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Market-towna f 5.
Arehdioeaae of Caabel; d io c ea e a af Roaa, Cork, and Ckyne. '
Membera of Paittamoit, S for dM oonntj, S lor the dtjr of Cork,
and 1 each for the boroogha of Bandon-bridge, Kinaale, MaUow,
and Yooghal.
, Population 700,S59.


Greateit length 67 m. Greateat breadth 5S m. Snperfieial ex-
tent 1,040,469 aerea. Baronieag. Pariahea 83. Market4owna 6.

Archdioc e ao of Caahel ; dioceae of Ardfeit and Aghadoe.

Menabera of Pariiament, 2 for the oonntji and 1 for the boioo^

Population tl9,969.


Greateat breadth St m.
10. Ckfli LuMfiek

Greateat length 51m.
tent 69f, 975 aeiee
1S5. Bfaikat-towBa 5.

Arehdiooeae of Caahel; dioeeaeof Uneiiek.

HeMbertof Paflianent,tftrtbeooant7,aBdt fortfaaeity of
limeriok. Ptopiilation tS9^5. .


Greateat length 79 m. Gieateat braadth 39 m. Snperfieial xe-
t8nt88t,396aerea. Baroniee 11. Pariaheel86. HarkeMowna7.

Aiohdioceee of Caahel; diooeeea of Caahel and Emlj.

Membera of Parliament, S for the eoonty, and 1 each for the bo-
nmgha of Caahel and Clonmel.

Population 40t,598.


Greateat length 51m. Greateat breedth t9 m. Snperfieial az-
tent4t5,69taarea. Baroniee 8. Cit j 1 • Waterfi)rd. Periahaef4.
Market-towna 6.

ArohdioeeeeofCeahel; d io c ee e a of Waterford and Liamore.

Membera of Parliament, fi for the eovnty, t for the city of
Waterford, and 1 for the bovoo^ ef Dongarraa.

Pcpnlatioo 148,077.

-» •. ^ • -.»


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Lat. between 54 deg. 39 min. ind 58 deg. 40 min. N. Lon.
between 1 deg. 17 min. £. and 6 deg. W. Greatest length
t78 m. Greaceat breadth 150 m. Superficial extant 37,794 miles.
Counties 33. Parishes 877. Cities 2 : Edinburgh and Glasgow.
Borough-towns 5: Aberdeen, Dundee, Greenock, Paislej, and
Perth. Burgh districts 14 : (1) Kirkwall, Wick, Domock, Ding-
wall, Tain, and Cromarty ; (3) Fortrose, Inverness, Nairn, and
Forres ; (3) Elgin, CuUen, Banff, Inyerurie, Kintoie, and Peter-
bead; (4) Inrerberne, Montrose, Aberbrothwick, Brechin, and For-
far; (5) Cupar, St. Andrew's, Anstruther Easter, Anstruther
Wester, Crail, Kilrenny, and Pittenweem ; (6) Dysart, Kirkaldy,

Kinghom, and Bruntisland; (7) Inrerkeithing, Dunfermline
Queensferry, Culross, and Stirling; (8) Renfrew, Rutherglen,
Dumbarton, Kilmarnock, and Port Glasgow; (9) Haddington,
Dunbar, North Berwick, Lauder, and Jedburgh; (10) Leith,
Portobello, and Musselburgh; (11) Linlithgow, Lanark, Falkirk,
Airdrie, and Hamilton ; (12) Ayr, Irvine, Cambeltown, Inverary,
and Oban; (13) Dumfries, Sanquhar, Annan, Lochmaben, and
Kirkcudbright ; (14) Wigton, New Galloway, Stranraer, and Whit-
horn. Members of Parliament 53. Universities 4 : Edinburgh^
Glasgow, Aberdeen, and St. Andrew's.
Population (in 1831) 3,093,456; (in 1831) 2,365,807.

