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from 1700 to 1821, 168,500. Assessment for poor snd county rates
(in 1826) land 88,606/. 5t. ; dweUing-houses 20,592/. 1«. ; miUs,
factories, &c. 5514/. 19«. ; manorisl profits, &c. 1752/. It. ; total
116,265/. U, : (in 1850) total 144,102/.

The aurface of this county is generally level, and the land being rich it has attained the appellation of the
* Vale Royal of England." But on its eastern border is a range of hills connected with those ot Yorkshire and
Derbyshire, and there is'a remarkable detached eminence at Alderley Edge, in the hundred of Macclesfield
There are also some heights on the borders of Shropshire^ and in a few other parte : as Delamere Forest, north*
east of Chester ; Heswell Hill, north of Park Gate, on the river Dee ; Bellefield Hill ; Disley Hill, on the eastern
border of the county, on the road to Buxton ; and Mow Copt, or Mole Cop, on the confines of Staffordshire, near
Congleton, which appears to be the highest ground in the county, being nearly 1 100 feet above the level of the
sea. The summite of Beeston and Halton Castles are also of considerable height: the former situated on the
bank of a small stream called Beeston Brook, here crossed by the Chester Canal, affords a fiue view over the
Vale of Chester and the estuary of the river Dee ; and the latter, .on an eminence near Runcorn, overlooks the
course of the Mersey, and the borders of Lancashire from Warrington to the sea. Coal is found in abundance
in the north-eastern district; there are lead-works at Alderley Edge, where also cobalt has been discovered, and
copper has been found at Mottram and ekewhere. The staple producte of Cheshire are salt and cheese. The
principal salt-pite are at Wheelock, Lawton, Roughwood in Leftwich, Middlewich, Anderton, Betchton near
Northwich, Nantwich, and Frodsham. The districto most noted for cheese are, tlie vicinity of Nantwich, the
parish of Over, the borders of the river Weever, and several farms near Congleton and Middlewich ; and the
annual produce has been stated at about 11,500 tons. Potatoes are cultivated extensively in this county, which
also produces com and timber. The chief rivers are the Dee, the Mersey, the Weever, the Bollin, the Dane, the
Wheelock, the Peover, and the Tame, and there are numerous streaxns of less importance. Cheshire likewise
contains several fine lakes and meres, as Combermere, which gives name to Combermere Abbey ; Barmere, in the
parish of Malpas ; a mere in the parish of Ronhem ; Comberbachmere ; Oakhangermere ; Pickmere ; and two
lakes in front of Cholmondeley Castle, called Chapelmere and Mossmere. At Buglawton^ near Congleton, is •

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mineral spring, impregnated with sulphur, Epsom salt, and calcareous earth ; and at Kelsall, north-west of Tar-

porley, is a chalybeate spring.

Before the conquest of Britain by the Romans, this part of the island was inhabited by the Carnabii, and it was

afterwards a part of the province of Flavia Csesariensis. The Wading Street, and the Via Devana passed

through this county, in which was the Roman station of Deva, or Chester, which still retains considerable
traces of its ancient state. In this city have been, found many remains of ancient buildings, hypocausts, in-
scribed and sculptured altars, and other Roman antiquities. Kinderton, in the parish of Middlewich, is supposed
to have been the site of the station called, by Antoninus, Condate; and traces of the intrenchment by which it
was probably defended, are still visible, skirting the sides of a square about ten acres in extent, called Harbour-
field. Cheshire was not completely subdued by the Saxons till the reign of Egbert, and it was subsequently
overrun by the Danes. In the reign of William the Conqueror, it was constituted an earldom, with peculiar
privileges as a county-palatine, and hence the administration of justice has always been under a separate jurisdic-"
tion from that of the neighbouring parts of England. Cheshire was the scene of various military operations in
the reign of Charles I., among which may be mentioned the capture of the royal garrison of Chester, commanded
by Lord Byron, in February, 1646; and in August, 1659, the Royalists, under Sir G. Booth, were defeated
by General Lambert, at Winnington Bridge, near Northwich.

