 to 1821, 72,700. Assessment for poor and eounty rates (id
1826) land 157,230/. 19s.; dwelling-houses 24,662/.; mills, facto-
ries, &c. 32342. 5s.; manorial profits, &c. 13211. 6s.; total
186,448Z. 10s. : (in 1830) total 220,9312.

This county consists of two grand divisions, North Wiltshire, and South Wiltshire, which are separated by the
rivers Kennet and Lower Avon. North Wiltshire consists principally of a fertile district, with an undulating surface,
extending from the foot of the Ck>tswold Hills to Salisbury Plain. This tract includes abundance of rich pasture for
cattle, kept chiefly for the dairy. The soil is various ; towards the north-west, consisting irregular mass of
loose gravel, sand, and limestone, with a sub-soil of stonebrash, or corn-grate, in some parts very fertile, the grass*
land rivalling in produce the famous meadow at Orcheston St. Mary, north of Salisbury. Bradon Forest, between
Malmesbury and Cricklade, is unlike the neighbouring parts of the county, the soil being a cold iron-clay.
Though the greater portion of the land is appropriated to the dairy, much is also under tillage. The principal
produce consists of wheat, peas, beans, turnips, vetches, and potatoes, which last are largely cultivated. The
dairies are famous for the produce of cheese, which is well known in the metropolitan markets under the name of
North Wiltshire cheese. South Wiltshire includes the extensive district called Salisbury Plain. This county
anciently contained the royal forests of Bradon, Blackmore, or Melksham, Pewsham, or Chippenham, Savemake,
Pannshill, and Melshett. The only one of which remaining is that of Sav^nake, south-east of Marlborough.
Cranboume Chase was formerly appropriated as a forest, but the forest dues have recently been commuted for
pecuniary rents; Vernditch Chase, adjoining the preceding, is now chiefly in a state of cultivation. Salisbury
was once famous for its manufactures of flannel and fancy woollen goods, which are now only made in small
quantities ; but the city is still noted for its cutlery ; the manufactures of kerseymeres, linsey-woolsey, and carpets,
are also carried on in this county ; besides which are made dowlas, bed-ticking, and other linen goods. This
county is famous for its malt liquor, sold in 'London under the name of Kennet and Devizes ale. Freestone is
the only mineral production worthy of notice. Among the principal heights are Beacon Hill, near Amesburv ; West

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bury Down ; Martinsall Hill, near Marlborough ; Roundaway Hill, near Devizes ; Clay Hill, west of Warmtn-
tter; Higbworth Hill ; Lush Hill, near Hannington Wick ; and Chidbury Hill, near LudgershalL The chief
rivers are, the Lower Avon, which rises near Malmesbury, and flows southward to near Bradford, then turns
westward and leaves this county, going on to Bath and Bristol ; the Kennet, from different sources on Marlbo-
rough Downs, runs eastward into Berkshire ; the Upper Avon rises among the hills eastward of Devizes, passes
southward, and receives in its course the Wily and Nadder, and the Bourne, and enters Hampshire. The Wily
rises at the base of Clay Hill, near Warminster, and flows south-eastward to its confluence with the Nadder, east
of Wilton. There is a chalybeate spring at Chippenham, also a chalybeate and a saline aperient spring near
Melksham, and mineral springs of various qualities at Heywood, Holt, Seend, Road, West Ashton, and Middle
Hill, near Box. Fossil shells, and other supposed antediluvian remains, have been found embedded in a blue
clay, in the neighbourhood of Wootton Bassett, Malmesbury, and Grittleton. The ancient British inhabitants of
ibis county were the Belgtee ; under the Romans it belonged to the province of Britannia Prima ; and under the
Baxons to the kingdom of Wessex. In 554 Cynric, King of Wessex, defeated the Britons, near Sarum ; and in 558,
at Barbury, north of Marlborough. In the seventh century a contest for power occurred between the Kings of
Wessex and Mercia, and an engagement took place at Great Bedwin. In 871 Alfred was defeated by the Danes
at Wilton ; and ancient historians state that, in 878^ he achieved his great victory over the invaders at Ethandun,
the situation of which has been the subject of various conjectures. In 1003 Wilton and Sarum were plundered
and destroyed by Sweyn, King of Denmark ; in 1006 the men of this county were defeated by the Danes, on the
banks of the Kennet; and, in 1017, Edmund Ironside gained a victory over the Danes, commanded by their king
Canute, at Sherston, near Malmesbury. In 1 139 King Stephen, afler a contest with the partizans of Roger, Bishop
of Sarum, gained possession of the castles of Sarum, Devizes, and Malmesbury ; and Henry, son of the Empress
Matilda, having landed in England in 1152, to lay claim to the crown, took the town and castle of Malmes-
bury. In the civil war under Charles I. Wardour Castle, near Hindon, was taken by the Parliamentarians in
May, 1643; and in the same year was captured another royal garrison at Malmesbury, and a complete victory
was obtained over the Royalists at Roundaway Hill, near Devizes. In 1645 the latter town was captured by
Cromwell ; and Malmesbury was taken a second time by the parliamentary forces. The insurrection of the
Royalists at Salisbury in 1655, under Wyndham and Penruddock, was the latest military event of any importance.
There were many considerable Roman stations in this county, which was intersected by three of their great roads;
the Fosseway, which entered it on the north and extended to Bath ; Julia Strata, which crossed the northern part
of the county, and on the line of which were the stations of Verlucio, at Highfield, near Hedington, and Cunetio,
at Folly Farm, eastward of Marlborough ; and on the south extended a branch of the Ridgway, passing from
Tidworth to the important station of Sorbiodunum, Old Sarum, and thence into Dorsetshire. Tesselated pave-
ments, inscribed stones, urns, coins, and other Roman antiquities, have been found in various parts of the county.
Among the ancient castles may be mentioned those of Castle Combe, Devizes, Ludgershall, Malmesbury, Marl-
borough, and Farley ; the remains of which last are interesting, the others are entirely destroyed. The chief remains
of monastic buildings are, the abbeys of Kingswood, Lacock, and Malmesbury ; the priory of Bradenstoke ;
and tlie nunnery of Kington St. Michael.