Scotland constitutes the northern portion of the island of Great Britain, and hence it is not unfrequently
styled North Britain. It was an independent kingdom till it was united to England in the reign of Queen Anne,
the country having been previously governed by the same sovereigns, from the period of the accession of James 1 .
to the British throne in 1603. Few regions display a greater diversity of surface and aspect than Scotland. It
contains the loftiest mountains in the island ; and while some parts abound with swelling hills or craggy rocks, in
others are found wide tracts of moss and moor, sandy plains, or deep glens and valleys, through which flow mountain
streams, forming lakes, which contribute to the rich variety of the prospect. Elsewhere are beheld fruitful fields
and verdant meads and pastures, interspersed with woods and groves, and exhibiting the eflfects of human skill
and industry. Scotland is usually divided into two distinct portions, the Highlands and the Lowlands ; but it
may more properly be arranged in three divisions, the Northern, the Middle, and the Southern districts. The
Northern district is almost wholly rugged and mountainous ; but on the east, near the coast, are vales of level
. land, sufficiently fertile to repay the toils of husbandry. The Middle district is likewise extremely mountainous.
The Southern district, though less elevated than the preceding, is by no means destitute of hills. There are also
considerable tracts of moss and heath, but the fertile and cultivated portions are of greater extent ; and the eastern
coast, which is very populous, is said to contain a larger proportion of cultivated land than many parts of Eng-
land. Scarcely any country has its shores indented with so many bays, lochs, and inlets of the sea as Scotland.
It is situated in the temperate zone, but near the frigid polar regions ; and hence its clunate is cold, dense, and
moist. Owing to its insular situation, the cold is not so intense during winter as on the European continent in
similar latitudes; but the winters commonly last longer than in South Britain. The climate is subject to abundance
of rain, as in all mountainous countries, and it has been observed that more falls towards the western coast than
in any other parts. The western winds prevail in summer, and the heat,, without being oppressive, is sufficient to

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ripen eorii and fruits; the land bemg refreshed by frequent dews and showers, and the air rendered mild and
temperate by the sea-breezes. Storms, occasioning deluges, are more frequent and more injurious than those
which take place in the southern part of the island; and in one of these, in August, 1829, the |^ain of Forres
was covered to the extent of twenty square miles, and the flood occasioned a great devastation of property. The
nature of the soil is various, but its general character, in point of fertility, is inferior to that of England. There
are many valleys, or straths, which are exceedingly fertile ; and the three Lothians, especially, contain excellent
land, which is as fruitful as any in the Island. The principal products of the valleys are wheat, fruits, and garden
esculents; on the higher grounds are grown rye, barley, bear, oats, peas, beans, and occasionally flax and hemp.
Potatoes, turnips, and most other edible roots, are also raised here. The principal trees for timber, are the Scottish
fir and the larch, the latter recently introduced ; and the ash, elm, plane, beech, oak, with other trees of various
kinds, are intermixed in plantations with ornamental trees, as the laburnum. The juniper-bush is a native of the
Scottish hills. Among the quadrupeds common to this country, may be mentioned the fox, the badger, the
otter, the wild cat, the hedgehog, the stag, the wild roe, the hare, the rabbit, the weasel, the mole, with some
others of the smaller animals. The Scots have some peculiar breeds of horses, as those of Galloway and Shet-
land ; and their cattle and sheep are noted for the delicate flavour of their flesh. Deer are kept in parks as in
England ; the milk of goats is sometimes used for making cheese ; and swine are among the domestic animals
of this country. The feathered tribes mclude the pheasant, the ptarmigan, the black cock, the grouse, the partridge,
the plover, the snipe, the great auk, the gannet, the fulmer, the guillemot, the razor-bill, the wfld swan, the
tufted duck> and the eider duck ; and here also is found that beautiful bird, the capercailzie, or cock of the woody
which is becoming exceedingly rare ; among the birds of prey are likewise various kinds of eagles, falcons, and
hawks. The rivers, lakes, and seas, abound with fish, as herrings, mackerel, stuigeon, cod, haddocks, whitingf
turbot, skate, and other edible fish ; besides which the sunfish is taken for the sake of its oil ; and whales are
sometimes cast ashore on the Hebrides, the Orkneys, and the Shetland Isles.

Among the manufactures are those of linen cloth of every description, shawls, gauzes, sarcenets, tabinets,
hosiery, and other fabrics of a similar kind. Carron is noted for the manufacture of cast iron ; there are exten-
sive establishments for making green and flint glass ; in several places are considerable potteries ; and large
quantities of hard and soft soap are made in various places. The distillation of spirits is extensively practised ;
the best whiskey is of Scottish manufacture ; and Edinbtirgh is noted for ale. Commerce is carried on to a great
extent, and, according to the returns made to parliament in 1829, the number of vessels belonging to all the ports
in Scotland amounted to 3228.

