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and West Saxons, in 800; at Danes* Bottom, near Minchinhampton, where Alfred defeated the Danes in
878; at Cambridge, near Berkeley, between the Danes and Saxons, in the reign of Edward the Elder; and
in the Isle of Alney, the alleged scene of single combat between Edmund Ironside and Canute the Dane. At
Tewkesbury the Lancastrians were finally vanquished by Edward IV., in 1471 ; Bristol, Gloucester, Ciren-
cester, lidney, and other places, were besieged during the civil war under Charles I. ; and at Cirencester, in
1688, a skirmish took place between the partizans of James II. and those of the Prince of Orange, said to
have been the only occasion where bloodshed occurred during the revolutionary contest in South Britain.

Among the baronial castles in this county may be mentioned those of Beverstone, Thombury, and Sudeley, in
ruins ; Berkeley, the seat of Lord Segrave ; and St. Briavel's, in the Forest of Dean, now used as a prison.
Tlie monastic remains in this county comprise the abbey church of St. Peter, at Gloucester, now the cathedra] ;
that of Tewkesbury, used as a parish church ; that of Cirencester, also a parish church ; the priories of Lanthony,
Leonard Stanley, and Standish ; Flaxley Abbey, and Hales Abbey ; Quenington, a preceptory of the Knights
Hospitallers; and the alien priories of Beckford* Deerhurst» Newent, and Brimsfield, of some of which the ruins are
remaining.

Noblemen's and gentlemen's seats : Badmington Park and Stoke Gifford, belonging to the Duke of Beaufort ;
Oakley Wood, to Earl Bathurst; Spring Park and Tortworth, to Lord Ducie; Sherborne or Dutton Park, to
Lord Sherborne ; Rendcomb and Highnam, to Sir B. W. Guise, Bart. ; Dodington Park, to Sir C. B. Codrington,
Bart. ; Whitcombe Park, to Sir W. Hicks, Bart. ; Matson, to Mrs. Niblett ; Lidney Park, to the late Honourable
C. Bathurst ; Flaxley Abbey, to Sir T. Crawley Boevey, Bart Eminent persons : Robert of Gloucester, a
poetical chronicler of the twelfth century ; Alexander Neckam, abbot of Cirencester, died 1217 ; Alexander de
Hales, called the Irreffragable Doctor, died 1245 ; Richard of Cirencester, author of '* A Description of Britain,*'
who was a monk of Westminster, in the fourteenth century ; Edward Fox, Bishop of Hereford, bom at Dursley,
died 1538; William Cartwright, poet, bom at Northway, near Tewkesbury, died 1643; John Biddle, a noted
Unitarian divine, bom at Wotton-under-Edge, died 1662; Sir Matthew Hale» bora at Alderley, died 1676;
John Oldham, poet, bom at Shipton Moyne, died 1679 ; Sir Robert Atkyns, a leamed judge, born at Saperton,
died 1709 ; Sir R. Atkyns, jun., author of the ** History of Gloucestershire," died 1712 ; Thomas Coxeter, anti-
quary, born at Lechlade, died 1747; George Ballard, biographical writer, born at Campden, died 1755; Dr.
James Bradley, astronomer royal, bom at Sherbome, died 1762 ; John Canton, natural philosopher, bom at
Stroud, died 1772; George Whitefield, born at Gloucester, died 1770; Richard Graves, author of the *' Spi-
ritual Quixote," bom at Mickleton, died 1804 ; Samuel Lysons, antiquary and topographer, born at Rodmarton,
died 1819 ; Dr. Edward Jenner, who introduced the practice of vaccination for the prevention of the smallpox,
a native of Berkeley, died in 1823.



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HAMPSHIRE.



Lat. between 50 deg. 35 min. and 51 deg. 22 mm. N. Lon. be-
tween 43 min. and 1 deg. 53 min. W. Greatest length 55 m.
Greatest Breadth 40 m. Superficial extent 1|041,920 acres.
Boundaries : N. Berkshire ; £. Surrey and Sussex ; S. English
Channel ; W. Wiltshire and Dorsetshire. Diviaions 9, including
39 hundreds and 11 liberties, besides the town and county of South-
ampton, and the borough of Portsmouth. Parishes 305. City 1 :
Winchester. Boroughs 6. Market-towns 19 : Alresford, Alton,
Andoyer, Basingstoke, Christchurch, Fareham, Fordingbridge,
Gosport, Havant, Lymington, Odiham, Petersfield, Portsmouth,
Ringwood, Romsey, Southsmpton,Stockbridge, Bishop's Waltham,
and Whitchurch.