Noblemen's and gentlemen's seats: Charlton House, belonging to the F^rl of Suffolk; Corsham House, to
Paul Methuen, Esq. ; Hartham Park, to Michael Joy, Esq. ; Lacock Abbey, to the Talbot family ; Littlecot
Park, to General Popham; Stourhead, to Sir R. C. Hoare, Bart. ; Longleat, to the Marquis of Bath ; Wardour
Castle, to Lord Arundel ; Longford Castle, to the Earl of Radnor ; and Wilton House, to the Earl of Pembroke.

Distinguished natives of Wiltshire : St. AldheJm, Bishop of Sherborne, in the beginning of the eighth century;
Thomas Hobbes, the author of the * Leviathan," and other philosophical works, born at Malmesbury in 1588 ;
Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, a native of Dinton ; Joseph Addison, born at Brigmilston, and died in 1719;
James Harris, the author of '< Hermes," and other works ; and John Tobin, an ingenious dramatic writer, who
were both natives of Salisbury.

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Lat. between 51 deg. 57 min. and 53 deg. f 9 min. N. Lon.
eetween 1 deg. 45 min. and 2 deg. 40 min. W. Greatest length
44 m. Greatest breadth 34 m. Superficial extent 431,360 acres.
Boundaries: N.Shropshire and Staffordshire; E.Warwickshire;
8. Gloneeeter ; W. Hereford. Hundreds 5. Parishes 171. City 1 :
Worcester. Boroughs 5. Market-towns 12: Bewdley, Broms-
grore, Droitwich, Dudley, Evesham, Kidderminster, Pershore,
Shipston, Stourbridge, Stourport, Tenbury, and Upton-upon-

Dioceee of Worcester, excepting fifteen paridtes and eight cha-
pelriee. which are in that of Hereford. Archdeaconry of Worcester,
containing the deaneries of Blocldey, Droitwich, Eresham, Kid-
derminster, Pershore, Powick, Kington, Warwick, Wich, and
Worcester. Endowed grammar'^chools, with university priri-
leges» st Bromsgrove, Feckenham, Hartlebury, Kidderminster,
fttoiirbridge, and Worcester.

Oxibrd Circuit. — Assizes and quarter-sessions held at Woi^
cester, where are the county prisons. Acting magistrates 90.
Members of Parliament, 2 for the eastern division of the ooun^.
2 for the western division, 2 for the city of Worcester, 2 each for
the boroughs of Dudley, Evesham, Bewdley, and Kidderminster*
and 1 for the borough of Droitwich.

Polling-places for the eastern division — Droitwich, Pershore,
Shipston, and Stourbridge ; for the western division — Worcester,
Upt<m« Stourport, and Tenburj.

Population, &e. (in 1821) inhabited houses 34,738; families
39,006, comprising 90,259 males, and 94,265 females ; total 1 84,424 :
(in 1831 ) total 2 1 1 ,356. Estimated increase ofinhabitants from 1700
to 1821, 100,000. Assessment for poor and county rates (in 1826)
land 62 ,888<. 4s. ; dwelling-houses 15,892<. 3i. ; mills, faotories, &c.
3111/. 8f.; manorial profiu, &c. 2092/.; total 83,983<. I5t. : (in
1830) total 97,178/.

The general appearance of thu county, when viewed from the heights on it8 borders, is that of a rich plain,
the more gentle elevations being hardly discernible. The vale of the Severn extends through it from north to
south about thirty miles, varying in breadth, and comprising about 10,000 acres of land ; and in the south-
eastern part' of the county is the vale of Evesham, extending mto Gloucestershire. These valleys, which lie very
low, are bordered by gentle declivities, seldom rising to the height of 200 feet. Between Worcester and the
vale of Evesham, the soil consists partly of red marl, and partly of strong clay loam ; that of the last-mentioned
vale is composed of deep, rich earth, containing much calcareous matter. On the borders, and in the hills,
limestone predominates, while the low grounds are covered with rich loam. In the west, the surface is formed
of clay and gravel, in some places consisting of deep clay ; and in others is found a loose stony soil. The agri-
cultural products are wheat, barley, oats, beans, peas, vetches, turnips, and hops ; besides cabbages, carrots, and
potatoes, which are raised in great plenty. The orchards and plantations produce excellent cider and perry.
Underwood, which is largely used for hop-poles, is procured from the forest of Wyre. The climate is mild, tem-
perate, and salubrious : and there being no lakes, marshes, or moorland, of any magnitude, the atmosphere is
generally clear. The principal manufactures are those of gloves^ china-ware, cabinet work, glass and iron works,
and bombasins ; carpets, for which Kidderminster has long been noted ; and nails, needles, fish-hooks, and salt.
The only mineral products of importance are the salt-rocks of Droitwich, and the coal strata. The principal
heights, which are chiefly in the outskirts of the county, are the Malvern Hills, on the south-western border;
Clent Hill, near Hagley; K^ ^'^^ by Hibbesford; Crookbury Hill, two miles from Worcester; Abberley Hill,
Cleeve Prior, near Ev^g}^^ ; and Bredon Hill, on the confines of Gloucestershire ; and north-east of Broms*

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groTe 18 a high mountainous ridge, called the Lickey. The principal rivers are the Severn, the Avon, the Teme,

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