The principal ridges of mountains in Scotland are the Grampian Hflls, the mountains of Rosdiire, called
Ardross, the Pentland Hills in Lothian, the Lammermuir Hilb in Berwickshire, the great ridge of hills between
Lanark and Dumfries Shires, the Ochils in the shires of Fife and Perth, and the Cheviot Hills on the English bor-
der. There are also some mountain peaks of great elevation, as Benmacdouie, 4390 feet above the level of the
sea ; Ben Nevis, 4370 feet ; and Brae Biach, 4304 feet, iriuch are in Invemesshire ; Ben lawers, 3858 feet ; Ben
More, 3723 feet ; Ben Qloe, 3690 feet; and Shehallien, 3461 feet, all in Perthshire. Qoanthies of gold and
silver are scud to have been found in Scotland formerly; but there is no gold procured here at present; and no
mines are wrought solely for silver ; but the lead-mines are exceedingly rich in that metaL Ironstone, iron-ore,
and septaria ironstone, are abundant. Copper, has been disoovered in various jHaces. The other metallic snb*
stances are antimony,* cobalt, bismuth, manganese, woHrara, plumbago, and mercury* Coal is abundant m the
southern and middle districts. limestone, freestone, or sandstone, and slate, axe found in every district; and
tile marbles of Scotland prove but little inferior to those of Italy. Most of the gems and precious stones have
been found here except the diamond. Most of the mountains are composed of granite ; that of Ben Nevk is said
10 be equally beautiful with the Egyptian. At Portsoy is found that singular kind of granite called Moses's
Tables, which, when polished, exhibits the resemblance of Hebrew characters on a white ground. The rivers of
Scotland are extremdy numerous ; but their length is comparatively inconsiderabie, and they are most remarkably
distinguished by the cataracts which interrupt their course, and the lakes with which they communicate. The
t^rinoipal rivers ate the Forth, the Clyde, and the Tay, which are the most important ; the Beauly, the Naver« the
Conon, the Spey, the Dee, the Don, the North and South Esks, the Tweed, the Ayr, the Girvan, the Southern

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Dee, the Nith, the Annan, and the liddel. The lakes, or lochfl of Scotland are numerous, extensive, and nisi*
tinguished for their picturesque beauty ; and they form a peculiar feature of the country. Among the most re-
markable may be mentioned Loch Lomond, Loch Awre, Loch Tay, Loch Ness, Loch Naver, Loch Erne, and Loch
Leven. Chalybeate springs are almost innumerable, particularly at Mofiat, Peterhead, Dunse, Aberbrothock, ^c.
Sulphureous springs are also (bund in the neighbourhood of Moffat, and at St Bernard's Well, near Edinburgh.
Many of the springs likewise hold- some neutral salt dissohred as that of Pitcaithly.

The triber of people inhabiting the northern parts of Britam, are by ancient writers generally denominated Cale<^
donians ; who, though vanquished by Agricola, Severus, and other commanders, were never long subject to the
Roman government, like their southern neighbours. In the middle of the fourth century, the supreme autliority
belonged to the Ptcts, supposed to have been the same with the ancient Caledonians. Anjother tribe, called Scots,
emigrating from Ireland, joined the Picts as allies, and assisted them m their wass with the Anglo-Saxons ; but,
about 839, the Picts were entirely subdued by Kenneth II., the King of the Scots, who thus became sovereign of
the whole country. The death of Alexander III. without male issue, in 1285, beii% speedily followed by that of
his grandaughter and heiress, Margaret, called the Maid of Norway, the hereditary right became vested in the
descendants of David I. in the female line, and conflicting claims arismg, the decision was referred to Edward I.
of England, who gave it in favour of John Baliol, and he subsequently resigned his crown. Edward now, in spite
of the efforts of the patriot, William Wallace, made himself master of Scotland ; when another defender of the
national freedom appeared in Robert Bruce, who was crowned at Scone in 1306. The warlike King of England
assembled an immense army, for the reconquest of the country, but on his deatii in July, 1307, near Carlisle, it
was left to his son, Edward 11. , who was defeated at Bannookbum, by Bruce, and this victory established the
independence of Scotland. On the death of David II., in 1371, the crown was transferred to his nephew,
Robert II., called Steward, or Stuart, from his office, as hereditary high steward of Scotland; and his lineal
descendant and successor, James IV., having married Margaret, the eldest daughter of Henry VII., their great*
grandson, James VI., on the death of Queen Elizabeth, in 1603, ascended the throne of England, and thus
permanendy united under one sovereign the whole of Ghreat ^tain.