Among the ancient castles in this county may be noticed those of Chester, now the county hall and prison;
Beeston and Halton, in ruins ; besides others at Runcorn, Malpas, and elsewhere, of which there are no traces
remaining. The principal monastic buildings in the county were the Abbey of Vale Royal, on the banks of the
Weever, eastward of Delamere Forest, founded by Edward L; St. Werburgh*8 Abbey at Chester; besides
which there were several others. The most considerable remains of Anglo-Norman architecture in Cheshire are
parts of St. John's Church, without the walls of Chester, formerly collegiate : as fine examples of the Gothic style
may be mentioned Chester Cathedral, the parish church of Nantwich, and that of Mottram. Among the principal
noblemen's and gpentlemen's seats are Eaton Hall, south of Chester, belonging to the Marquis of Westminster ;
Tatton Park, north of Knutsford, to Wilbraham Egerton, Esq. ; Lyme Park, near Disley, to Thomas Legh, Esq. ;
Tabley House, to Lord De Tabley ; Crewe Hall, to Lord Crewe; Doddington Hall, to Ueutenant-General Sir
J. Delves Broughton, Bart. ; Cholmondeley Castle, to the Marquis of Cholmondeley ; Oulton Park, to Sir John
Grey Egerton, Bart.; Rode Hall, to R. Wilbraham, Esq.; Capesthom Hall, to D. Davenport, Esq^; Astle
Park, to Colonel Parker ; Over Peover Park, to Sir H. M. Mainwaring, Bart. ; Combermere Abbey, eastward of
Malpas, to Lord Combermere; and Brereton Hall, near Sandbach. Among the eminent natives of Cheshire
may be mentioned, John Speed, the historian and antiquary, who was bom at Famdon^ and died m 1629 ;
Sir Peter Leycester, Bart., of Tabley, who published " Historical Antiquities," and made valuable collectionft of
materials for the " History of Cheshire," in the latter part of the seventeenth century ; Edmund Bonner, Bidiop
of Lonrlon, the grand persecutor of the Protestants in the reign of Queen Mary, said to have been the natural son
of Sir John Savage, K. G., who was killed at the siege of Boulogne in 1492 ; Holinshed, the historian, who lived
in the reign of Elizabeth, was probably a native of Cophurst, in the parish of Prestbury, where his family was set-
tled at that period ; John Bradshaw, president of the court of justice which condemned Charles L, was bom in
1 602, at Marple, in the parish of Stockport ; Dr. Thomas Wilson, Bibhop of Sodor and Man, distinguished for his
piety and learning, was a native of Burton, westward of Chester ; John Whitehurst, a most ingenious mechanic
and writer on Geology, who was bom at Congleton, in 1713, and died in 1788; the Rev. Theophilus Lindsey,
a noted Unitarian divine, who was bom at Middlewich, in 1723, and died in 1808; and the Rev. Reginald
Heber, who was bora at Malpas, in 1783, and died. Bishop of Calcutta, in 1826. Ranulph Higden, a monk
of St. Werburgh's Abbey, at Chester, in the fourteenth century, was the author of a curious <* Chronicle of
English History," and of '* Mysteries, or Sacred Dramas ;" Matthew Henry, the author of a voluminous '* Com-
mentary on the Bible," and other works, who was bom at Broadoak, Flintshire, and died in 1714, was long
Settled as a dissenting minister at Chester.


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Lat. betf^een 49 deg. 68 min. and dOdeg. 56 mixi. N. Lon. be- ;
tween 4 deg. and 5 deg. 50 min. W. Greatest length 78{ m. j
Greatest breadth 43 m. Superficial extent 758,484 acres. Bound- I
aries: N. Bristol Channel: £. Devonshire; S. and W.English
ChanneL Hundreds 9. Parishes 803. Bofougbs 8. Market-
towns 32 : St. Agnes, St. Austell, Bodmin, Boscastle, Bossiney,
Callington, Camborne, Camelford, St Columb, St. Day, Falmonth,
Fowey, Grampound, Helston, St. Ives, Launeeston, Liskeaxd,
Lostwithiel, Mansion, East and West Looe, Mevagissey, St.
Mawes, Padstow, Penrjn, Pensanco, Polperro, Redruth, Saltash,
Stratum, Tregony, Truro, and VVadebridge.