Diocese of Winchester ; archdeaconry of Winchester, contain-
ing the deaneries of Alresford, Alton, Andorer, Basingstoke,
Droxford, Foidingbridge, Sombourne, Southampton, and Win-
chester. Endowed grammar-schools, with university privileges, at
Winchester and Ringwood.

Western Circuit — Assizes and quarter-sessions held at Win-'



Chester, where are the county prisons. Acting magistrates 110.
Members of Parliament, ^ for the northern division of the county,
and 2 for the southern division, 2 for the city of Winchester, 2
each for the boroughs of Andorer, Lymington, Portsmouth, and
Southampton, and 1 each for the boiougfas of Christcfaurch and
Petersfield.

Polling-places for the northern division of the County — Win-
ctiester, Alton, Andover, Basingstoke, Kingsclere, Odiham, Pe-
tersfield, and Bishop's Waltham; for the southern division— South-
ampton, Eareham, Lymington, Portsmouth, Ringwood, and Rom-
sey.

Population, &c. (in 1821) inhabited houses 49,516; families
57,942, comprising 138,373 males, and 144,925 femsles: total
283,298: (in 1831) total 314,313. Estimated increase of inha-
bitants, from 1700 to 1821, 170.300. Assessments for poor
and county rates (in 1826) land 165,6012. 12s.; dwelling-houses
46,174/. ; mills, factories, &c. 33742. 10s. ; manorial profitt, &c.
6652. 13<. ; total 2l5,8l5/. I5s. : (in 1830) total 239,122{.



This coiinty is reckoned one of the most pleasant and fertile in the kingdom, its surface being agreeably
diversified with gently-rising hills, and verdant vales, adorned with numerous seats and villages, interspersed with
which are extensive woods. The principal part of the county is enclosed, though there are still wide tracts of
open heath and waste land on the western border, and especially in the vicinity of Christchurch. There are
different kinds of soil in various parts, but that with a calcareous basis chiefly predominates ; and a ridge of
chalk-hills may be traced across the middle of the county from east to west. The climate is generally mild and
healthy, especially on the Downs. Among the agricultural products, the most important are wheat, barley, oats,
rye, peas, and trefoil ; and on the confines of Surrey are considerable plantations of hops. Timber is likewise
one of the staple commodities of Hampshire. Besides the New Pbrest in the south-western angle, this county
contains the Forest of Bere, towards the south-east ; and the woods or forests of Alice Holt, extending north-
ward ; and Woolmar, on the borders of Surrey and Sussex. The most remarkable eminences in this county are
Butser Hill, Dean Hill, Highclere Beacon, Inkp^n Beacon, on fhe borders of Berkshire ; Mottesdon Down,
Stockbridge Hill, and Portsdown Hill. The principal rivers 'are the Upper Avon, which crosses the county,
from Wiltshire to the sea at Christchurch ; the Test and the Itchin, which fall into Southampton Bay ; besides
which may be mentioned the Boldrewater, the Exe, the Anton, and the Hamble. On the coast are several im-
portant bays and inlets, as Portsmouth Harbour, in which is the island of Portsea ; Trisanton Bay, or South-
ampton Water ; and the bays of Lymington and Christchurch. In the northern part of the county the waters of
several streams are impr^nated with iron, but there are no mineral springs of importance.

Before the invasion of Britain by the Romans, this part of the island was inhabited by the Belgse, except
towards the north-west, where the country belonged to the Segontiaci ; and under the Romans it was included