Eminent natives of Scotland : Dr. Arbathnot and Dr. Armstrong, both ingenious poets and physicians of the
last century; Dr. Gilbert Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury, author of the " Hiltory of the Reformation," and other
works ; Bums, the Ayrshire ploughman, femed as a lyric poet; Dr. George Cheyne» a celebrated physician and
medical writer, who died at Bath in 1743 ; Patrick Colquhoun, an eminent writer on statistics and criminal juris-
prudence, who was bom at Dumbarton in 1745, and died in 1820 in Ldndon, where he had long filled the office
of a police magistrate ; William Creech, an eminent printer and ingenious writer, who was bom «t Newcastle,
near Edinburgh, in 1745, and died in 1815 ; the admirable Crichton ; Alexander Cmden, the author of a '* Con*
cordance of the BiMe,'' bom at Aberdeen in 1701, and died at Islington, near London, in 1770 ; William Cruik-
shank, a celebrated surgeon and writer on anatomy, who was a native of Edinburgh, and died in 1800, at the age
of fifty-five; Dr. William Cullen, a distinguished physician and medical writer, who was bom in the county of
Lanark in 1712, and died at Edinburgh in 1790; Dr. James Currie, a celebrated physician, who was bom at
Kirkpatrick Fleming, m Dumfriesshire, in 1756, and died in 1805 ; Sir David Dalrymple (Lord Hailes) author of
the '' History of Scotland," bom at Edinburgh in 1726, and died November 29, 1792 ; Alexander Dalrymple^
an eminent hydrographer, bom in 1737, and died in London, June 19, 1808 ; Sir John Dalrymple, author of
*^ Memoirs of Great Britam and Ireland," who died February 26, 1810 ; Thomas Dempster, a Scottish historian,
bom in 1579, and died in 1625; Gravin Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld, eminent for bis poetical talents, bom in
Annandale in 1474, and died of the plague in London, in 1522; Admiral Sir Charlea Douglas, who died in
January, 1789 ; Dr. John Douglas, Bishop of Salisbury, a learned divine, bora at Pitienweem, in Fifeshiie, 1721,
and died May 18, 1807 ; William Drummond, of Hawthoraden, a Scotlidt poet and historian, died December
4, 1649 ; William Dunbar, an emin^t poet, who died about 1530 ; Dr. James Dunbar, author of ** Essays on
the History of Mankind, in rode and uncultivated Ages," who died May 28, 1798 ; William Duncan, an inge-
nious critic and translator of classical literaturo, bom at Aberdeoi 1717, and died in 1760 ; Lord Viscount Dun-
can, a gallant British admiral^ ^"^ &t Dundee, July 1, 1731, and died Auga3t4, 1804; George Augustus
Eliot, Lord Headifield, K. 3,, govemor of Oibraitar, bom at Stobbs, in Roxburghabirei in 1718, and died at Aiv