Archdeaconry of Cornwall and diocese of Exeter. Endowed
grammar-school, with university privileges, at Truro.

Western Circuit — Assizes in spring held at Launeeston, and in
summer at Bodmin ; quarter-sessions at Bodmin Michaelmas ; at
Truro, Lent; and at Lostwithiel, Epiphany and Hihry. County

prisons at Launeeston and Bodmin. Acting magistrates 99.
Members of Parliament, 9 for the eastern division of the county, i
for the western division, t each for the boroughs of Bodmin, Truro,
and the conjoint borough of Penryn and Falmooth, and 1 each for
the boroughs of Launeeston, Liskeard, Helston, and St. Ives.

Polling-places for the eastern division of the County — Bodmin,
Launeeston, Liskeard, Stratton, and St Austell ; for the western
division— Truro, Penzance, Helston, and Redruth.

Population, &c. (in 1821) inhabited houses 43,873; families
51,202; comprising 124,817 males, and 132,630 females; total
257,447: (in 1831) total 302,440. Estimated increase of inha-
bitants, from 1700 to 1821, 156,800. Assessment for poor
and county rates (in 1826) land 85,979/. 8s.; dwelling-houses
14,016/. 10«.; mills, factories, &c. 1,857/. 13s.; manorial profits^
&c. 7408/. 9s. : total 109,262/. : (in 18'k>) total 121,202/.

Tm£ name of this county may with probability be derived from the ancient British term Kernou, or Kerniw,
a horn inallusion to its figure, which forms an irregular triangle, bifurcated, or horned at its apex. The climate
is extremely damp fron^ its vicinity to the sea ; but the atmosphere is temperate, and the inhabitants are generally
long lived. . The general aspect of the country is dreary, a ridge of bare nigged hills and barren moors, extending
through the centre from east to west. The sub*soil generally consists of slate-rock, but at the Land's end it is
composed of granite, and elsewhere of serpentine, greenstone, or trap. This district is distinguished for its
valuable mineral product — ^tin ; besides which, here are found copper, lead, silver, gold, cobalt, bismuth, arsenic,
and antimony, with other metallic substances of less importance. Soap-rock, and china-stone, for fine pottery,
white topaz, or crystal, and asbestos, are also among the subterranean productions of Cornwall. The neigh-
Ijouring seas afford abundance and variety offish, and the pilchards taken off the coast, form an important article
of commerce. Agriculture is here regarded as a pursuit of secondary consideration, but large crops of barley are
produced on the banks of the Camel and in its vicinity, and potatoes are raised in great abundance on some lands.
The principal hills are Brownwilley, 1368 feet above the level of the sea; CarratonHill, Kill Hill, Henborough Down,
and Codenborough, more than 1000 feet above the sea; and Bindown, Bodmin Down, Karnbonellis, Kamminnis,
Pertinney, and St. Stephens, which are of somewhat inferior elevation; The chief rivers are the Tamar, which
divides Cornwall from Devonshire; the Lynher; theFowey; the Camel; the Fal; the Heyl in Kirrier; and
the Heyl in Penwith. There are in this county several chalybeate springs, the most remarkable of which is that
of Colurian, in the parish of Ludgivan. Cornwall was anciently inhabited by three British tribes : the Cimbri,
the Camabii, and the Danmonii ; andt under the Romans it fonned a part of the province named Britannia Prima.

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Tbe Romans had a station on the river Fo^cy, called Voluba, and another on the Fal, called Cenia, but the
sites of these places are somewhat uncertain. The Ridgeway, a branch of the Iknield Street, passed through
the county to Halangium (Cambre) near the western extremity. This county still contains numerous monuments
of its ancient inhabitants, the Danmonian Britons, consisting of stone circles, cromlechs, cairns, Logan, or rocking
stones, andToImen, or basin stones; especially in the neighbourhood of Carnbr^, where, in 1749, was discovered
a quantity of gold coins, which appeared to have been struck by some of the British princes of Cornwall. Tu-
muli, or barrows, enclosing urns, weapons, particularly celts or spear-heads, and personal ornaments, have been
found in several places. Roman coins and other vestiges of the Roman conquerors of Britain have been disco-
vered chiefly in the western part of the county. Cornwall was held by the Britons during the Saxon Heptarchy,
and though repeatedly invaded, it was not subdued by the Saxons till the reign of Athelstan, in the early part of
the tenth century. The inhabitants long preserved traces of their British descent, particularly in their language,
which was a dialect resembling the Welsh, and which continued to be generally spoken till the sixteenth century,
when it was superseded by the English. Edward III., in 1337, created his son, tbe Black Prince, Duke of Corn-
wall, and the title has subsequently been borne by the eldest sons of the Kings of England, in whom the immediate
government of the county is vested ; and the duke has the appointment of sheriffs and under o£Bcers, and in his
name the duchy courts are held, and the local government is carried on.