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in the province called Britannia Prima. During the Saxon Heptarchy it formed a part of the kingdom o^
Wessex ; and subsequently it was much exposed to the incursions of the Danes, who, in the reign of Alfred the
Great, drove the Saxons from the country ; but they returned after the defeat of the Danes, at Ethandun, in 878.
After the conquest of England by the Normans, William I. is said to have devastated this county in order to form
the New Forest ; but it is most probable that he merely enlarged a forest which had previously existed. In the
civil war, under Charles I., Carisbrooke Castle and other fortresses were garrisoned by the parliament. A
battle was fought at Alton, in 1643, in which the Royalists were defeated by Sir William Waller ; and in 1645
occurred the capture of Basing House, after it had been long and bravely defended for the king by the Marquis of
Winchester. Charles I. was kept a prisoner at Carisbrooke Castle, and at Hurst Castle in this county, for some
time after his escape from Hampton Court, in 1647. In Hampshire were the Roman stations of Calleva Attre^
batum, Silchester; Vindomis, St. Mary Bourne, north-west of Whitchurch; Venta Belganim, Winchester; Ad
Lapidem, Stoneham ; Clausentum, Bittern, near Southampton ; and Portus Magnus, Portchester. In the vici-
nity of Silchester have been discovered coins, rings, pottery, bricks, and other remains of Roman antiquity ; and
a little to the north of Lymington are traces of a Roman camp, called Buckland Rings.

Among the ancient castles may be mentioned those of Portchester, Hurst, and Carisbrooke, which are still
existing ; and those of Christchurch, Warblington, and Odiham, of which there are some remains ; Basing
House, or Castle, already mentioned, and some others, which have been entirely destroyed. Some of the gates
and other parts of the fortifications of Southampton are still remaining. Before the Reformation there were in
this county more than fifteen conventual establishments ; and there are still interesting remains of Hyde Abbey,
near Winchester ; Beaulieu Priory, on the west side, and Netley Abbey on the east side of Southampton
Water ; and also of the Abbey of Quarrera, in the Isle of Wight. The Hospital of St. Cross, near Winchester,
is a noble specimen of monastic architecture.

Noblemen's and gentlemen's seats : Strathfieldsay, north-east of Basingstoke, the seat of the Duke of
Wellington ; Wolverton Park, of Sir Peter Pole, Bart. ; Dogmersfield Park, of Lady St. John Mildmay ; Hurst-
borne Park, of the Earl of PorUmouth; Rotherfield Park, of James Scott, Esq.; Hackwood Park, of Lord
Bolton ; Wallhampton, of Sir H. Burrard Neale, Bart. ; (kange Park, of Alexander Baring, Esq. ; Beaulieu
Park, of the Duchess of Buccleugh ; Cam's Hall, near Fareham, of H. P. Delme, Esq. ; Avington Park, of the
Duke of Buckingham ; Hursley Lodge (formerly the seat of Richard Cromwell) now of Sir T. Freeman Heath-
cote, Bart. ; Ashley Lodge, of Lord King ; Boldrewood Lodge, of the Dowager Marchioness of Londonderry ;
Cadland Park, of Andrew Drummond, Esq. ; High Cliff, of H. W. Mackreth, Esq. ; Red Rice Park, of the Hon.
W. Noel Hill ; North Stoneham Park, of John Fleming, Esq. ; and Famham Castle, of the Bishop of Win-
chester. Eminent persons who were natives of Hampshire : John of Basingstoke, a writer of the fifteenth cen-
tury ; William of Wykeham, a distinguished statesman, in the reigns of Edward III. and Richard II., who was
a native of Wykeham or Wickham, between Bishop's Waltham and Fareham ; William Lily, the grammarian,
who was bom at Odiham, and died of the plague, in London, in 1522 ; Thomas Sternhold, one of the authors of
the common version of the Psalms, who was groom of the robes to Henry VIII. and Edward VI. ; John Greaves,
a learned mathematician and antiquary, who was born at Colmore, near Alton, and died in 1652 ; Sir William
Petty, the author of a "Treatise on Political Arithmetic," bom at Romsey, and died in 1687 ; Dr. Isaac Watts,
distinguished as a poet and divine, a native of Southampton ; Dr. Edward Young, the author of the " Night
Thoughts," born at Upham, near Winchester ; Dr. Robert Lowth, Bishop of London, a native of Winchester ;
Thomas Warton, poet laureate, who was bom at Basingstoke in 1728, and died in 1790 ; Dr. Joseph Warton,
author of an '< Essay on the Genius and Writings of Pope," bom at Dunsford in 1722, and died in 1800 ; Jonas
Hanway, distinguished as a traveller and philanthropist, who was born at Portsmouth, and died in 1786 ; Wil-
liam Curtis, an ingenious botanist, who was bom at Alton, and died at Chelsea in 1799 ; Charles Dibdin, noted
as a lyric poe^ and dramatist, who was a native of Southampton, and died at Camden Town, near London,
in 1814.