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la-Cbapelle, July 6, 1790 ; William Elphinstone, a Scottish prelate and statesman, who was bora at Stirling iii
1432, and died in 1513 ; Thomas Lord Erskine, a celebrated lawyer and political writer ; William Falconer, au«
thor of " The Shipwreck," and other poems ; Dr. Adam Ferguson, a philosophical and political writer, bora in
1724, who died at St. Andrew's, Febraary 22, 1816; James Ferguson, a mathematician and astronomer, who
was bora in Banfifshire in 1710, and died November 16, 1776 ; Robert Fergusson, an ingenious Scottish poet,
who was bora at Edinburgh in 1750, and died October 16, 1774 ; Andrew Fletcher, a statesman and political
writer, who was bora in 1643, and died in London in 1716; Sir William Forbes, Bart., of Pitsligo, the author of
" Memoirs of Dr. Beattie," who died in 1807 ; Rev. David Fordyce, an ingenious writer, who was bora at Aber-
deen in 1711, and lost his life by shipwreck on the coast of Holland in 1751 ; his brother. Dr. James Fordyce,
an eminent Presbyterian divine and preacher, who died at Bath in 1796 ; Dr. George Fordyce, an eminent phy-
sician and medical writer, nephew of the preceding, who died in London in 1802 ; John de Fordun, a Scottish
ecclesiastic of the fourteenth century, who was the author of a work entitled '< Scoto-Chronica ;" William Forsyth,
a writer on botany, who was bora at Old Meldram, in Aberdeenshire, in 1737, and died in 1804 ; Robert Foulis,
an eminent printer at Glasgow, who died in 1776 ; David Stewart Erskine, Earl of Buchan» author of the
** Life of the Poet Thomson ;" Robert Pollok, a poetical writer, who died in 1 827 ; the celebrated Professor
Dugald Stewart, who died in 1828: Dr. Alexander Garden, an eminent botanist, who resided long in
America, and died in London in 1791 ; Colonel James Gardiner, who was killed at the battle of Preston Pans,
was a native of Carriden, in Linlithgowshire ; Dr. Maxwell Garthshore, an eminent physician and medical writer*
a native of Kirkcudbright, who died in London in 1812 ; Dr. Alexander Geddes, a learned catholic divine and
translator of the Old Testament, who was bora in 1757 at Ruthven, in Banfishire, and died in London in 1802 ;
Dr. Alexander Gerard, a learaed divine, who was professor of divinity at King's College, Aberdeen, was
bora at Galioch, in Aberdeenshire, in 1728, and died in 1795 ; James Gibbs, a distinguished architect, who built
the church of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, was a native of Aberdeen, and died in 1754 ; John Glass, founder of the
Glassites, a native of Dundee, who died in 1773 ; Thomas Gordon, translator of Tacitus, and the author of nu-
merous political pieces, bora at Kirkcudbright, and died in 1750 ; Dr. James Grainger, the author of the ** Sugar
Cane,'^ and other poems, was born at Dunse, in Berwickshire, in 1724, and died at Basseterre, in the island of
St. Christopher, in the West Indies, in 1767 ; James Gregory, a mathematician, celebrated as the inventor of the
reflecting telescope, who was bora at Aberdeen in 1638, and died in 1675; Dr. David Gregory, nephew of the
preceding, celebrated as an astronomer and a mathematician, who became Savilian professor of astronomy at
Oxford, and died in 1710 ; William Guthrie, an historian and author of a '< Geographical Grammar," bora at
Brechin, in Forfarshire, in 1701, and died March 9, 1770; William Hamilton, a Scottish poet, called Hamilton
of Bangour, from Bangour, in A3nr8hite, the place of his birth, who died in France in 1754 ; Sir William Ifamil-
ton, an eminent antiquary, many years British ambassador at the court of Naples, who died in London in 1803 ;
Henry the Minstrel, or Blind Harry, the author of a poem on the exploits of Sir William Wallace, supposed to have
lived about the middle of the fifteenth century ; Dr. Robert Henry, the author of a valuable *' History of Eng-
land," was bora at Muir Town, St. Ninians, in 1718, and died in 1790 ; Henry Home, Lord Karnes, author of
'' Sketches of the History of Man," born in 1696, and died in 1782 ; Rev. John Home, author of the tragedy of
^'Douglas," bora near Ancrum, in Roxburghshire, in 1724, and died September 4, 1808 ; David Hume, a cele-
brated historian and philosopher, bora at Edinburgh in 1711, and died in 1776; Dr. William Hunter, a cele-
brated physician and medical writer, bora at Kilbride, Lanarkshire, in 1718, and died in London in 1783; John
Hunter, younger brother of the preceding, distinguished as a surgeon and anatomist, who died in 1793 ; Dr.
Henry Hunter, a Presbyterian divine and theolc^cal writer, bora at Culross, in Perthshire, in 1741, and died in
1802 ; Dr. James Hutton^ distinguished as a natural philosopher and geol(^ist, was born at Edinburgh in 1726
and died in 1797; George Jamison, a celebrated Scottish painter, bora at Aberdeen in 1586, and died at Earn-
burgh in 1644; Dr. Arthur Johnston, a physician and a Latin poet, born at Aberdeen in 1587, and died at Ox-
ford in 1641 ; Dr. John Keill, an eminent mathematician and philosopher, born at Edinburgh in 1671, and died
in 1721 ; James Keith, field-marshal in the service of the King of Prussia, bora in 1696, and killed at the batUe
of Hochkirchen in 1758 ; John Knox, a famous divine, who was the reformer of the Scottish church in the six-
teenth century, was a native of East Lothian, and died in 1572 ; Mijcohn Laing, a Scottish historian, bora in