Among the ancient castles of this county may be mentioned those of Launceston, Restormel, Trematon, Pen-
dennis, St. Mawes, Carnbr^, Tintagel, or Bossiuey, and Botreaux, or Boss Castle. This county was the site of
military occurrences in the reign of Henry VII., Perkin Warbeck having landed here to invade the kingdom in
1497 ; and two formidable insurrections against the government having taken place. In the civil war under
Charles I. a battle was fought at Stratton, in 1643, in which the Royalists were victorious. In 1644 the troops of
the Earl of Essex were obliged to surrender to those of the king at Lostwithiel ; and at Truro the western army
of Charles I., under Lord Hopton, was captured by General Fairfax. There were in this county, before the Re-
formation, about twenty conventual establishments, of which there are at present but few remains, except the
church belonging to the priory of St. Germans, which was at an early period the see of a bishop. Kilkhampton
parish Church is deserving of notice on account of its curious Norman doorway ; and the churches of Morwin-
stow and other parishes, afford examples of the same style of building. The church of St. Austell, with its hand-
some tower, displays the decorated Gothic style ; and Launceston Church is a richly ornamented structure of
later Gotliic architecture.

Among the noblemen*s and gentlemen's seats in Cornwall may be mentioned, Godolphin Park, the seat of the
Duke of Leeds ; Trebursey House, belonging to F. Granville, Esq. ; Carclew, to Sir C. Lemon, Bart. ; Tre_
gothnan House, to the Earl of Falmouth ; Werrington House, near Launceston, to the Duke of Northumberland,
Tehidy Park, to Lord De Dunstanville ; Clowance, to Sir John St. Aubin, Bart.; Port Elliot, to the Earl of St.
Germans; Boconnoc, near Lostwithiel, to Lord Grenville; Place House, near Fowey, to J. T. Austen, Esq. ; and
Menabilly, about two miles from that town, to W. Rashleigh, Esq., who possesses a valuable collection of the
mmeral products of Cornwall. Distinguished natives of Cornwall : Degory Wheare, the first Camden pro-
fessor of history at Oxford, was a native of Jacobstow ; Dr. Humphrey Piideaux, author of the " History of the
Jews, and neighbouring Nations," was bom at Padstow, and died in 1724; Dr. John Mayow, distinguished
for his discoveries in chemistry, who was a native of Bray, in Morval, died in 1679 ; Dr. Richard Lower, a
learned physician, who was bom in the parish of St. Tudy, and died in 1691 ; the Rev. Jonathan Toup, the
leamed annotator on Suzdas, and editor of Longinus, born in 1713, at St. Ives; Dr. William Borlase, an
eminent antiquary, bom at Pendeen, in the parish of St. Just, who died August 31, 1772 ; Dr. William Pryce,
a mineralogist and antiquary, who was a physician at Redmth, and died about 1799 ; Sir Humphry Davy, who
was bora at Penzance, and died at Lausanne, m Switzerland, in 1829 ; and Charles Incledon, the famous vocalis
who was bora at St. Keverae, southward of Falmouth, and died in 1826.

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Ltmdan,AMirhed by Chapman A.'iralL,yri8e JOrand.