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HEREFORDSHIRE.



LaL between 51 deg. 50 mixu and 52 deg. 25 min. N. Lon. be-
ween 2 deg. 15 min. and 3 deg. 5 nun. W. Oreateat length S8m«
Granteat breadth 35 m. Soperfidal extent 621,440 acrea. Boond-
ariea : N. Shropshire ; £. Worceatar ; S. Gloaceater and Mon-
moath ; W. Brecknock and B4idnor. Hnndreda 11. Pariahea 218.
City 1 : Hereford. Borough 1. Maiket-towfta 6 : Bromyard,
Kington, Ledboiy, Leominater, Roaa, and Wedblej.

Archdeaoonry and dioceae of Hereford (exdnaiTe of 8 pariahea
in the dioceae of St. Darid'a) ; containing the deaneriea of Clan,
Frocme, Hereford, Irehenfield, Leominater, Roaa, Weobley, and
Weston. Endowed granunaivachoola, with nniyeraity priTilegea,
at Hereford, Boabury, and Lnoton.

Oxford Circuit. — Aaaiaea and qnarter-seaaiona held at Hereford,



where are the county priaonaw Acting magistratea 136. Memben
of Parliament, 3 for the county, 2 for the dty of Hereford, and 2
for the borough of Leominater.

PoUing-plaoea for the County — Hereford, Leominater, Brom-
yard, Ledbury, Roaa, and Kington.

Population, &c. (in 1821) inhabited houaea 20,061 ; familiea
21,917; compriaing 51,552 malea, and 51,691 females; total
103,243: (in 1831) total 110,976. Estimated increase of inha-
bitanta, from 1700 to 1821, 44,400. Assessment for poor
and county ratea (in 1826) land 58,6231. li.; dwelling-houaea
6735/. 16i. ; milla, foetofiea, &c. 86<. ; manorial profits 35i. 4t
total 65,480Z. If. : (in 1830) total 70,000<.



This is a rich and fruitful county, abounding with picturesque and romantic scenery,'' its surface being finely
diversified by swelling heights and pleasant valleys, bearing much resemblance to the central parts of Kent.
The agricultural plantations, consisting chiefly of hop-grounds and orchards* add much to the beauty of the
landscape, especially during the genial season of spring. The climate is reckoned peculiarly favourable to
health and longevity, but it varies considerably in different parts from the difierence of altitude, the climate
being mildest in the eastern district, and coldest towards the north-we^t. The soil generally consists of
a fertile mixture of clay and marl, containing a considerable proportion of calcareous earth ; and the sub-strata
are chiefly composed of limestone, often beautifully veined, so as to resemble marble. Near the centre of the
county, about Hereford, are deep beds of fine gravel. Fuller's earth is sometimes dug near Stoke ; and red and
yellow ochre and pipe-clay are found in different parts of the county. The cultivated land is said to amount to
about 520,000 acres. The chief corn-crop consists of wheat, raised for home consumption, and also sent to
Abergavenny, Worcester, Bristol, and elsewhere ; oats are grown on the confines of Wales/ and on parts of the
eastern border. Barley and peas are also produced here, but tlie principal agricultural products of the county
are hops and apples, the former of which are chiefly grown in the north-eastetn districts. Plantations of
fruit-trees are found in many places, consisting of various kinds of apples, yielding liquors different in strength and
flavour, the most noted bemg the red-streak and the stire-apple. Cider is not only produced in considerable
quantities, but also of unrivalled excellence, forming an important article of commerce. The sheep of this
county are a peculiar small breed, with fine silky wool, resembling in texture the Spanish wool. The principal
heights are those connected with the Malvern Hills, on the eastern border, or with the Hatterall Hills, on the
confines of Brecknockshire ; Stow Hill, 1417 feet above the level of the sea ; Marcle Hill, and the Brilley HilUt