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Orkney, and died in 1819; John Law, of Edinburgh, a famous projector, who died at Venice m 1729: Join
Lesley, Bishop of Ross, an eminent historian, born in 1527, and died in.l596; Sir John Leslie, professor of natu -
nd philosophy at Edinburgh, bom at Coates, near Largo, in Fifeshire» where he died Nov. 3, 1 832 ; Dr. John Ley '
den, a poet and physician, bom in Roxburghshire in 1775, and died August 28, 1811 ; Sir David Lindsay, an
ingenious Scottish writer and dramatic poet, bom in Fifeshire in 1496, and died in 1557; William Lithgow, a
famous traveller, who died about the middle of the sixteenth century; Alexander Lockhart, author of *' Memoirs
of Scotland," bom near Edinburgh in 1673, and killed in a duel in 1732; John Logan, a Scottish divine and
poet, bom in Mid- Lothian about 1748, and died in London December 28, 1788 ; Robert Macfarlane, a miscel-
laneous writer, bom in 1734, and died in 1804; Sir George Mackenzie, an eminent Scottish lawyer and miscel-
laneous writer, born at Dundee in 1636, and died in 1691 ; George Mackenzie, author of << Lives and Characters
of the Eminent Scottish Writers," was a physician at Edinburgh in the beginning of the eighteenth century;
Henry Mackenzie, author of ** The Man of Feeling," and several other ingenious works, was born at Edinburgh
in August, 1745, and died January 14, 1831 ; Dr. James Macknight, an eminent Presbyterian divine and
Scripture commentator, was bora at Irvine, Argyllshire, in 1721, and died January 13, 1800; Colin Maclaurin,
an eminent mathematician and philosopher, was bom in 1698, and died in 1746; Hector Macneil, a Scottish
poet and novelist, who died in 1818 ; James Macpherson, distinguished as the author, or rather the translator, of
the poems of Ossian, was bora at Kingcussie, in Inveraesshire, in 1738, and4ied in February, 1796; David
Mallet, or Malloch, a poet and dramatic writer, was bora about 1700, and died in 1765; Sir James Melvil,
author of " Memoirs of England and Scotland, was bora at Halhill, in Fifeshire, in 1530, and died in 1606 ;
Philip Miller, author of the '' Gardener's Dictionary," was bora in 1691, and died in 1771 ; James Burnett^
Lord Monboddo, a philosophical and metaphysical writer, was born at Kincardine in 1714, and died May 26,
1799 ; Dr. Alexander Monro, an eminent physician and anatomist, was bora in 1697, and died in 1767 ; James
Graham, Marquis of Monuose, a distinguished partizan of Charles I., who was beheaded in 1650 ; Dr. John
Moore, a celebrated traveller and ingenious writer, was born at Stirling in 1730, and died Febraary 20, 1802 ;
Sir John Moore, K.B., a gallant British general, bora at Glasgow, November 13, 1761, and killed at the battle
of Comnna, January 16, 1809 ; William Murray, Earl of Mansfield, Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench, was
bora at Perth in 1705, and died in 1793 ; Robert Mylne, an architect employed in erecting Blackftiars Bridge,
was bora at Edinburgh in 1734, and died in 1811 ; John Lord Napier, a celebrated philosopher and mathema-
tician, was born in 1550, and died in 1617 ; John Qgilby, a geographer, critic, and poet, was bora near Edin-
burgh in 1600, and died in 1676 ; Dr. John Ogilvie, a Scottish divine and poetical writer, was bora in 1733, and
died in 1814; Dr. Archibald Pitcairae, a celebrated physician and poet, was bora at Edinburgh in 1652, and

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Online LibrarySidney HallA new British atlas: comprising a series of 54 maps, constructed from the ... → online text (page 17 of 20)