Lit btttireeii 54 deg. 11 min. and 55 dag. 11 min. N. Lon.
between S deg. 15 min. and 3 deg. SO min. W. Greatest length
T6 m. Greatest breadth 38 m. Superficial extent 945,920 acres.
Boimdaries : N. Solwaj Firth, and Scotland ; E. Northumbeiland
aad Dnrham ; S. Lancashire and Westmorland ; W. the Lrish Sea.
Waids 5. Parishes 104. City 1 : Carlisle. Boroughs S. Mar-
ket^owns 15: Alstons, Brampton, Cockermouth, Egremont, Hes-
ket- Newmarket, Ireby, Keswick, Kirk -Oswald, Longtown,
Maryport, Penrith, Rsrenglass, Whiteharen, Wigton, and Work-

Archdeaconry and diocese of Carlisle ; except the wardof Aller-
dale aboTe Derwent, which is in the archdeaooniy of Richmond,
and diocese of Chester. Endowed grammar-schools, with mdrer-
•ity privileges, at Carlisle, St. Bees, and Penrith. Northern Cir-
eoit. — Assises, and Lent and Hilarj [sessions are held at Carlisle^

where are the coonty prisons; Epiphany sessions held at Cooker-
month ; and Michaelmas sessions at Penrith. Acting magistrates
55. Members of Parliament, 2 for theeastem dirisionof the ooiinity»
2 for the western dinsion, t for the city of Carlislea S for the bo-
roogh of Coekermonth, and 1 for the borough of WhitehaTen.

Polling-places for the eastern division of the County — Cailialey
Brampton, Wigton, Penrith, and Alstons ; for the western diyisioii
—Cockermouth, Aspatria, Keswick, Bootle, and Egiemoot.

Population,' ,&c. (in 1821) inhabited houses 27,246; families
31 ,804, comprising 75,600 males, and 80,524 females ; total 156,124 :
(in 1831) total 169,681. Estimated increase of inhabitants from
1700 to 1821, 97,000. Assessment for poor and county rates (in
1826) land 40,764/. 14t. ; dwelling-houses 12,378/. 4«. ; mills, foe-
tories, &c. 713/. 18«.; manorial piofiU, &c. 1129i. 9s.; total
54,986/. 5«. : (in 1830) total 58,856/,

The climate of Cumberland is reckoned very healthy, and there is a great variety of soil and surface in
different parts. There are two distinct ranges of lofty mountains, one towards the north-east, to which
belongs the ridge called Cross Fell, 2901 feet above the sea; and the other extending from the centre
towards the south-western angle of the county. The highest central peak is Skiddaw, 3022 feet above
the level of the sea; and between these heights are numerous hilU intersected by valleys, watered by
several rivers and lakes. Among the principal eminences, besides those already mentioned, are Sea Fell, the
high pomt of which is 3166 feet above the sea, and the low point 3092 feet; Helvellyn 3055 feet; Bow Fell
2911 feet; Pillar 2893 feet ; Saddleback 2787 feet; Grasmere Fell 2756 feet ; High Pike 2101 feet; and Black
Comb 1919 feet. The principal mineral products of this county are lead, iron, zinc, cobalt, antimony, manganese,
and plumbago ; and copper and silver, were formerly procured in considerable quantities. The coal-mines of
Cumberland are also a profitable source of commerce. The mountainous districts called the Fells, are
generally rocky and barren on the surface, but the lower eminences are covered with herbage, furnishing pasture
for sheep, and the low grounds are well watered and fertile. Barley, oats, peas, potatoes, and turnips, are the
most common articles of agricultural produce. Wheat is chiefly raised in the north-west part of the county.
Among the principal rivers are the Eden, the Derwent, the Eamont, the Duddon, the Oreeta, the Cocker, the
Calder» the £sk, the Liddel, and the Irthing. The largest of the lakes are the UUeswater, partly in Westmor-
land, the Derwentwater, the Bassenthwaitewater, the Overwater, the Loweswater, the Crummockwater, the But-
termeie, the Wastwater, the Ennerdalewater, and the Devockwater ; and there are also several smaller lakes,
provincially termed tarns. At Gilsland is a mineral spring, impregnated with sulphur ; and there is another at
Biglands, in the parish of Aikton. At Bonowdale, three miles from Keswick, and at Stanger, two miles north
of Ix>rton, are saline mineral springs ; and Drig Well, a mile from Ravenglass, is a chalybeate spa. Before the
conquest of Britain by the Romans, this part of the island, according to Richard of Cirencester« was inhabited by