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bordering on Radnorshire. Fine prospects are afforded from Hampton Court Park, Creden HOI, near Ken-
Chester; Copley Hill, near Horn Lacy ; Goodrich Castle, and in the Golden Vale, on the river Dore, in the
western part of the county. The chief rivers are the Wye, which enters this county a little to the north of
Hay, in Brecknockshire, and flowing eastward to Hereford, directs its winding course thence towards the
south, where it skirts a portion of the border, and passes on by Monmouth to the Severn, at Chepstow ; and the
Munnow, which has its source in the Hatterall Hills, and afler uniting with the Dore, near IJangua, passes south-
westward to its confluence with the Wye, at Monmouth. Among the other rivers may be mentioned the Lug,
which falls into the Wye, atMordeford, after its junction with theFrome; theTeme, which crosses the northern
extremity of the county; the Leden, the Wadel, and the Arrow. There are some mineral springs, chiefly chaly-
beate, at Leominster, and in the vicinity of the Malvern Hills, but they are of little importance.

Herefordshire was part of the territory of the ancient Silures, whose king, Caractacus, is famed in history for
his brave resistance to the Romans, who» however, conquered the country, a. d. 52. This county subsequently
was included in the province of Britannia Secunda ; and during the Saxon Heptarchy it constituted a part of the
kingdom of Mercia. Being situated on the Welsh border, Herefordshire was subject to the inroads of the
Welsh, and was the scene of several contests before the final subjugation of Wales by Edward L In the civil
war, under Charles L, the city of Hereford was garrisoned by his partisans, and was bravely defended by the
governor, Barnabas Scudamore, against the Scots, in 1643, but it was at length taken by Sir W. Waller, in
1646. This county contains several mtrenchments, supposed to have been the remains of British or Roman
camps ; it was intersected by the Roman Watling Street ; and here are the stations of Magna, Kencliester,
north-west of Hereford ; Branogenium, supposed to have been at Leintv^ardine, on the river Tame ; and Arico-
nium, in the parish of Weston-under-Penyard, near Ross.

Among the numerous baronial castles may be mentioned those of Wigmore, Wilton, Goodrich, Brampton
Bryan, Clifford, Kilpeck, Huntington, Longtown, and lionshall. The cathedral of Hereford, and several of the
parish churches, exhibit portions of Norman architecture. There were, before the Reformation, about twenty
monastic establishments, of which the principal traces remaining are those of the convent of Austin canons, at
Wigmore, and those of the Cistercian abbey of Dore.

Noblemen's and gentlemen's seats : Brampton Bryan Park, belonging to the Earl of Oxford ; Allensmore
House, to Edmund Bumham PateshuU, Esq. ; Croft Castle, to Mrs. Davies ; Eywood Park, near Kineton »
Foxley Hall, to Uvedale Price, Esq. ; Hampton Court, to John Arkwright, Esq. ; Harewood, to Sur H. Hoskins,
Bart. ; Hom Lacy, to General Burr ; Kinnersley Castle, to J. A. G. Clarke, Esq. ; Moccas Court, to Sir G.
Comewall, Bart. ; Pengethley, to the Rev. T. P. Symons ; Shobden Court, to Wm. Hanbury, Esq. ; Ludford
Park, to E. Lechmere Charlton, Esq. ; Eastnor Castle, eastward of Ledbury, the magnificent seat of Earl Somers •
Stoke Edith Park, to E. T. Foley, Esq ; and Sufton Court, near Mordeford, to Mrs. Hereford. Among the
eminent persons who were natives of this county may be enumerated, John Breton, Bishop of Hereford, in
the thirteenth century, who wrote on the laws of England ; Richard Hakluyt, one of the earliest English collec-
tors of voyages, who died in 1616 ; Edmund Gunter, a mathematician, the inventor of the instrument called Gun-
ter's Rule, who died in 1626; John Guillim, author of the *^ Display of Heraldry," who died in 1621 ; EleanOp
Gwin, a noted actress, the mbtress of Charles II., who was born at Hereford ; as also were Dr. Miles Smith,
Bishop of Gloucester, one of the translators of the Bible, in the reign of James I. ; and the celebrated actor, David
Garrick.



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HERTFORDSHIRE.



Ltt. between 6a. deg. 35 min. and 52 deg. 5 min. N. Lcn. be-
tween 12 min. E. and 45 min. W. Greateat length 34 m. Great-
eat breadth 26 m. Superficial extent 337,920 acree. Boondariea:
K. Cambridgeshire and Bedfordahire; £. Eaaez; S. Middleeex ;
W.Bncklnghamahire and Cambridge. Hundreds 8. Parishes 136.
Boronglis 2. Alarket-towns 15: St. Alban'a, Baldock, Berkhamp-
aCead, Chipping Barnet, Hatfield, Hemel Hempstead, Hitohin, Hod-
desdon, Rickmansworth, Stevenage, Bishop's Stortford, Tring,
Ware, and Watford, with Rojston, partly in Cambridgeshire.

Part in the diocese of London, consisting of the deaneiy of
Bnuxghin, in the archdeaconiy of Middlesex, and the archdeaconry
and deanery of St. Alban's ; and part in the dioceae of Lincoln, con-
sisting of the deaneries of Baldock, Berkhampstead, Hertford, and
Hitchin, in the archdeaconry of Huntingdon. Endowed grammar*
Mhools« with university pririleges, at Buntingford» Hitdun, and
Hereford ■



Home Circuit.-— Assises bold at Hertford, and also quaiter-ses-
sions, excepting those for the hundred of Cashio, which are held at
St. Alban's. Coon^ gaol at Hertford. Acting magistntes 95.
Members of Parliament, 3 for the county, and 2 each for the bo-
roughs of St. Alban's and Hertford.

PoUing-placea for the Coun^— Hertford, Sterenage, Buntingford,
Bishop's Stortford, Hoddesdon, Hatfield, and Hemel Hempetead.

Population, &c. (in 1821) inhabited houses 23,178; families
26,170, comprising 64, 1 2 1 malea, and 65,593 females ; total 129,714 :
(in 1831) total 143,341. Estimated increase of inbabitanta from
1700 to 1821, 61,900. Assessment for poor and county rates (in
1826) land 74,926^ 13f. ; dwelling-houaea 23,110^ 8t. ; mills,
foctories, Ao. 9775L1S§.; manorial profits, &c. 512/. 9».; total
101,3052. 3f.: (in 1830) total 115,092/.



The climate of this county is mild and healthy, and the general appearance of the country pleasing, displaying
a variety of hill and dale, finely wooded and watered, and from these circumstances, together with its vicinity to
the metropolis, it lias been selected for the residence of many of the nobility and gentry. The soil is extremely
various, consisting chiefly of loam and clay, with some gravel, but the northern skirt of the county is included in
the great ridge of chalk-hills, which crosses this part of the kingdom. The greater part of the county is under til-
^^^f producing wheat, barley, oats, turnips, and clover, in abundance. Hertfordshire has long been noted for
fine flour, and malt is made in large quantities for the London market. The manufacture of straw plat is carried
on at Stevenage, Hatfield, St. Alban's, Redbourne, Berkhampstead, Hitchin, and other places. The principal
river is the Lea, which rising in Bedfordshire, passes by Hertford and Ware, from which last place it is navigable
to the Thames ; the other rivers are the Stort, forming part of the boundary between this county and Essex ; the
Colne, which rises in Middlesex, and after a winding course by Watford, and Rickmansworth, enters Bucking-
hamshire ; the Gade, the Rib, the Bean, and the New River, which supplies a part of London with water ; be-
sides which may be mentioned the Cam, which has its source at Ashwell, north of Baldock. There are saline
mineral waters of a purgative quality at Bamet, and at Northawe ; and there are chalybeate and other springs at
different places. The principal heights in this county are Kensworth, north-west of Market Street ; Lillyhoe,
westward of Hitchin ; and Brockley Hill, near Stanmore, whence there is a fine prospect. Hertfordshire an-
ciently belonged to the territories of the Cassii, who were temporarily subdued by Julius Ceesar, and finally in the
reign of the Emperor Claudius. It was afterwards included in the province of Flavia Ceesariensis ; and under



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he Saxon Heptarchy, the eastern portion belonged to the kingdom of Essex, and the western to that of Meruit.
In 896 Alfred the Great captured some of the yessels of the Danes, in the river Lea, near Ware. During the
eivil war under Henry VI. battles were fought at St. Alban's in 1455 and 1461, and near Bamet in 1468 ;
and in 1471 , took place the decisive battle in which the Earl of Warwick was defeated and slain by Edward IV.,
on Gladsmore Heath, northward of Bamet. Through this county passed the Roman roads, called Watling


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Online LibrarySidney HallA new British atlas: comprising a series of 54 maps, constructed from the ... → online text (page 6 of 20)