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the Sistuntii; under the Roman government it belonged to the province of Maxima Coesariensis; and subse-
quently it was included in the kingdom of Strath Clyde, or Cumbria, which appears to have been the hereditary
domain of the famous King Arthur. It was at length conquered by the Anglo-Saxons of Northumbria, and in the
tenth century it was transferred to the Kings of Scotland, but it was finally surrendered by treaty to Henry III.,
since whose reign it has formed a part of England: and from its situation it has become exposed to the frequent
inroads of the Scots, and been the principal scene of border warfare. The preservation of peace and the punish-
ment of marauders, were intrusted to the Lord Warden of the Northern Marches, an officer possessing ample juris-
diction and high responsibility, but whose office has fallen into disuse, in consequence of the union of England
and Scotland, in the reign of James I. Cumberland was the seat of warfare in the reign of Charles I., when Car-
lisle was garrisoned for the king, and was not surrendered till after the battle of Naseby, in 1645 ; it was subse-
quently again in possession of the Royalists, but was surrendered to Cromwell in October, 1648. Some trifling
military actions took place here when the kingdom was invaded by the adherents of the house of Stuart, in 1715,
and again in 1745. There are in this county stone circles, and other ancient monuments, supposed to be of
British origin, as the circular monument near Penrith,^ consisting of a number of upright stones, popularly called
Long Meg and her Daughters ; and on the bank of the river Eamont southward of that town, is an intrenchment
styled King Arthur's Round Table. Through this county from the border of Northumberland to the Firth of Sol-
way, extended the rampart called the Picts* Wall, built by order of the Roman Emperor Severus, about 208, of
which the traces are still perceptible. In this county was the Roman station of Lugubalia, Carlisle, and there was
another called Vorreda, at Plumpton Wall.

Among the baronial castles in this county may be mentioned, that of Carlisle, built by William Rufus ; Egre-
mont Castle ; Naworth Castle ; Cockermouth Castle ; Millom Castle ; Rose Castle ; Greystock Castle ; Dacre
Castle ; Bew Castle ; and Scaleby Castle ; besides which there are some others. There were conventual establish-
ments at Carlisle, St. Bees, Wetherall, Armathwaite, Seton, Lanercost, Calder, and Holme Cultram. It is a
circumstance worthy of notice that some of the parish churches on the border are so constructed as to have served
for fortresses in case of an invasion. The principal noblemen's and gentlemen's seats in this county are those of
Netherby, belonging to Sir James R. G. Graham, Bart. ; Greystock Castle, to H. Howard, Esq. ; Gowbarrow
Park, to the Duke of Norfolk ; Whitehaven Castle, to the Earl of Lonsdale ; Brayton Hall, to Wilfred Lawson,
Esq.; Muncaster Castle, to Lord Muncaster; Workington Hall, to the Curwen family; Ponsonby Hall, to
G. Edward Stanley, Esq. ; Eden Hall, to Sir Philip Musgrave, Bart. ; Corby Castle, to Henry Howard, Esq. ;
besides Rose Castle, already mentioned, the seat of the Bishop of Carlisle.

Among the distinguished persons who were natives of this county may be specified, John Skelton, poet laureate
in the reign of Henry VIII. ; Dr. John Hudson, a learned critic, the editor of " Josephus,'' " Thucydides," &c.,
bom in 1662, at Wythorpe, eastward of Cockermouth ; Dr.William Nicolson, author of the " English, Scottish,
and Irish Historical Libraries," who was bom at Orton, and died Archbishop of Cashel, in Ireland, in 1727 ; Jere-
miah Seed, an eminent divine and theological writer, was a native of Great Clifton, eastward of Workington, and
died in 1747; George Graham, celebrated for his skill as a mathematical instrument maker, was born at Kirk
Linton, east of Longtown, in 1676, and died in 1751 ; Thomas Tickell, one of the contributors to the Spectator,
who was bom at Bridekirk, in 1686, and died in 1746 ; Dr. William Woodville, an eminent physician, who

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Online LibrarySidney HallA new British atlas: comprising a series of 54 maps, constructed from the ... → online text (page 3 of 20)